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Littoral Combat Future Naval Capability OVERVIEW The Littoral Combat (LC) component of the Littoral Combat and Power Projection Future Naval Capability (FNC), initiated in FY02, concentrates on the application of technology rather than its development and emphasizes achieving technology transition by delivering products on time, within budget, and with agreed-upon performance specifications. Given its goal to support "assured access and sustained operations in the littorals as the naval component to joint operations," the LC-FNC focuses on the concerns raised in Naval Operating Concept for Joint Operations2 and, in particular, on Expedi- tionary Maneuver Warfare (EMW),3 the Marine Corps capstone concept. Unlike other FNC efforts, the LC-FNC's mission requires that its initiatives cut across other systems-focused FNCs and leverage their critical technologies, products, and support. As described in Chapter 1, a formal process put in place by Code 353 to convert LC-FNC goals into an S&T investment strategy uses war games and other similar concept-generating exercises to identify and prioritize current Ship-to-Objective Maneuver (STOM) capability shortfalls as input for a long- term, concrete plan of action for the LC-FNC program. Planning for long-term efforts involves the full process shown in Figure 1.1. Near-term efforts (to be completed in as little as 18 months) are intended to provide rapid results and a funding wedge for the LC-FNC, so that slowly ramped up funding can be allocated without limiting its future use for developing the long-term efforts identified in the planning process. 1Barry Blumenthal, Program Manager, Littoral Combat FNC, Office of Naval Research, "Littoral Combat Future Naval Capability," slide 13, presentation to the committee on May 14, 2003. 2ADM Vern Clark, USN, Chief of Naval Operations, and Gen Michael W. Hagee, USMC, Commandant of the Marine Corps. 2003. Naval Operating Concept for Joint Operations, Department of the Navy, March. 3Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps. 2001. Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare, Department of the Navy, November 10. 28

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LITTORAL COMBAT FUTURE NAVAL CAPABILITY 29 LC-FNC Mission Focus The committee noted that the LC-FNC is still in the early stages of development, as indicated by the near-term nature of the projects presented, most of which appeared to be a continuation of pre-FNC or commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) application efforts reasonably relevant to EMW goals. It was difficult to see in these projects the overall mission focus of the FNC the EMW shortfalls being addressed, the criticality of each, the interrelationships among individual projects, and so on. A number of FY04 new starts were presented that may well have been outputs from the first steps of the long-term planning process but did not show direct linkage to the S&T priorities set as a result of the planning activities. For example, Operational Maneuver From the Sea (OMFTS) and STOM two concepts that repre- sent specific goals and means for enabling EMW and are heavily used in capabilities analysis within the broader Marine Corps were not explicitly referred to in many project descriptions. This omission caused the committee to be concerned about the level of integration between the LC-FNC and overarching Marine Corps needs, although the committee recognized that short-term projects might be indicative of only part of the current planning process guiding long-term program development. The formal planning process that is being used to develop the long-term investment strategy of the LC-FNC focuses explicitly on STOM as the driving concept of operation for the identification of capabilities shortfalls that could be addressed by the LC-FNC. Although there is concern by the committee about the current near-term focus of the LC-FNC, the planning process introduced by the MCS&T program is well structured and promising. It should be improved and then applied rigorously across the FNC. The committee was pleased to learn that the Marine Corps will be communicating more directly about the near-term results it expects from the S&T community, particularly through the recently published Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare Capability List4 and the soon-to-be completed Marine Corps S&T plank Since the issuance of Naval Operating Concept for Joint Operations and Naval Power 21, the Marine Corps and the Navy have adopted Marine Corps Strategy 21 and Sea Power 21 as overriding Service-specific operational concepts. The committee is concerned that although the LC-FNC seems to be responding strongly to the principal Marine Corps concept of STOM,6 it is not focused on the implications of EMW for the Marine Corps in particular, the integral sea basing component, which is closely aligned with OMFTS and STOM. The absence of attention to logistical issues associated with sea basing was especially noted by the committee, given the recent statement by the Commandant of the Marine Corps that sea basing is one of the highest-priority Marine Corps development initiatives.7 Part of the reason for this lack of focus on sea basing within the LC-FNC is that the Department of the Navy's Science and Technology Corporate Board, which approves and prioritizes all FNCs, initiated a separate FNC component scheduled to start in FY05 the Expeditionary Logistics (ExLog) compo- nent of the Littoral Combat and Power Projection FNC to examine issues related to sea-based logis- 4LtGen Edward Hanlon, Jr., USMC, Deputy Commandant, Combat Development. 2003. Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare Capability List (ECLJ. Expeditionary Force Development Center, Marine Corps Combat Development Command, Quantico, Va., June 16. Available online at . Accessed on December 12, 2003. 5See Chapter 1, subsection entitled "ONR and Code 353's Relationship with the Marine Corps." 6Air defense needs are not addressed in the current MCS&T program. Code 353 is actively coordinating with the Missile Defense FNC to address Marine Corps air defense needs. 7Special Projects Directorate, U.S. Marine Corps Headquarters. 2003. "The Marine Corps General," Vol. 15, April 14.

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30 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM tics.8 The ExLog-FNC is tasked to address gaps in critical logistical capabilities (such as deployment from and reconstitution of a sea base) for naval forces engaged in expeditionary operations.9 Yet, although the LC-FNC and the ExLog-FNC are closely related in mission, they nevertheless have separate IPTs, separate performing organizations (the S&T lead for the ExLog-FNC is ONR Code 36 Industrial and Corporate Programs), and separate funding. The committee saw no evidence of interac- tion between these two FNC components. Considering the critical role logistics plays in enabling OMFTS and STOM, this separation seems unwise. The LC-FNC consists of four enabling capabilities (ECs) under which the various projects are grouped: EC 1 Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) for the Amphibious Force; EC 2 Expeditionary Fire Support for the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF); EC 3 MAGTF Maneuver in the Littorals; and EC 4 Command and Control (Cal. These four ECs appear to the committee to provide a reasonable set of program areas for coordination and categorization of the shortfalls in EMW capabilities identified in the planning process. The committee' s general findings and recommendations for the LC-FNC are provided below. Each section after that reviews one of the four constituent ECs and the projects within each. Recommendation for the Overall LC-FNC Recommendation. The Department of the Navy's Science and Technology Corporate Board should (1) expand the LC-FNC's mission to include Marine Corps capability needs for all of Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare and (2) provide a means for strongly coupling the integrated product teams for the Littoral Combat and the Expeditionary Logistics components of the Littoral Combat and Power Projec- tion FNC. At a minimum, it should assign Code 353 the co-S&T lead of the ExLog-FNC (with full voting rights) while retaining Code 353 as the S&T lead of the LC-FNC. EC 1 INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE, AND RECONNAISSANCE FOR THE AMPHIBIOUS FORCE EC 1 is intended to provide enhanced autonomous and semiautonomous intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities that can be locally assigned and controlled. It includes the Tacti- cal Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platform product line, which supports development of the hardware and software necessary for a deployable tactical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), and the Tactical Sensors product line, which supports development of sonar, electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR), radio frequency (RF), and chemical, radiological, and biological (CRB) sensor systems. EC 1 Findings and Recommendations The committee found that the EC 1 projects address many valid and critical Marine Corps ISR issues and should continue in the same general direction. However, four of the five EC 1 projects focus on the development of a Tier II UAV platform and its sensors. Based on lessons from recent operations 8The Department of the Navy Science and Technology Corporate Board is composed of the Vice Chief of Naval Opera- tions, the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps, and the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, and Acquisition. 9Expeditionary Logistics (ExLog) component of the Littoral Combat and Power Projection Future Naval Capability (FNC). 2002. Expeditionary Logistics, Office of Naval Research, Arlington, Va., June 3. Available online at . Accessed on August 20, 2003.

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LITTORAL COMBAT FUTURE NAVAL CAPABILITY 3 in Afghanistan, the Marine Corps is considering redefining the requirements for the Tier II UAV project. The committee is concerned that the Tier II UAV's dominance within EC 1 is causing funding for other LC-FNC projects to be overly restricted. Specific recommendations for each project are offered in the relevant sections below. In addition, the committee noted that the Tier II UAV and the chemical, radiological, and biological payload projects are in many cases significantly affected by directions prescribed by Joint Service offices. When asked, Code 353 said it did not have a thorough knowledge of these subjects and had only limited interaction with the relevant Joint Service offices. Recommendation. Code 353 should reexamine EC 1, ISR for the Amphibious Force, and seek to expand its funding options beyond sensors and platforms tied to Tier II UAV development. Recommendation. Code 353 should establish better coordination between EC 1, ISR for the Amphibi- ous Force, and EC 4, Command and Control, as well as better coordination with related intelligence community, joint, and other Service research and development programs. Tactical Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Platform Product Line Tier II Unmanned Aerial Vehicle The Tier II UAV project is focused on development of a mid-range vertical takeoff and landing capability with an emphasis on performance, endurance, and payload. It is viewed as mid-range between a Tier I (hand-launched, limited-performance) platform and the much more capable Tier III (longer- range, higher-performance) platform. Candidates for the Tier II UAV platform are the Dragon Warrior helicopter and a ducted-fan vehicle. Both prototype vehicles have demonstrated flight capability. Poten- tial plug-and-play sensors being developed for the Tier II platform were described in briefing material presented to the committee. Findings and Recommendations. The committee finds that Tier II platform development is well within the scope of the LC-FNC and represents a viable advanced development effort. Vertical takeoff and landing capability, autonomous flight, engines using heavy fuels, and modular plug-and-play payloads are all excellent objectives. Prototype tests of both candidate platforms appear to be making solid progress in establishing flight stability, endurance, and range. If the purpose of developing a 42-inch- diameter version of the ducted-fan vehicle is to demonstrate payload or performance levels comparable to those of the Dragon Warrior helicopter, then the committee views such a comparison as a useful endeavor that also enables cost and performance profiles for the larger fan system. The Marine Corps currently envisions several levels of UAV support for its warfighters ashore. At the level of battalion and company, the man-portable Dragon Eye system has already proven its worth in the field. From the division down to the regimental level of the Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF), the Marine Corps appears to be supporting a vertical takeoff UAV system suitable for both ship-based and forward land-based use. A concern of the committee is that after-action reports from Operation Iraqi Freedom have indicated that tactical ISR systems (such as that envisioned here) often did not have the horizontal speed necessary to keep up with rapid ground operations.~ Even if these vehicles cannot attain such high horizontal speeds, they might still play a valuable role in military operations in urban terrain. 1OMarine Corps Combat Development Command. 2003. Field Report Marine Corps Systems Command Liaison Team, Central Iraq (April 20-25, 2003J, Quantico, Va., May.

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32 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Recommendation. Code 353 should continue Tier II UAV development through a demonstration phase involving tests of both functional platforms (the Dragon Warrior helicopter and the ducted-fan vehicle) in tactical environments to thoroughly establish their potential military utility and roles. Recommendation. Code 353 should examine the potential of the Dragon Warrior helicopter and the ducted-fan vehicle to support short-range missions such as military operations in urban terrain. Recommendation. The Marine Corps should reevaluate the operational altitude objective for Tier II UAVs to determine if such vehicles can support their projected use as a communications relay. Tactical Sensors Product Line Tactical Hydrographic Survey Equipment The tactical hydrographic survey equipment project is focused on the development of a next- generation underwater survey and mapping system to address the tasks of shallow water underwater reconnaissance and beach surveillance. For decades, these tasks have been personnel-intensive, with trained divers recording observations with grease pencils. The tactical hydrographic survey equipment integrates a 1.2-MHz sonar, a Global Positioning System (GPS) geolocation capability, data storage, a satellite communications (SATCOM) data link, and a 3-knot-capable diver propulsion device (DPD) into a single deployable package. Findings and Recommendations. The committee finds that the tactical hydrographic survey equipment project addresses a key EMW requirement by providing timely knowledge of coastal bottom contours and beach conditions prior to amphibious landings, including the detection of various man-made ob- stacles. Furthermore, the committee views this effort as addressing a unique Marine Corps capability requirement. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue development of the tactical hydrographic survey equipment as planned, with tactical marine environment experimentation and testing taking place at the earliest possible time. Recommendation. Code 353 should initiate an analysis of systems-level communications and pro- cessing to define the trade-offs in local versus remote data processing, to identify data throughput requirements and the potential availability of satellite channels for transmission of sensor data to over- the-horizon receivers, and to consider an alternative (backup) communications path if satellite capacity is not available. Tactical Littoral Sensing Payload The tactical littoral sensing payload project is focused on the development of a high-resolution EO/ IR sensor for ISR of mines, obstacles, terrain elevation, and bathymetry. Project components will include a lightweight EO/IR sensor, algorithms from the Airborne Remote Optical Spotlight System (AROSS), and, potentially, a small gimbaled system for sensor incorporation on a Tier II UAV. Opera- tional enhancements include precision targeting, water depth and current speed measurements, and navigation aids for the advanced amphibious assault vehicle (AAAV) operations in threat areas. The

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LITTORAL COMBAT FUTURE NAVAL CAPABILITY 33 Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD), the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), several Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and various defense contractors have all done work in this area. Findings and Recommendations. The tactical littoral sensing payload project offers a potential for wide-area surveillance of minefields and obstacles that the Marine Corps should pursue. In its present state of development, the sensor has demonstrated that it can detect minelike objects in daylight, although the algorithms need to be considerably improved in order to reach the desired real-time performance. Code 353 expects to transition the technology to the Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis (COBRA) program and/or a future UAV to provide mine detection, targeting, and other TC,1' ~~1_;1;~;~n 1l A 16~ In ~~;~+ ;n A; To A (~ BITT in; +~ ^~ ~~ 1~1\ ~a[J"ulil~l~. ~l~llQU~11 L111~ ~1~1~L 1~ L"l~Llil~ ~1~ 1~1 L~lill~lQUy 1111111 L11~1~ "lo 11Q ~ O ~ J O O OF preplanned product improvement (P3I) plans, nor has funding been identified in the COBRA program to incorporate the products described above. The project appears to significantly overlap ONR's Rapid Overt Airborne Reconnaissance (ROAR) program. The Army NVESD is also developing an ISR system under the Airborne Standoff Minefield Detection System (ASTAMIDS) program that overlaps some objectives of the tactical littoral sensing payload project (terrain elevation, target tracking, high resolution, high dynamic range, and multisensor payload including EO/IR). Recommendation. Code 353 should establish a clear collaboration between the tactical littoral sensing payload project, the Coastal Battlefield Reconnaissance and Analysis program, and the airborne standoff mine detection system project to minimize redundant efforts and to increase emphasis on the identification of fixed and moving targets without the need for overflight. Recommendation. Code 353 should review the tactical littoral sensing payload project and the Rapid Overt Airborne Reconnaissance program to eliminate overlaps and to free much-needed re- sources. Recommendation. Code 353 should maintain strong ties to and collaboration with the Army Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate.l2 Radio Frequency Emitter Mapping Payload The radio frequency emitter mapping payload project is a follow-on to the recently completed mobile direction finding project.l3 The purpose of the current project is to develop a RF sensing payload based on COTS hardware that is compatible with the Tier II UAV development effort. The sensor will 1lJay G. Moore, Manager (Acting), Expeditionary Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance for the Amphibious Force, "Littoral Combat Future Naval Capability Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance," slides 12 to 15, presenta- tion to the committee on May 14, 2003. 12Army and Marine Corps cooperation in the development of countermine systems is cited in Army RDT&E Budget Item Justification (R-2 Exhibit), PE 0602712A Countermine Systems, February 2003. Available online at . Accessed on August 20, 2003. 13See "Mobile Direction Finding" under the C4ISR core thrust in Chapter 3.

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34 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM be designed to uniquely detect, identify, geolocate, and track battlefield RF emitters and thus create a map of these emitters for use by the tactical commander. Position measurements would be computed utilizing a combination of time and frequency difference of arrival methods. Time difference of arrival (TDOA) is a standard technique for establishing emitter bearing, and multiple measurement nodes (three or more points or a single extended aperture) are required to establish geolocation through intersection of the TDOA lines. Frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) positioning techniques mea- sure Doppler-induced frequency differences produced by a moving source or receiver.~4 Key to this system is the development of a wavelet transform to allow for the generation of a unique signal pattern for each emitter. In addition, a system will be developed for combining each set of measurements to develop a multipoint, time-integrated picture of a given RF source. Findings and Recommendations. The committee places the radio frequency emitter mapping payload project in the moderate- to high-risk category, given the project's stated goals. Unique detection, identification, geolocation, and tracking are exceedingly difficult in a noisy RF environment and gener- ally require a multitude of sensing nodes collecting and correlating signal characteristics in near-real time. A complex urban environment typically leads to large numbers of multiple reflections arising from each emitter; this issue makes the project challenging. The committee finds that the current effort poses significant technical challenges that do not appear to have been sufficiently resolved. Recommendation. Code 353 should initiate a systems-level analysis to determine the feasibility of the radio frequency emitter mapping payload project's objectives, including the feasibility of mapping RF emitters in a noisy RF environment to the degree planned for in the project's objectives. Analyses should establish the level of preprocessing needed at the sensing platform, the processing needed at the control node, and the performance characteristics of the connecting data communications and order links. The availability and quality of service of communications channels should be key factors in such a systems-type analysis. Recommendation. Code 353 should work closely with related commercial, intelligence, and other Service initiatives aimed at radio frequency emitter mapping. Chemical, Radiological, and Biological Payload The chemical, radiological, and biological payload project is focused on the development of an integrated sensor package capable of detecting CRB agents from an airborne platform. The project is being performed in conjunction with the Tier II UAV platform project and represents one of the plug- and-play payloads envisioned. Findings and Recommendations. The committee regards the chemical, radiological, and biological payload project as critically important at present in light of the potential battlefield use of CRB agents. Selected sensors are available with demonstrated capability to separately detect chemical, radiological, or biological agents. A complication is that, while radiological and chemical sensors can respond in near-real time, biological sensors generally cannot. The technical challenge is to integrate these indi- 14FDoA was used in the Navy navigation satellite system known as Transit.

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LITTORAL COMBAT FUTURE NAVAL CAPABILITY 35 vidual capabilities into a single unit with airborne potential while dealing effectively with the sensors very different characteristic detection times. An added difficulty is that weight goals are often hard to ., meet Wltn systems that combine EKE detection capanllltles. lne lUU-lb weight lout postulated tor tills project appears to the committee to be overly ambitious for the current state of the art. The management of S&T programs in chemical and biological defense is a congressionally man- dated responsibility of the Deputy Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Chemical and Biological Defense, in coordination with the Joint Science and Technology Panel for Chemical and Biological Defense.~5 This joint panel has representation from all the Services. It was clear to the committee that Code 353 had made no contact with these DOD and joint offices. Recommendation. Code 353 should establish a clear working relationship with the Joint Science and Technology Panel for Chemical and Biological Defense and coordinate with its science and technol- ogy initiatives and programs. Recommendation. With appropriate coordination, Code 353 should continue the chemical, radio- logical, and biological payload project as planned but should conduct a systems-level analysis to iden- tify operational concepts for the airborne sensor and supporting infrastructure. Recommendation. Code 353 should reexamine the 100-lb weight goal for the planned chemical, radiological, and biological payload and determine how the UAV' s performance would be affected by increasing the sensor weight. EC 2 EXPEDITIONARY FIRE SUPPORT FOR THE MAGTF EC 2 is intended to enhance fire support for elements of a Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) operating ashore by providing improved ammunitions and by integrating and networking all legacy and future fire support systems. Meeting the objective of "first round fire for effect" requires five character- istic capabilities: accurate target location, accurate fire unit location, accurate weapon and ammunition data, access to accurate meteorological data, and accurate computational procedures. Designed to ad- dress technical demands associated with this range of objectives, EC 2 includes (1) the Improved Indirect Fire Weapon System product line, with three projects; (2) the Networked Fires product line, with two projects; and (3) the Improved Ammunition product line, with four projects. EC 2 Findings and Recommendation EC 2 is at an early stage of development, with three of the nine projects well under way, two at the requirements stage, and four scheduled to start in FY04. Much of the proposed work (market surveys, development of conceptual architectures, and assessment of existing tools) seems to have been done well enough to encourage effective application of new technologies. At the same time, it was difficult for the committee to see the proposed work in the context of other existing efforts. 1SIn accordance with 50 USC 1522, chemical and biological defense programs within the Department of Defense are overseen by a single office within the Office of the Secretary of Defense. 16For example, interrelationships between rate of air sampling (volume and time), flight profile, onboard processing, control node processing, and available communication links must be taken into account in such an analysis.

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36 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM The more mature projects are taking advantage of existing technology for near-term transition. Many of the projects heavily leverage Army or DARPA efforts in guns and advanced munitions, and the Networked Fires product line, in particular, will require significant coordination with all the Services. Recommendation. Before FY04, Code 353 should assess the feasibility of integrating the expedition- ary fire support projects with those of other Service components and should review relevant prior Army and DARPA studies. Improved Indirect Fire Weapon System Product Line Advanced Materials for Indirect Fire Weapons Systems The advanced materials for indirect fire weapons systems project seeks to improve gun weapon systems by using new alloys and a redesign to reduce weight and improve mobility and set-up time. The selected Isogrid technology uses a grid array of ribs, precisely machined from stainless steel, to enhance structural integrity and increase the strength-to-weight ratio. The specific objective is to reduce the weight and the manufacturing costs of the M777 trail (the long support arms needed to balance the cannon during firing) without sacrificing performance. Findings and Recommendations. The Isogrid technology appears very promising. This technology for fabrication of lightweight, high-strength materials has been demonstrated to reduce M777 trail weight (from 15,758 to 6,700 lb) and manufacturing cost. Isogrid trail components implemented through the advanced materials for indirect fire weapons systems project are being prepared for field testing at Twenty-nine Palms, California, in mid- to late-2003. Recommendation. Due to the significant weight changes resulting from use of Isogrid components, Code 353 should address the effect of weight reduction on the firing behavior of the M777 weapon. Recommendation. Code 353 should engage in future testing and analysis of Isogrid components, paying particular attention to questions of component reliability and fatigue under operational condi- tions. Recommendation. Code 353 should conduct a manufacturing cost study of Isogrid components to quantify the benefits of reduced weight in light of expected changes in production cost. ~ J - ~ D - ~ - ID - ' r Improved Fire Control Systems Improved fire control and indirect fire capability for existing weapons are critical to the success of a lightweight fighting force, as envisioned in STOM. One aim of the improved fire control systems project is to improve the first-round accuracy of existing gun systems by integrating the sensitive inertial guidance component of an automatic aiming and pointing system onto the base plate of 120-mm and 105-mm howitzers. Success in this activity would have the additional benefit of permitting digital integration with the Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System at the gun level. A second activity seeks a methodology for using direct-fire weapons in an indirect-fire mode. In particular, an MK-47 Striker machine gun is to be modified with software enhancements to allow beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS targeting.

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LITTORAL COMBAT FUTURE NAVAL CAPABILITY 37 Findings and Recommendations. Both activities in the improved fire control systems project entail incremental changes to existing systems, with a potential for greatly enhanced performance. These concepts seem practical and are reasonable near-term transition objectives for the LC-FNC. The introduction of an advanced material and mounting system for integration of an aiming and pointing system onto the gun base plate has the potential to reduce both circle-error probability and time to emplace and fire. A late 2003 demonstration with live fire was anticipated. The proposed modification for the MK-47 Striker to allow beyond-line-of-sight targeting has just begun and is only at the requirements definition stage. Recommendation. Code 353 should proceed with demonstration and the transition of the aiming and pointing system into existing howitzers as quickly as possible. Recommendation. Code 353 should develop a quantitative error budget for the MK-47 Striker targeting requirements for use in beyond-line-of-sight targeting. Mortar and Mobility Transport System The mortar and mobility transport system project is focused on the development of a lighter, more maneuverable, towed mortar platform consistent with V-22 and CH-53E air transportability. The plat- form will incorporate advanced materials and designs for weight reduction and maneuverability to facilitate aircraft loading and unloading. The goal is to develop a platform that enables an air-delivered weapon to rapidly transition to a mobile system, with the ability to be integrated with existing COTS mortars. Findings and Recommendations. The mortar and mobility transport system project is ambitious, re- quiring the development of gun system models and engineering analysis for the design and fabrication of tires, wheels, axles, wheel maneuvers, and an adjustable suspension track system to facilitate loading from V-22s and CH-53Es. Because the goal of this system is to enable rapid maneuver, the committee noted that aspects of it may be better served through the EC 3 (Maneuver) of the LC-FNC. Recommendation. Code 353 should develop a schedule to determine if the mortar and mobility transport system project can be realized in the relatively short time frame typical of FNC Programs. r D Recommendation. Code 353 should examine if some aspects of the mortar and mobility transport system project should be transferred to EC 3 (Maneuver) or to the Maneuver core thrust. Networked Fires Product Line Advanced Target Acquisition The advanced target acquisition project has three activities. One is to produce an all-digital sensor- to-shooter system by integrating a Viper II eye-safe laser range finder, a rugged handheld computer, and hi__% _% ~ A ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ STAN ~ . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a PK(: 148 radio In a single handheld package. the second activity Is to produce a handheld meteoro- logical station to use on the battlefield; the station would measure environmental parameters critical to achieving firing accuracy parameters such as atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind direction, and velocity. The wind-speed measurements are seen as especially important to the warfighter in calculating

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38 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM firing solutions. The third activity is to enhance the existing target location, designation, and handoff system with a new target designator system and interoperability protocols to enable joint target handoffs. Findings and Recommendations. A prototype of the digital sensor-to-shooter system currently de- ployed with operational forces sounds promising. The system has provided near-real-time targeting data from a forward observer for U.S. attack aircraft operating in Operation Iraqi Freedom to establish GPS coordinates for joint direct attack missiles and for close air support, and this system was reported to "significantly improve upon current CAS Close air support] capability."~7 The handheld meteorological station is a new start scheduled for FY04, and no in-depth descriptive materials were presented. The target location, designation, and hand-off system enhancement project is a new start for FY03 and has just completed the requirements definition phase. . . Recommendation. Code 353 should continue advanced target acquisition project activities through their testing phase. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue to support the handheld meteorological station through development and field-testing. Code 353 should also collaborate with the Army on small handheld meteorological devices. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue the project for enhancing the target location, designa- tion, and hand-off system and transition the system into operational use as soon as possible. Recommendation. Code 353 should reexamine and improve the Viper II/RHCIPRC 148 integrated sensor-to-shooter system in light of recent reports on Operation Iraqi Freedom. Recommendation. Code 353 should conduct testing of the Viper II/RHC/PRC 148 integrated sen- sor-to-shooter system in the context of the required target location error tolerance for the joint direct attack missile. Integration with Naval Fires Network The integration with the Naval Fires Network project aims to develop interoperability between the Marine Corps Advanced Field Artillery Tactical Data System (AFATDS) and the Air Force/Joint Forces' Theater Battle Management Core System (TBMCS). This project will enable naval forces to better integrate their air, surface, and ground C2 systems. The objective is to provide a means for robust planning, replanning, and deconfliction within a networked system to ensure that fire support resources are available to the warfighter when needed. The project is expected to proceed with a series of hardware and software improvements to each system that will facilitate coordination between systems. Findings and Recommendation. The integration with Naval Fires Network project appears to fill a verified Marine Corps need and is slated to start in FY04. An external factor that could have a large impact on this project is the Department of the Navy's FORCEnet program, which now oversees large- 17Vickie Williams, Manager, Expeditionary Fire Support for the MAGTF Enabling Capability, Office of Naval Research, "Fires Enabling Capability," slide 20, presentation to the committee on May 14, 2003.

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LITTORAL COMBAT FUTURE NAVAL CAPABILITY 39 scale interoperability and systems integration efforts throughout the naval community in the context of implementing network-centric operations, of which the Naval Fires Network will inevitably be a part. Recommendation. Code 353 should reexamine the integration with Naval Fires Network project to ensure that it will complement the utility of planned and developing FORCEnet integration and interoperability projects and to avoid duplication of efforts or, worse, incompatible solutions. Improved Ammunition Product Line Work aiming toward improved ammunition is focused on increasing the lethality of Marine Corps ammunition to improve the probability of a first-round kill by the warfighter. It includes four projects: lethality and advanced warheads, advanced kill mechanisms, extended-range mortar munitions, and advanced ammunition packaging. Lethality and Advanced Warheads The lethality and advanced warheads project will compare the lethality of advanced and existing expeditionary fires' kill mechanisms. The objective is to compare the effectiveness of potential materiel solutions for expeditionary fire support needs. Findings and Recommendations. Much of the raw information was gained through live-fire testing. These tests have been completed for 120-mm rifled mortar rounds, and testing for munitions of other sizes is ongoing. The information gained should prove useful in the development of advanced munitions as well as in the application of firepower in combat situations. Recommendation. Code 353 should proceed with the lethality and advanced warheads project through completion, as planned. Recommendation. Before starting any new, related initiatives, Code 353 should coordinate more closely in warhead development with operational experimentation initiatives at the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory and prior live-fire testing performed by the Army and DARPA. Advanced Kill Mechanisms The advanced kill mechanisms project supports a study of fragmentation technology to optimize warhead lethality. It is evaluating existing fragmentation concepts and development; appropriate model- ing and simulation of fragmentation patterns; and the design of novel codes to describe the fragmenta- tion process within exploding shells and is comparing the above models with live-fire tests. The objec- tive is to provide an Expeditionary Fires Support System (EFSS)-compatible munition having optimal lethality and decreased logistics demands. Findings and Recommendation. The advanced kill mechanisms activity is scheduled to start in FY04. The committee sees this effort as the beginning of a new large-scale research program to develop advanced fragmentation warheads by Code 353. While there is Marine Corps need in this area, the field is dominated by Army input. Hence, care must be taken to examine Army initiatives in this area to avoid duplication of effort. Part of this initial stage of the activity should focus on the identification of possible new technologies and design approaches that have not been fully evaluated or pursued.

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40 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Recommendation. Before continuing or expanding its research allocations in the field of warhead fragmentation, Code 353 should review prior Army and DARPA studies and development programs to ensure that Code 353's efforts add new knowledge to this large and heavily studied area. Extended Range Mortar Munitions The Marine Corps, as part of EMW, has expressed a desire for longer-range organic (i.e., locally tasked) fires to enable fast and independent movement of forces around the battlespace. The extended range mortar munitions project is focused on improvement of mortar ammunition, with the specific goal of developing a rocket-assisted mortar to extend the warhead range from the current 8 km out to 17 km. Findings and Recommendations. The extended range mortar munitions project will build on an exist- ing Army rocket-assisted 120-mm munition. Its planned late FY04 start is dependent on the choice of munition for the EFSS. The committee notes that the Army's Future Combat System (FCS) program's goals for extended-range munitions are similar to the Marine Corps goals espoused in this project for EMW. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue with the extended range mortar munitions project as planned. Recommendation. Code 353 should monitor and attempt to leverage Army Future Combat System program efforts to develop organic, longer-range mortar munitions. Advanced Ammunition Packaging Current long-range munitions must be individually packaged for routine storage and transportation. In some cases, these packaging systems add significant weight and volume to the logistics burden of the warfighter. The advanced ammunition packaging project aims to develop advanced materials and pack- age designs to reduce weight and improve handling and protection for munitions. One benchmark goal of the project is a significant reduction in packaging volume along with a 50 percent reduction in packaging weight. An additional goal is to devise interlocking packaging so that large groups of muni- tions can be handled easily and safely. Findings and Recommendations. The advanced ammunition packaging project will include require- ments definition, package modeling, studies of hinge design for interlocking packaging, and evaluation of materiel solutions for transport and protection. Care must be taken with the packaging design to ensure that significant reduction in packaging volume will not lead to an increased probability of accidental detonation of munitions. This project is scheduled for an FY04 start. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue with the advanced ammunition packaging project as planned. Recommendation. Code 353 should establish and maintain close coordination between this project and similar Army efforts related to munitions packaging.

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LITTORAL COMBAT FUTURE NAVAL CAPABILITY EC 3 MAGTF MANEUVER IN THE LITTORALS 41 EC 3 is intended to enhance the maneuverability of landed elements of a MAGTF through knowl- edge-based situational awareness and improved mine- and obstacle-breaching capabilities. The capa- bilities being developed and demonstrated are intended to allow assault forces to dynamically plan and execute STOM operations, which will require collaboration and distributive planning along with inte- gration of situational awareness, logistics, and mission objectives. Several technology gaps have been identified that could impair STOM execution in 2010, including (1) a lack of common and integrated dynamic planning, rehearsal, and execution systems, (2) the inability of lower echelons to get relevant data, (3) a lack of a common relevant operational picture (CROP) at all echelons, and (4) a navigation and object location system that is currently unable to afford a precise and responsive approach during amphibious operations at night, in adverse weather, or in obstructed or mined waters. Enhanced maneuverability, based on dynamic planning and adaptive execution at the mission planning level, will require support at all phases of expeditionary marine warfare, multiple plans (what- if alternatives), collaborative planning, rapid replanning, execution monitoring, near-real-time changes based on enemy activities, up-to-date environmental data, and actual situational awareness. Further, this capability must be flexible, distributable, and easy to use. EC 3 includes the Knowledge-Based Situational Awareness product line, with one project; the Maneuver Systems product line, with three projects; and the Landmine Countermeasures and Breaching product line, with one project. EC 3 Findings and Recommendations Initial efforts in EC 3 are aiming for a significant advance in STOM capability by 2006, to be supported by dynamic planning and adaptive execution, precise navigation tools, and development of an advanced CROP. Evolutionary development of existing software tools and COTS hardware should lead to rapid returns for MAGTF maneuver in the littorals. Particularly promising are the EX-45 stable weapon mount, which has long been in development, and the AAAV collision avoidance system. The remainder of the EC 3 projects started in FY03 or are set to start in FY04, so there are few final results to report. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue to pursue situational awareness efforts with vigor. Recommendation. Code 353 should accelerate efforts to support the needs of mine countermeasures and military operations in urban terrain by systematically addressing the many identified shortfalls. Knowledge-Based Situational Awareness Product Line Adaptive Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare System The adaptive expeditionary maneuver warfare system project is a software development initiative aimed at enabling the combined amphibious task forces, combat logistics forces, and their staffs to better coordinate their decision making during the planning, evaluation, and execution of all phases of 18A weapon with two-axis stabilization was demonstrated in May 2001.

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42 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM EMW. The objective is to integrate the technologies required to synchronize operations for dynamic planning and adaptive execution using collaborative and distributive planning. The expected warfighting benefits include reduced planning time and increased speed and accuracy of command to allow rapid decisions and replanning, in-stride assault guidance, and reduced fratricide. Findings and Recommendation. The adaptive expeditionary maneuver warfare system project is devel- oping evolutionary software tools that are currently undergoing field testing. Capabilities presented to the committee demonstrated the individual software tools being implemented as part of the project. The software tools supported overall mission objectives as well as visualization with real-world imagery of a landing area and overlays of assault lanes, tactical areas, and an execution timeline; demonstrated the ability to incorporate surf models that support beach selection and the identification of available assets; and supported landing force landing plans, including organizing into landing waves and the order of offload. One particular tool was the augmented reality tool, which is being developed to improve navigation and situational awareness for fast sea approaches to desired landing areas. The deployed experimental system enables georegistered data to be presented on a cockpit monitor and enables the operator to see the approach path clearly, via computer-generated guard rails. Although a milestone and schedule timeline was presented, it was difficult for the committee to determine when and how the individual software tools would be integrated into a dynamic system synchronized across platforms, echelons, missions, and components. Early success and accomplish- ments included a software-generated program-to-program interface library with Secure Socket Layer status that had been deployed in an amphibious ready group. Code 353 also presented evidence of strong fleet and Fleet Marine Force support with transitions planned in the out-years. The committee endorses the adaptive expeditionary maneuver warfare system project. The overall concept of dynamic planning and adaptive execution is worthwhile but complex, and it will require extensive integration. In the end, all components of the integrated system will have to be field-tested. Recommendation. Code 353 should generate a detailed overall plan for development of the adap- tive expeditionary maneuver warfare system that clearly establishes the funding and schedule required for integrating individual tools into an integrated system that can be validated in the field. Maneuver Systems Product Line Maneuver Systems includes three separate projects: the advanced amphibious assault vehicle (AAAV) collision avoidance system, the EX-45 stable weapon mount, and urban maneuver. All three are aimed at improving the ability of existing systems or systems under development to maneuver freely through a battlespace. AAAV Collision Avoidance System The AAAV collision avoidance system project builds on prior work in the development of the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS) and the AQS-20(A) system. All three of these systems rely on blue-green grazing-incidence laser light detection and ranging (LIDAR) coupled with a streak tube imaging system to enable detection and localization of floating and submerged objects. The objective of the AAAV collision avoidance system project is to develop an integrated sensor system that reduces the size of the existing AAAV collision avoidance system, is integrated with AAAV onboard

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LITTORAL COMBAT FUTURE NAVAL CAPABILITY 43 GPS and navigation systems, and prepares data that can be easily transmitted off-board to the battlefield commander. Findings and Recommendations. The AAAV collision avoidance system project represents an impor- tant technology for improved mine and obstacle avoidance. The fundamental properties of the streak tube imaging and detection geometry of the LIDAR system represent a reasonable approach to detect- ing floating and submerged objects, yet not what would be described as a conventional LIDAR concept. The LIDAR appears to have been developed over a long period, passing through two phases of a small business innovation research effort, with claims of being able to transition quickly to TRL 7/8 to support AAAV low-rate initial production. No evidence was presented to confirm the maturity of the technology. While this project claims "to build on ONR-developed technology in ALMDS," there appears to be no ongoing sharing of information between the two efforts. The committee expressed concern that given the advanced TRL projected, coupled with a lack of integration with other activities, the system would be unlikely to meet the expectations of ONR. Recommendation. Code 353 should coordinate the AAAV collision avoidance system project with the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System Program Office to establish a detailed description of near- term technology milestones and transition plans for both systems. Recommendation. Code 353 should work with the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System Program Office to investigate mutually beneficial opportunities to leverage streak-tube LIDAR development. EX-45 Stable Weapon Mount The EX-45 stable weapon mount is designed to be an integrated weapon mount offering increased gunner accuracy from a moving platform. The goals of the final system will require four-axis stabiliza- tion (for patrol craft use); remote firing capabilities (to remove the gunner from harm's way and the elements); forward-looking infrared surveillance; auto-tracking; light weight; and low visual signature. The system will also incorporate a nonlethal laser dazzler effective day or night at up to 400 meters. The primary technical challenges are to design the four-axis and six-axis sensors necessary for four-axis stabilization, appropriate interfaces to the servocomputer, and algorithms for four-axis gun stabilization and auto-tracking. Findings and Recommendations. The EX-45 stable weapon mount is a worthwhile project designed to increase gunner accuracy from a moving platform. The product objective, system requirements, charac- teristics, and benefits are clear. Individual technologies such as a laser dazzler to blind the opponent's infrared detectors, a remote-firing control panel, and a gun-mounted imager appear to be on track. Recommendation. Code 353 should establish a clear definition of the near-term technology mile- stones and transition plans for the EX-45 stable weapon mount. Recommendation. Code 353 should develop a clear plan for the development and testing of the full four-axis stabilization and auto-tracking algorithms. This plan should involve appropriate leveraging of existing commercial and military work on motion-stabilized systems.

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44 Urban Maneuver 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM The urban maneuver project is focused on technology systems that will assist maneuver elements in urban terrain. To date, efforts have focused on identifying technology and capability gaps. Six high- priority objectives were developed based on results of a war-game seminar designed to understand the nature of the urban environment: the ability to see inside a building, weapons optimized for MOUT, enhanced urban protection, reliable BLOS communication, MOUT decision support tools, and MOUT nodal analysis tools. Findings and Recommendation. The urban maneuver project is in the early stages of identifying capability/technology gaps and priorities, which will then have to be turned into individual projects that address Marine Corps-specific needs and that are coordinated with ongoing projects in ONR, DARPA, and other agencies. This is a fruitful area for the introduction of new technology. Recommendation. Code 353 should establish new technology projects to achieve the six high- priority objectives identified in the gap analysis exercise of the urban maneuver project. Tailored Explosive Systems The aim of this new-start project is to develop a family of tailored, organic, MAGTF explosive systems for attacking suspected mine fields or individual antitank mines and neutralizing detected side- attack, top-attack, and antihelicopter mines. This multiphase project will investigate various explosive antimine mechanisms as well as issues related to system delivery accuracy and target mine vulnerabili- ties, such as shock-induced mine fuze actuation. Findings and Recommendations. The tailored explosive systems project is of joint Army-Marine Corps interest and focuses on the nullification of landmine threats. The committee noted that the project's examination of explosive kill mechanisms seems to be highly related as well as to the lethality and advanced warheads project and the advanced kill mechanisms project described above under EC 2. Recommendation. Code 353 should pursue the tailored explosive systems project through comple- tion, as planned. Recommendation. After initial phase investigations are complete, Code 353 should consider broad- ening the tailored explosive systems project to examine how it could be made to also operate in the surf zone. Land Mine Countermeasures and Breaching Product Line Lightweight Mechanical Breaching Systems The objective of this new start is to develop a lightweight mechanical breaching system for use on Marine Corps vehicles against all buried mine types regardless of mine fuzing technique. The current man-portable mine breaching system used by the Marine Corps weighs in excess of 65 lb and can clear

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LITTORAL COMBAT FUTURE NAVAL CAPABILITY 45 only a single 25-m-long track. Marine Corps field reports from Operation Iraqi Freedom noted that due to this high weight and short clearance length the systems were little used.~9 Findings and Recommendation. Like the tailored explosive systems project, the lightweight mechani- cal breaching systems project is of joint Army-Marine Corps interest and is focused on the nullification of landmine threats to Marine Corps operations. Recommendation. Code 353 should work cooperatively with the Army to support mine-breaching and nullification initiatives that will lower the system weight and lengthen the cleared path to address the concerns noted by marines during Operation Iraqi Freedom. EC 4 COMMAND AND CONTROL L(: 4 is intended to enhance the commander's capability to command all elements of the MAGTF by increasing the reliability of BLOS communications and achieving near-real-time situational awareness and an improved data network with optimized information flow. The focus of this EC is C2 at the element level20 of the MAGTF. Currently funded within EC 4 are three product lines: Beyond-Line-of-Sight Communications Connectivity, with two projects; Enhanced Individual, Unit, and Collective Situational Awareness, with three projects; and Data Flow Optimization, with two projects. EC 4 Findings and Recommendation The eclectic collection of topics presented ranged from the forthright exploitation of COTS products to new-start projects that would develop improved software tools. It was by no means clear that this extremely critical area of C2 was being approached in a systematic manner in response to identified operational shortfalls. Also, since the C2 enabling capability clearly depends on inputs from the ISR enabling capability, the two should be closely coordinated. Recommendation. Code 353 should review all C2 enabling capability projects to ensure coordination with ISR enabling capability projects and alignment of the outputs of both enabling capabilities to Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare. Beyond-Line-of-Sight Communications Connectivity Product Line Secure Mobile Networks The secure mobile networks project aims to integrate advanced protocols and applications, fre- quency conversion, low probability of intercept (LPI)Aow probability of detection (LPD), and spectrum compatibility into a secure system. The resultant connectivity enhancements will increase efficiency and allow for expeditionary maneuver warfare by providing on-the-move connectivity, seamless mobility 19Marine Corps Combat Development Command. 2003. Field Report Marine Corps Systems Command Liaison Team, Central Iraq (April 20-25, 2003J, Quantico, Va., May. 20MAGTF elements range in size from a platoon to a division, depending on mission requirements.

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46 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM and roaming capability for subscribers in and around a command post, and wireless connectivity from a command post to a remote antenna/radio location. Implementing the capability within a MAGTF archi- tecture will eliminate network setup time and reduce the embarkation footprint by decreasing the amount of support cabling and equipment needed to support the network. Findings and Recommendations. The secure mobile networks project grew out of the advanced con- cept technology demonstration on enhancing the littoral battlespace and has focused on gaining National Security Agency type 1 certification for an off-the-shelf Harris SECNET-ll secure wireless local area network (LAN) system. Performance tests have successfully allowed technical characterization of net- work performance even to the point of identifying an unforeseen falloff in performance in the multicast mode. There was no indication in presentations to the committee that this project consisted of more than a series of technical evaluations of equipment obtained from commercial sources; however, this effort does appear to have been very closely coordinated with potential Navy and Marine Corps customers. As part of this effort, a secure wireless LAN test facility has been co-located with the Marine Corps Tactical Systems Support Activity (MCTSSA) and has been selected as the DOD secure wireless LAN beta test site, suggesting that this project is somewhat mature. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue the secure mobile networks project as planned through testing and down-selection of candidate secure wireless LAN systems. Recommendation. Code 353 should, no later than late FY04, solve any problems identified in the first round of testing. Recommendation. If project limitations are resolved by FY04, ONR 353 should proceed with the transitioning of these secure wireless LAN systems into existing Navy and Marine Corps C2 architec- tures. Innovative Relays The innovative relays project aims to field wideband and narrowband relay capabilities suitable for rapid, expeditionary use. The project seeks to integrate the relay functions of the Enhanced Position Location and Reporting System (EPLRS), the Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System (SINCGARS), and the Joint Tactical Radio System wideband network waveform (JTRS WNW) into a single payload for a UAV that will provide long-range and secure voice and data communications during STOM. Findings and Recommendations. The current plans for the innovative relays project are aimed at providing an integrated radio relay payload for use on a Marine Corps tactical UAV to enable tactical (line-of-sight) communications from the UAV out to 100 nautical miles. Originally a DARPA initiative, the concept of developing UAVs as airborne communications nodes is being heavily studied by all the Services. Satellite relays are an extremely high altitude instance of this airborne relay concept. Satellite communications served the marines well during Operation Iraqi Freedom as they were always available (although their use was limited owing to the fixed number of communications channels operated by the Services). The advantage of traditional radios (for example EPLRS and SINCGARS) is that they are fully deployed at all levels of the Marine Corps; however, without an elevated relay, they suffer greatly from difficulties in maintaining reliable line-of-sight connections. The innovative relays project seeks to

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LITTORAL COMBAT FUTURE NAVAL CAPABILITY 47 enhance the performance of overhead relays in a straightforward, logical manner. Since this is an integration effort, the committee expressed concern that Code 353 had not included weight and volume constraints for specific UAV platforms in the design goals for the innovative relays project. Recommendation. Code 353 should conduct a critical review of the innovative relays project with the Navy and Marine Corps (e.g., First Marine Expeditionary Force and Commander, Third Fleet) to determine if, in view of the success of the satellite radios in Operation Iraqi Freedom, this project continues to be viable. Recommendation. If the innovative relays project is viable, Code 353 should establish priorities for the remaining engineering studies and tests. Enhanced Individual, Unit, and Collective Situational Awareness Product Line Common Relevant Operational Picture The common relevant operational picture project is an effort to develop a near-real-time display with an active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AM OLED) that can be used uniformly in a broad variety of military vehicles and ground stations. The initial stage (to be performed during 2003) is to support and coordinate with industry and with the other Services on AM OLED display technology and to assess (jointly with the Marine Corps Systems Command and MCCDC) current Marine Corps needs for display technology. Findings and Recommendation. This project's title is a bit misleading, as it addresses the issue of displaying a common relevant operational picture but not that of assembling it. The current project is an offshoot of a 5-year DARPA investment (completed in 2002) that evaluated AM OLED technology. AM OLED displays are expected to have numerous advantages over commonly used liquid crystal displays, including greater brightness control (necessary for a range of day and night operations); reduced weight, power consumption, and heat dissipation; and potential flexibility. Code 353 also noted that it is monitoring work on heads-up displays and dismounted data terminals being performed under the Force Protection FNC, as well as similar work on AM OLED display initiatives by the Air Force and the Army. The committee is concerned that the project is predicting faster progress for the technology than is likely, with predicted progress going from trade-off studies of AM OLED technologies and Marine Corps needs in 2003 to production of AAAV displays by the end of 2005. Recommendation. Code 353 should reevaluate the timeline proposed for the AM OLED advanced display technology after completion of the surveys, studies of trade-offs, and roadmaps scheduled for 2003. Position Location Information/Range Instrumentation The position location information/range instrumentation project aims to support development of a communications infrastructure for the acquisition and archiving of position location information at Marine Corps live-training ranges. This project will include development of the necessary communica- tions infrastructure, precision weapon location and orientation devices, and information management systems to allow for accurate real-time and after-action analysis of live training exercises.

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48 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Findings and Recommendation. The system developed in connection with the position location infor- mation/range instrumentation project should greatly enhance the ability of training managers to conduct after-action reviews of live exercises and, thus, the ability of the Marine Corps to conduct training. This project appears to be primarily an integration activity aimed at synthesizing the responses of various communications and location determination systems. The committee noted that although the communi- cations and information management systems were being pursued aggressively (with the prototype demonstration scheduled in 2003), the indirect fire weapon position and orientation systems were not discussed. While deployment of this prototype system at the MAGTF Training Center at Twenty-nine Palms, California, will be a necessary step in the program development, the committee believes that the short timeline for this complex and integrated system may be overly optimistic. Recommendation. Code 353 should conduct a critical progress review of the position location information/range instrumentation project with the Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory to establish a firm timeline for integration of the diverse systems under development. Deployable Virtual Training Environment The deployable virtual training environment project supports development of automated, rapid, location-specific terrain database generation, enhanced digital voice communications, and improved visualization tools. All these activities aim to improve the quality and utility of mobile virtual training systems. For example, one goal is to improve the speed at which high-fidelity geo-registered terrain data can be acquired, processed, and disseminated for use in multiuser, deployed training sessions. Findings and Recommendation. The deployable virtual training environment project is building on prior ONR development efforts. These initiatives, if successful, will improve the ability of the Marine Corps to support distributed mission rehearsal as well as training. Testing will include two shipboard trials, critical for testing the responsiveness of the distributed system to the needs of the trainees, who must have high-quality, real-time interactions. Coordination must be ensured between this project and other ONR, other Service, and Joint Forces Command initiatives to push technology in this fast-moving subject field. Recommendation. Code 353 should coordinate in the area of distributed virtual training with the MCS&T program's Human Performance, Training, and Education core thrust as well as with other ONR, Service, and joint initiatives. Data Flow Optimization Product Line There are two projects in Data Flow Optimization, both new starts scheduled for FY04: improved network management tools and improved decision support tools. Neither of these two initiatives was formally briefed to this committee, although they were included in the supplemental material provided. Recommendation. Code 353 should provide a quantitative brief of the Data Flow Optimization product line to the LC-FNC integrated product team for determination of priority in terms of supporting vision and requirements compatible with Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare. Program results should also be briefed to appropriate elements of the Joint Forces Command as a means to foster collaboration and leveraging.