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Appendixes

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Prepublication Copy Subject to Further Editorial Correction TABLE 4.1 Suggested Reorganization of Basic Research Focus Areas and Sample Topics Focus Area Sample Topics C4I Ad hoc wireless networking Beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) communications Short-range, high-density, low-power communications Antijam protection Information assurance Energy Lightweight power sources and rechargeable electric storage devices Energy-efficient devices and techniques High-energy-density storage Sensing Sensors for situation awareness (pre-attack) Sensors for damage assessment (post-attack) Sensors that work in an urban environment Mine detection: fundamental physical mechanisms and phenomenology in surf and on land Unmanned surveillance/reconnaissance vehicles Non-communications use of ultrawideband radar Materials Materials and structures Sensing materials Corrosion prevention Human Factors Non-lethal weapons Psychological profiling to identify potential terrorists Human sensory enhancement Oceanography and Shallow-water oceanography: bottom structure in the surf zone, Environment bottom interactions, and surf and current characteristics Effects on warfare of hostile or unusual climates (weather) Weapons Enhanced lethality Aim-point accuracy 4-20

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A Committee and Staff Biographies Frank A. Horrigan (Chair) is retired from the Technical Development Staff for Sensors and Electronic Systems at Raytheon Systems Company. He has broad general knowledge of all technologies relevant to military systems. Dr. Horrigan, a theoretical physicist, has more than 40 years' experience in advanced electronics, electro-optics, radar and sensor technologies, and advanced information systems. In addition, he has extensive experience in planning and managing information R&D investments and in projecting future technology growth directions. Dr. Horrigan once served as a NATO fellow at the Saclay Nuclear Research Center in France. Today he serves on numerous scientific boards and advisory committees, including the NRC's Army Research Laboratory Technical Assessment Board and the Naval Studies Board. He recently chaired the NRC' s Committee for the Review of the Office of Naval Research' s Uninhabited Combat Air Vehicles Program. Alan Berman is a part-time employee at the Applied Research Laboratory of Pennsylvania State University (ARL/PSU) and at the Center for Naval Analyses (CNA). At ARL/PSU, Dr. Berman pro- vides general management support and program appraisal. At CNA, he assists with analyses of Navy R&D investments, space operation capabilities, information operations, and C4ISR programs. In addi- tion, Dr. Berman is a member of the Free Electron Laser oversight board that advises the Department of Energy Jefferson National Laboratory. At one time, he was dean of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Miami, responsible for the graduate programs in physical oceanography, marine biology, geology, geophysics, applied ocean science, and underwater acoustics. He was also director of research at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), where he administered broad programs in basic and applied research. The NRL programs included electronic warfare, radar, commu- nications, space systems, space sciences, material sciences, plasma physics, antisubmarine warfare, underwater acoustics, oceanography, electronic devices, and space-based time standards for the GPS. He has been a member of numerous government advisory boards and panels and is currently a special advisor to the NSB. Charles F. golden, ,Jr., is senior vice president of TechTrans International, Inc., having retired recently at the rank of Major General after 34 years of service to the U.S. Marine Corps. General golden, as a naval aviator, flew more than 100 sorties into North and South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. He 105

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106 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM became an astronaut in 1981 and later flew the space shuttle on four flights. General Bolden was assistant deputy administrator for NASA in 1992 and 1993 and then served 1 year as Deputy Comman- dant of the U.S. Naval Academy. General golden's command positions include Deputy Commanding General, First Marine Expeditionary Force (1 MEF); Commanding General, 1 MEF (FOOD) in support of Operation Desert Thunder in Kuwait; Deputy Commander, U.S Forces, Japan; and, finally, Com- manding General of the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing. He received a B.S. in electrical science from the U.S. Naval Academy and an M.S. in systems management from the University of Southern California. Michael S. Bridgman is program manager of Acquisition Logistics for the Logistics Management Institute (LMI), where he leads study teams and performs analyses on supportability and cost drivers, alternative support concepts, system reliability, operational availability, test and evaluation of weapon system suitability, and relationships between design and logistics support. Dr. Bridgman's areas of application include weapon systems, electronics, transportation equipment, and space systems. Prior to joining LMI, Dr. Bridgman served at the Battelle Memorial Institute as a research fellow and projects manager for logistics studies. Dr. Bridgman holds a Ph.D. from the Ohio State University in industrial and system engineering and is a senior member of the International Society of Logistics. John D. Casko is the director of airborne mine countermeasures programs at Northrop-Grumman's airborne ground surveillance and battle management systems business area. Mr. Casko has a back- ground in systems engineering, radar, lidar, and other sensors. He is responsible for transitioning remote-sensing technology into DOD and non-DOD applications, including land and sea mine counter- measures. Mr. Casko earned a B.S. in aerospace engineering from the University of Kansas, an M.S. in aerospace engineering from the Naval Postgraduate School, and an M.S. in physical science from the University of West Florida. Mr. Casko is a retired naval officer and Navy pilot. Nancy M. Haegel is a member of the physics faculty at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. Dr. Haegel's research interests are in the area of semiconductor materials, with an emphasis on the electrical and optical behavior of high-resistivity semiconductors and materials for far-infrared detection. She is involved in the development and modeling of extrinsic photoconductors for use in infrared detectors on satellites. Dr. Haegel's prior positions include professor of physics at Fairfield University in Fairfield, Connecticut; research scientist at the Siemens Research Laboratories in Erlangen, Germany; and associate professor of materials science at the University of California, Los Angeles. Dr. Haegel holds a B.S. in materials science and metallurgical engineering from the University of Notre Dame, summa cum laude, and an M.S. and Ph.D. in materials science from the University of California. Berkeley. Dr. Haegel was a member of the Defense Science Study Group in 1992 and 1993. R. Bowen Loftin joined Old Dominion University (ODU) in Norfolk, Virginia, in 2000 as professor of electrical and computer engineering and professor of computer science. In addition, Dr. Loftin is executive director of the Virginia Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Center and the university's director of simulation programs, with responsibility for the university's graduate programs in modeling and simulation. Before coming to ODU, Dr. Loftin was a professor in and chair of the Department of Computer Science and the director of the NASA Virtual Environments Research Institute at the Univer- sity of Houston. Since 1983 Dr. Loftin, his students, and coworkers have been exploring the application of advanced software technologies, such as artificial intelligence and interactive, three-dimensional computer graphics, to the development of training and visualization systems. He is a frequent consultant to both industry and government in the area of advanced training technologies and scientific and engineering data visualization. Dr. Loftin serves on advisory committees and panels sponsored by numerous government and professional organizations. Awards received by Dr. Loftin include the Uni- versity of Houston-Downtown Awards for Excellence in Teaching and Service, the American Associa- tion of Artificial Intelligence Award for an innovative application of artificial intelligence, NASA's

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APPENDIX A 107 Space Act Award, the NASA Public Service Medal, and the 1995 NASA Invention of the Year Award. He is the author or coauthor of more than a hundred technical publications. Geoffrey C. Orsak currently serves as associate dean for research and development and professor of electrical engineering in the School of Engineering at Southern Methodist University (SMU). Dr. Orsak is also executive director of the Institute for Engineering Education at SMU and chief architect and director of the Infinity Project, the nation's leading high-tech K-12 engineering education program. Dr. Orsak's research focuses on the development of advanced technologies for high-speed wireless communications and novel techniques for signal interception and intelligence. In addition to his re- search, Dr. Orsak speaks and writes widely on issues associated with K-16 engineering and technology education. Dr. Orsak received his B.S.E.E., M.E.E., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical and computer engineering from Rice University. Irene C. Peden is professor emerita of electrical engineering at the University of Washington, Seattle, where she has also served as associate dean of the College of Engineering and as associate chair of the Department of Electrical Engineering. Her research interests are in geophysical subsurface remote sensing, radio science, and electromagnetic wave scattering and propagation. Dr. Peden has also served as director of the Division of Electrical and Communications Systems at the National Science Founda- tion. Dr. Peden was the first woman principal investigator to do field work in the Antarctic interior (1970~. She has been a member of several government and military boards, including the Army Science Board, the Naval Research Advisory Committee, and the Joint Senior Advisory Group to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (C3I). Dr. Peden holds a B.S. degree from the University of Colorado at Boulder, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from Stanford University, all in electrical engineering. Dr. Peden is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the IEEE. Frederick W. Riedel is the assistant supervisor of the Weapons Branch and chief engineer of the Strike Warfare Business Area at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratorv (JHU/APL1. ~ ~ ~ , Mr. Riedel has extensive experience in the mathematical modeling of physical systems. His work on missile systems includes analyzing missile terrain following, rolling airframes, and bank-to-turn air- frames, as well as measuring the accuracy of land attack cruise missiles. His other technical work includes developing a spectral model of the ocean surface, modeling the reflection of light from that surface, and determining requirements for autonomous ship classification. More recently, Mr. Riedel has applied systems engineering practices to land attack cruise missile weapon systems and defense suppression weapons. He supervised the Guidance, Navigation and Targeting Systems Group at JHU/APL, which is responsible for guidance and navigation analyses and designs, in particular as applied to power projection weapons and for the development of mission planning performance prediction algorithms and methods for cruise missiles. Mr. Riedel has a B.S. in mechanical engineering from Carnegie Mellon University, an M.S. in mechanical engineering from Syracuse University, and an M.S. in electrical engineering from the Johns Hopkins University. James K. Stedman is currently a consultant for DARPA and other government agencies on electri- cal power generation research and development. Mr. Stedman has over 35 years of industry and govern- ment experience in the design, development, management, and marketing of aerospace and terrestrial fuel cell technology. Mr. Stedman spent most of his professional career at United Technologies Corpo- ration (UTC), where he retired as program manager of UTC's fuel cell power system development and production division. During his tenure, Mr. Stedman conceived design concepts and implemented strategies for DOD and NASA aerospace power system programs, including analysis and design of advanced fuel cell systems and acting as senior engineer responsible for initial design and performance analysis of the Apollo and space shuttle fuel cell power systems. He chaired a NASA select committee investigating the fuel cell anomaly on space shuttle flight STS-83. Mr. Stedman received a B.S. in

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108 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM mechanical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and worked initially with Boeing Aero- space Company before joining UTC. He holds eight fuel cell patents. H. Gregory Tornatore recently retired as special assistant to the department head for business development information and as manager of special security at JHU/APL. Prior to his retirement he also served in a number of managerial positions, including program area manager for defense communica- tions systems. His areas of expertise include strategic and tactical command, control, and communica- tions (C3), over-the-horizon targeting systems, wide-area surveillance and reconnaissance, C3 systems vulnerability assessment, test and evaluation of major communications systems, satellite communica- tions systems and architectures, command and control (C2) information processing, information opera- tions, and communications networks. Other specialties include radio physics phenomenology, atmo- spheric and galactic RF noise, radio wave propagation, HE radar signatures and clutter, electronic countermeasures, trajectory estimation and tracking algorithms, and antenna systems. Mr. Tornatore was employed at JHU/APL for 26 years and was a member of the principal professional staff for 23 years. Before that, Mr. Tornatore was responsible for HE propagation and radar studies and field experiments at the ITT Electro-Physics Laboratory. He was also a graduate research assistant in iono- spheric physics at the Pennsylvania State University and an instructor in physics at St. Francis Univer- sity in Loretto, Pennsylvania. ,Iud W. Virden is currently deputy director of the Energy Science and Technology Directorate at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). He is engaged in power systems, building systems, energy product development and applications. energy operations and maintenance, industrial technol- ~ ~ ~ , ~ ~ , ~ ~ ~ , , . . TO ~ ogy, advanced manufacturing, advanced materials science, and 1niormatlon systems engmeerlng. ~revl- ouslY. Dr. Virden served as director of transportation pro crams at PNNL. responsible for development ~ . .. . .. . . . ... . .. . . .. ~ ~ ~ . ... . ~ . . Of both public and private programs with automotive customers and the Dun. Prior positions at Pl~l~L included technical group leader of the Materials Department, where he participated in programs to develop fiber composite materials, catalysts, mesoporous materials, and nonthermal plasmas. From 1994 to 1996, he completed a 2-year assignment in Flint, Michigan, working with General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler as part of the U.S. Council of Automotive Research and the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles. Prior to joining PNNL, he worked in the Science Research Laboratory at the 3M Company and was part of a team developing ordered, organic thin films for nonlinear optical applica- tions. Dr. Virden holds a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Washington. Paul S. Weiss is a professor of chemistry and physics and director of the Center for Molecular Nanofabrication and Devices at the Pennsylvania State University. Dr. Weiss works broadly in the areas of surface chemistry and physics with a focus on self-assembly, molecular electronics, nanometer-scale science and technolo~v. and control of adhesion. uptake. and immune response in biological and model ~7 ~ 1 ~7 1 ~1 1 1 1 . 1 . 1 .1 1 r 1 . 1 1 . 1 membranes. luls work relies on advancing the art and methods ot scanning probe technology to push surface science into studies of molecular and biological phenomena. Dr. Weiss is a fellow of the AAAS and the American Physical Society and has served on several Defense Science Board review panels. Dr. Weiss holds an S.B. and S.M. in chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley. Leo Young was director for research in the Office of the Under Secretary for Defense Research and Engineering (ODDR&E) in the Office of the Secretary of Defense from 1981 to 1994 and consulted for ODDR&E through 2002. Before joining ODDR&E Dr. Young served as associate superintendent for the Electronics Division at the Naval Research Laboratory and as staff scientist and laboratory manager at the Stanford Research Institute. In those positions his research focused on microwave filter design. As director for research in ODDR&E, Dr. Young oversaw DOD's Basic Research program, initiated the DOD Small Business Innovation Research program, chaired the JR&D coordinating committee, exer-

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APPENDIX A 109 cised oversight of the Defense Technical Information Center, and advised on technology export control. Dr. Young was secretary of the DOD-University Forum, and of the Laboratory Management Task Force, and had responsibility for the congressionally mandated Defense Critical Technologies Plans (starting in 1989~. Dr. Young is a fellow of IEEE (he served as president in 1980) and of AAAS, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, and a fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering (U.K.~. He has received numerous awards, including the Microwave Career Award from the IEEE and the Woodrow Wilson Award for Distinguished Government Service from the Johns Hopkins Univer- sity. He holds B.A. and M.A. degrees in both mathematics and physics from Cambridge University and M.S and D.Eng. degrees in electrical engineering from the Johns Hopkins University. Staff Ronald D. Taylor currently is on assignment to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). In July 2003, Dr. Taylor became director of the Office of Studies and Analysis in the Science and Technol-

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110 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM mechanical engineering from Vanderbilt University in 1995; his doctoral research was conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), where he used an atomic force microscope to measure the nano- mechanical properties of thin film materials. In parallel with his graduate student duties, Dr. Draper was a mechanical engineer with Geo-Centers, Incorporated, working on-site at NRL on the development of an underwater x-ray backscattering tomography system used for the nondestructive evaluation of U.S. Navy sonar domes on surface ships. Michael L. Wilson has been a program officer of the Naval Studies Board of the National Research Council since 2002. From 1998 to 2002, Dr. Wilson was an assistant professor of physics at the University of Tulsa where his research focused on granular dynamics under microgravity. Dr. Wilson was a visiting assistant professor of physics at Clemson University from 1996 to 1998, where he helped establish a laboratory to study novel thermoelectric materials. Prior to working at Clemson, Dr. Wilson was a National Research Council associate at the Naval Research Laboratory, where he worked on ceramic magnetic materials synthesis and characterization as well as studies of superconductivity in thin metal films. He holds a Ph.D. in physics from Michigan State University and a B.A. in physics from Grinnell College.