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Core Thrusts OVERVIEW The Core Thrusts part of the Marine Corps Science and Technology (MCS&T) program has orga- nized its 6.2 and 6.3 funds to support six core thrusts: Maneuver, Firepower, Mine Countermeasures, Logistics, Human Performance, Training, and Education, and Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnais- sance (C4ISR). Although there is no mission statement for the Core Thrusts, each thrust focuses on the development of advanced technology (see Table 1.2~. This focus is consistent with the goals of ONR's Discovery and Invention (D&I) organizational element. Given below are overall findings and recommendations for the Core Thrusts. Each core thrust is then discussed, and findings and recommendations are presented along with a detailed review of each thrust's constituent projects. Core Thrusts Findings and Recommendations The Core Thrusts part of the MCS&T program was generally of high quality, and all the thrusts seemed to address topics of interest to the Marine Corps. However, although many of the projects reviewed were technically aggressive, several such as the tactical unmanned ground vehicle ap- peared to the committee to be focused on near-term transition-dominated goals that do not correspond to 49

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so 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM the D&I mission of the Core Thrusts. As noted in Chapter 1, the committee considers it important that the Core Thrusts projects do not all take on the short-term, product-oriented characteristics of the Future Naval Capabilities (FNCs), since the technologies that the FNCs exploit must emerge from Core Thrusts (6.2 and 6.3) and Basic Research (6.1~. The committee also notes that the overall Core Thrusts did not appear to represent a structured response to significant shortfalls in Ship-to-Objective Maneuver (STOM) or Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare (EMW) capability. In addition, for those cases where presenters mentioned shortfalls, the links appeared to be ad hoc rather than the result of a planned process. The lack of an apparent overall investment strategy for the Core Thrusts concerns the committee. A number of Core Thrusts projects were leveraged against much larger U.S. Army or Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) efforts. For most projects, the extent of the Code 353 influence on the Army and DARPA efforts was unclear. In most Core Thrusts projects, committee members were aware of related activities in the Navy, other Services, and/or DARPA, but the present- ers, when questioned, seemed to have little or no knowledge of such activities. This lack of coordination concerned the committee, particularly in regard to potential duplication of efforts. As for the individual thrusts, the committee applauds the explicit recognition of the key roles played by the Logistics and the Human Performance, Training, and Education thrusts, and it believes that the separation of Mine Countermeasures (MCM) from Maneuver is sensible, given the extreme challenges inherent in the MCM problem. Recommendation. Code 353 should ensure that the MCS&T program's Core Thrusts and Basic Re- search components support the mission of discovery and invention, that is, exploration aimed at the long-term development of base-level technologies that could support future FNC and Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory program initiatives. Thus, Code 353 should remove from the Core Thrusts and Basic Research portfolios short-term, transition-oriented initiatives. Recommendation. To better structure its support for the underpinnings of Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare as well as Ship-to-Objective Maneuver, Code 353 should establish an S&T planning process for the MCS&T program's Core Thrusts, similar to that recommended above for the LC-FNC, that is suitably focused on the long-term capability needs of the Marine Corps. Recommendation. In its Core Thrusts projects, Code 353 should enable broad coordination of efforts beyond Code 35 (and beyond ONR), where possible and practical, with relevant S&T activities in the other Services and in government agencies. MANEUVER THRUST The Marine Corps Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare concept focuses on the development of opera- tional capabilities that enable speed, stealth, precision, and sustainability, with emphasis on improving the efficacy of the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF). Desired operational capabilities include enhanced deployability, reduced fuel consumption, multispectral tactical awareness, reduced gross weight, improved survivability, autonomous systems, reduced logistical footprint, and improved mobil- ity. The Maneuver thrust focuses on research and development of tactical and combat vehicles in the area of mobility, materials, survivability, unmanned ground vehicles, and electric technologies.

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CORE THRUSTS 51 Maneuver Thrust Overall Findings and Recommendation The two projects associated with the MAGTF Expeditionary Family of Fighting Vehicles (MEFFV) (1) lightweight materials and (2) modeling, simulation, and analysis were both reasonable D&I efforts. In particular, the committee was impressed by the modeling, simulation, and analysis effort and strongly supports it. The other two projects reconnaissance, surveillance, and targeting vehicle (RST-V) and tactical unmanned ground vehicle (TUGV) with their current short-term transition goals (FY04), seemed more suited to receive funding as an FNC rather than as D&I, as is currently the case. The RST-V and TUGV projects, however, are making important contributions to the development of hybrid-electric drives and autonomous operations on the battlefield. Recommendation. Code 353 should transition the reconnaissance, surveillance, and targeting vehicle project and the tactical unmanned ground vehicle project out of the Maneuver thrust as planned, but should continue support of initiatives in hybrid-electric and unmanned vehicles. MAGTF Expeditionary Family of Fighting Vehicles Lightweight Materials (6.2) The lightweight materials project is developing advanced lightweight armor, structural-armor mate- rials, and multifunctional material concepts that will improve the survivability of current and future armored vehicles. The project aims to select candidate materials by the end of FY03 and to hand prototypes ready for live-fire testing by the end of FY05. Testing of the final materials as integrated onto vehicles will be performed by FY07. The expected benefit of this project is lighter armor that will give future Marine Corps ground vehicles increased maneuverability and survivability. Specific materials and processes being evaluated include fabrication of high-strength aluminum by cryomilling; use of nano- to meso-scale powders and plasma spraying of carbon/carbon nanocomposites to increase hardness; development of metal-matrix composites (aluminum and boron carbide) for struc- tural material applications (increased toughness and strength); development of aluminum oxide/boron carbide graded composites; and development of metal-ceramic-matrix composites and polymer-metal- matrix composites for combined structural and armor applications. Findings and Recommendations. Collectively, these activities in the lightweight materials project represent a variety of potentially useful materials technology options for increasing the survivability of ground combat systems. In Phase I of the project, several materials options have been identified and are being developed for testing. Benefits of the proposed materials have been adequately described relative to the performance of current materials. In addition, individual material or fabrication properties, includ- ing hardness, strength, fracture toughness, and elongation, are being measured and evaluated relative to the end-use. The committee found it difficult to draw any conclusions from the initial laboratory material testing results, given the technical issues that might arise in fabricating the larger areas and complex shapes required for structural platforms. Transition of these materials is planned to occur through the Marine Corps Systems Command, and the Army' s Future Combat System program and scheduled to be accomplished by the end of FY07. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue the lightweight materials project through down-selec- tion and require that grantees clearly articulate the fabrication issues and overall costs associated with

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52 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM different materials options. The technical issues associated with large-scale fabrication of these novel materials should be identified and addressed early. Recommendation. Code 353 should ensure that the vehicle-testing phase of the lightweight materi- als project involves the field-testing of vehicles equipped with final armor materials. Modeling, Simulation, and Analysis (6.3) The modeling, simulation, and analysis project aims to develop a simulation-based acquisition tool- kit that supports the development of an advanced family of vehicles optimized for lethality, survivabil- ity, mobility, sustainability and reliability. The MEFFV is expected to replace the light armored vehicle and the MlA1 Abrams tank over the next 15 years. Modeling, simulation, and analysis software tools are being developed in four technical areas: ' ' ' ' conceptual design tools, and decision support. to be used for vehicle life-cycle analysis, ad- operational simulation and analysis, mobility modeling, The resulting modeling and simulation capabilities are vanced technology trade-off evaluations, and generation of appropriate investment strategies. Findings and Recommendations. The operational simulation and analysis tool aims to integrate the joint conflict and tactical simulation (JCATS) with appropriate inputs such as satellite imagery, weap- ons data, and survivability performance. Post-processor improvements are also being developed to expand the capabilities of the tool. An initial survivability analysis has been performed using a sample MEFFV in an integrated infantry close-combat urban environment. The conceptual design tool is being developed to enable early mission-specific design optimization of the MEFFV. This software tool enables rapid visualization and rapid evaluation of vehicle designs with different crew compartments, turret configurations, weapons, armor, and sensors. Mobility modeling capabilities are being developed to predict and evaluate vehicle dynamics for potential MEFFV designs in realistic Marine Corps mission terrains. These models will help to evaluate the impact of technology trade-offs on mission performance; vehicle fuel efficiency and power require- ments; and vehicle stability, ride, and handling. This activity has utilized existing commercial modeling software to simulate vehicle dynamics, to define performance envelopes, to assess technology options, and to evaluate life-cycle issues. The multilevel decision support tool integrates a variety of input options and scenarios, such as vehicle design performance parameters, with proposed advanced technologies and allows for their examination through various survivability scenarios. The goal of this software tool is to collect informa- tion necessary to produce an evaluation matrix that help to determine technology trade-offs in relation to overall vehicle strengths and weaknesses. Code 353 is scheduled to down-select the simulation design and development tools by the end of FY03 and to complete the preliminary platform designs in FY04. Recommendation. Code 353 should move aggressively to support the modeling, simulation, and analysis project as a means to provide initial design evaluation relevant to the MEFFV. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue to support future modeling, simulation, and analysis activities that build on existing tools and should strive to integrate the four existing activities in order to develop a unique set of longer-term Marine Corps modeling and simulation tools that support the MEFFV.

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CORE THRUSTS 53 Recommendation. Code 353 should coordinate the modeling, simulation, and analysis project, where appropriate, with existing transportation modeling efforts at the Defense Modeling and Simula- tion Office, the U.S. Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command, the National Automotive Center, and other federal and industrial agencies. Reconnaissance, Surveillance, and Targeting Vehicle (6.3) The objective of the RST-V project is to develop and demonstrate survivable hybrid-electric tech- no~ogies suitable for lightweight manned military reconnaissance and scout vehicles. The emphasis is on the development of a vehicle that can be carried into the theater by a MV-22 Osprey aircraft. The primary performance objectives for this phase of the RST-V project include demonstration of increased fuel economy and range relative to earlier versions of the RST-V and of the ability to sustain 20 miles of silent (battery or fuel cell) movement. This project has resulted in the construction of four demonstrator vehicles. The final design relies critically on its hybrid-electric drive a lightweight diesel engine dedicated to electric power generation coupled with advanced rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and individually controlled in-hub motors. The choice of in-hub drive motors allows for incorporation of a pneumatic folding suspension enabling the vehicle's wheelbase and clearance to be collapsed significantly in order to meet the combined requirements of rough terrain operation and V-22 transportability. The in-hub motors also reduce the size of the engine compartment, thereby increasing the interior cargo capacity of the vehicle. Vehicle safety certification, followed by operational user testing and evaluation, is scheduled to be conducted throughout 2003. Findings and Recommendations. The RST-V is a mature technology demonstration project that has progressed steadily over the last 3 years. Initiated in the early 1990s, it is a heavily leveraged joint DARPA/Marine Corps project (currently 70 percent DARPA, 30 percent MCS&T funds). It also effec- tively uses results from other related efforts, including the National Automotive Center AHED 8 x 8, the Combat Hybrid Power System, and the hybrid-electric high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV), as well as the elements of the Army's Future Combat System. The third and fourth prototype vehicles were completed in FY03 and are scheduled for evaluation and testing in the first quarter of FY04. Initial vehicle cost is expected to be very high (primarily owing to lithium-ion batteries), and the transition plan at the end of the project is unclear. There are no plans for continuing this project beyond the first quarter of FY04. In the view of the committee, this project seems to be more a technology integration, demonstration, and assessment project than a D&I project. Recommendation. Code 353 should transition the reconnaissance, surveillance, and targeting ve- hicle project to an appropriate FNC (such as the Electric Vehicle FNC) or to the Marine Corps Systems Command for further development and testing. This transition plan should identify applications where advanced hybrid-electric drive vehicles are desirable and productive and should also address the timing, performance, and cost targets required of individual technologies (e.g., lithium-ion batteries). Recommendation. Code 353 should continue to support the development of advanced hybrid- electric vehicles and systems for Marine Corps use.

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54 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Tactical Unmanned Ground Vehicle (6.2 and 6.3) The tactical unmanned ground vehicle project's objective is to support the development of an unmanned, teleoperated, semiautonomous ground vehicle for remote combat tasks in order to reduce risk and neutralize threats to individual marines. The TUGV is planned to be capable of performing scouting missions; reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition; nuclear, biological, and chemi- cal reconnaissance; obstacle-breaching; and direct fire. The desired operational capabilities include mobility (co anywhere a marine needs to co1. affordability. survivability. denlovabilitv. transportability. N~ ~ ~ ,, id, em, ~ ~ em, ~ em, . . - . , . . ~ . . . . . . . - . . .. robust commumcatlons, an easy-to-use man/maculne Interlace, and mission modularity (anlllty to alter the vehicle for mission-specific capabilities while in the field). It should be noted that the DOD Joint Robotics program, which is led by the Army, strongly overlaps the goals and technologies of this project. Findings and Recommendations. To date the TUGV project has gone through design award and Phase I technology development, design, and demonstration. Phase II down-selects have reduced design concepts from four to two. The designs will be further refined and then subjected to integrated testing and demonstrations. In FY04, finished TUGV prototypes are scheduled to undergo basic platform mobility testing and scout and surveillance demonstrations. The critical nature of the TUGV mission has led the Marine Corps to commit to the purchase of 101 TUGVs beginning in FY06. The committee recognizes that the TUGV provides a variety of capabilities to the Marine Corps, the most notable of which is to remove marines from hostile, high-threat areas. The project has progressed well over the last 2 years and has strong transitional support. The committee looks forward to the Phase II performance evaluation and demonstration results. After completion of the Phase II development of prototype vehicles (late FY04), the TUGV project is scheduled to be transferred to the Marine Corps System Command, Unmanned Ground Vehicle Systems Joint Projects Office. Although the TUGV project was presented to the committee as a part of MCS&T's Core Thrusts, the committee notes that the TUGV is also listed in several ONR documents as being part of the Autonomous Operations FNC. Recommendation. Code 353 should clarify whether the tactical unmanned ground vehicle project is operating to meet D&I or FNC expectations. Because the D&I and FNC elements of the MCS&T program have somewhat different goals, care should be taken to avoid mixing missions. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue to support the tactical unmanned ground vehicle project as planned, and coordination with the DOD Joint Robotics program should be maintained. FIREPOWER THRUST Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare relies heavily on long-range, accurate, and responsive naval surface firepower support (NSFS). Robust, around-the-clock, all-weather, sea-based firepower is the only joint capability that can fully meet the requirements of expeditionary maneuver operations and be integrated with other joint-force firepower over an extended littoral battle space. The Navy's current NSFS capability, however, is inadequate in terms of range, volume, and accuracy. Currently there is no funded program of record that will meet Marine Corps requirements in this area. 1Gen Michael W. Hagee, USMC, Commandant of the Marine Corps. 2003. Marine Corps Concepts and Programs 2003, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C. Available online at . Accessed on August 20, 2003.

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CORE THRUSTS 55 in close combat, particu- larly in the early phases of a sea-based operation. Nothing else is as responsive to a commander's needs, or as reliable. As such, firepower is a key component in extending the reach and lethality of the MAGTF. The MCWL's Experimentation Campaign Plan states that "the Lab continues to explore technology solutions to address improvements in fire support to improve precision, terminal effects, responsiveness and mobility. The focus of effort has been to address these areas with respect to Expedi- tionary Maneuver Warfare (EMW) and specifically STOM as well as the subset of Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT)."2 Realizing the full potential of EMW will require a developmental effort focused on improving command and control, maneuver, intelligence, integrated firepower, logistics, force protection, and information operations.3 Among the firepower examples recently cited by the Commandant of the Marine Corps as potentially supportive of the Sea Strike and Sea Basing concepts are the Littoral Combat Ship and the DD(X) land-attack destroyer, which will provide long-range precision and high-volume naval surface firepower to support OMFTS.4 Clearly, improved ship-launched and ground-launched firepower is critical to support the EMW concept and STOM. Ground-based, indirect firepower is irreplaceable when forces are joined Firepower Thrust Overall Findings and Recommendations Although many of the individual projects under way in the Firepower thrust seem to be pursuing worthwhile objectives, the relationship between these projects and Marine Corps warfighting concepts such as EMW and STOM was unclear. Given the importance of NSFS and ground-based indirect fire, the committee finds it strange that no Firepower thrust projects support weapons to fulfill this need (for example, projects on improved propellants, guidance systems, or munitions with increased range and/or . . preclslon . A number of the projects seemed to be adding incremental upgrades to already-existing capabilities, with near-term transition targets, as opposed to pursuing long-range science and technology that could bring transformational improvements. The time scale and transition goals of some projects seemed more characteristic of an FNC project than a D&I project. Many of the projects described were adjuncts to Army efforts, and the MCS&T projects seemed to be riding the coattails of other sponsors. Many of the systems needed by the Marine Corps are similar to those needed by the Army, and funding levels dictate that the Army will be the principal driver. Recommendation. Code 353 should immediately transition near-term projects in the Firepower thrust to an appropriate FNC. Recommendation. Code 353 should establish leveraging opportunities to support broad ONR and/or DARPA initiatives in the area of naval surface firepower support. - ~ - -or - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -or - - - c:, - 2BrigGen Frank A. Panter, USMC, Commanding General, Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory. 2003. Marine Corps Warfighting Laboratory Experimentation Campaign Plan: 2003. Marine Corns Combat Develonment Command. Ouantico. Va., January 31, p. II-1. Available online at . Accessed on August 20, 2003. 3Gen James L. Jones, USMC, Commandant of the Marine Corps. 2001. Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare, Department of the Navy, November 10. 4Special Projects Directorate, U.S. Marine Corps Headquarters. 2003. "The Marine Corps General," Vol. 15, April 14. ~ ~ ~ 7 ~ 7

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56 MlA1 Firepower Enhancement 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM 6.2 Firepower Results from Operation Iraqi Freedom were predominantly favorable for those firepower enhance- ment systems already fielded. For example, an operator in actual combat conditions commented as follows: "Position location capability and the ability to range a target and get a ten-digit grid were . . . very useful. It proved valuable in fire missions and situational awareness." One criticism of the existing firepower enhancement system was that it took 4 minutes for the Far Target Locator to align.5 Code 353 is pursuing two projects to further improve the MlA1 fire control components: (1) electronic image stabilization via improved image signal processing for second-generation thermal imaging systems and (2) an improved high-performance, uncooled, forward-looking infrared (FLIR) sensor to increase the acquisition range and overmatch capability for Marine Corps combat vehicles under all battlefield conditions. As part of MlA1 firepower enhancement, the Firepower thrust has made a limited investment (Code 353 input is anoroximatelv 1 percent of the total Program dollars) in a much larger Program at DRS Technologies, Inc., for application of the second-generation thermal imaging target information system. The Gen II MlA1 FLIR system is used in the gunner's primary sight. The focal plane array consists of a cooled (77 K) HgC6Te sensor. Of special interest to the Marine Corps are improvements in options for increased targeting range and field of view, as well as automated image enhancement and rugged packaging. This thermal imaging system is designed to be retrofitted on the MlAl. The funding will run through FY04. 1 1 ~ 1 1 "7 ~ "7 1 "7 Electronic Image Stabilization (6.2~. The objectives of the electronic image stabilization project are to improve the second-generation thermal imaging systems on Marine Corns combat vehicles through system image stabilization, scene-based nonuniformity correction, and moving target indication capa- bility. Accomplishments to date were said to include interpolation algorithms for improved electronic zoom and software algorithms to enhance broad area contrast. ~ ~ , . . ,% . . . . . . . Recommendation. Code 353 should reexamine the rate of progress of the electronic image stabili- zation project. High-Performance, Low-Cost, Uncooled Forward-Looking Infrared (FLIR) Project (6.24. The objec- tive of this project is to introduce a high-performance, low-cost, uncooled FLIR into the Gen II MlA1 FLIR, presumably in place of the current Gen II HgCUTe focal plane array, which must be cooled to 77 K. If performance is adequate, there are significant advantages in acquisition cost, logistics, and conve- nience to be achieved. Findings. Limited information was presented on expected performance improvements or retrofit- ting for the second-generation thermal imaging system, making it difficult to assess the impact of the MCS&T investment in this very large scale, long-term effort. Nonetheless, unique Marine Corps needs for operating in adverse conditions and for retrofitting of the MlA1 make it worthwhile for the Marine 5Marine Corps Combat Development Command. 2003. Field Report Marine Corps Systems Command Liaison Team, Central Iraq (April 20-25, 2003J, Quantico, Va., May.

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CORE THRUSTS 57 Corps to invest in the development of the latest thermal imaging systems. Given the important role of thermal imaging systems, it is important for Code 353 to be cognizant of the latest developments and their impact on Marine Corps weapons systems as well as to maintain the expertise to monitor ongoing programs throughout the joint Services. If this project is the only one currently addressing the potential insertion of an uncooled focal plane array into the second-generation FLIR, then it could be truly significant. No transition plans were discussed, although this appears to be yet another Core Thrust effort with strong emphasis on transition goals. Recommendation. Code 353 should reexamine the high-performance, low-cost, uncooled FLIR project to ensure that it does not duplicate other Service efforts to develop and apply uncooled focal plane arrays. Non-Lethal Weapons The 2000 assessment of ONR's MCS&T program noted that although the Marine Corps had been designated as the lead Service for non-lethal weapons in the Department of Defense, there were never- theless no Marine Corps projects supporting work in this area.6 The committee is pleased that Code 353 is now investigating non-lethal weapons. Code 353's work in non-lethal weapons supports mission needs statement (MNS) 1-85, Operational Capability in Military Operations Other Than War. MNS 1-85 expresses the need for a capability to incapacitate human threats in a less-than-lethal manner, through the use of electromuscular disrupters. The MNS requires a system that is effective at up to 100 meters and non-lethal from the muzzle of the system to maximum range in effect a point and/or area crowd control capability. The system should be compatible with the modular M-16 rifle to give the small unit/individual rifleman a complementary non- lethal capability. The overall objective is to increase the decision space before using lethal means to change the behavior of hostile groups. A non-lethal weapon that injects electrical energy into a human at high voltage, high frequency, low current, and with very short pulses is generally known as a stun gun. There are approximately a dozen manufacturers of such weapons and each uses slightly different pulse parameters. The stun gun inca- pacitates an individual by stimulating nerve cells proximate to the discharge region and temporarily overriding normal motor control signals, causing uncontrollable muscular contractions. Complete re- covery occurs within about 15 minutes after the stun gun is turned off. Off-the-shelf stun guns are widely used in law enforcement because of their great effectiveness. Their safety has received a moderate amount of attention in safety documentation by manufacturers, but little or no data are found in the peer-reviewed literature, and the basic mechanisms are not well studied. The effectiveness of these systems is severely limited in military operations by the fact that they can be used only at arm's length. A somewhat greater standoff distance is afforded by newer stun gun muni- tions, which can be projected as darts (two per round with trailing wires) and which have an effective range of 12 to 15 meters, or air lasers with a range of about 20 meters, although 90 to 100 meters would be more useful for military applications. A more novel concept is a proposed cylindrical dart mine, which, when triggered, would spew darts in all directions for area denial. Its effectiveness remains to be established. 6Naval Studies Board, National Research Council. 2000. 2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research's Marine Corps Science and Technology Program, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

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58 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Code 353, in collaboration with the Marine Corps Systems Command, has selected three projects- two with fairly conventional, low-risk approaches and one that, should the concept be viable, would be a leap ahead in neuromuscular disruption (NMD) capability. The work was designed to be done in four phases. At the time of this review, it was in Phase 2 and was scheduled to transition to the Marine Corps Systems Command upon the completion of Phase 2. The MCS&T program's non-lethal weapons efforts are coordinated with the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate and with ONR Code 341, the Medical Science and Technology Division. In view of the relatively limited valid medical data on the effects of stun guns, collaboration with ONR's Medical Science and Technology Division becomes very important. Neuromuscular Disrupter System for the M203 Launcher (6.2~. Phase 1 of this project focused on the development of a miniaturized neuromuscular disruption system projected by the M203 launcher and ultimately capable of engaging multiple targets simultaneously. One approach included dispersing and energizing chaff, determining the suitability of various chaff materials, and investigating size, sub- stance, and energy output. In addition, the effects of various surfaces, footwear, and clothing were analyzed to guide the design effort. Another approach investigated chaff-like strands. The strands deliver a regulated pulsating shock. The investigation assessed whether a charge could be delivered throughout the target set without achieving lethal levels in one or more of the targets, whether the charge might simply arc to the ground, and targeting mechanisms. The work in Phase 2 focused on high-voltage generation, the optimization of preliminary circuitry, and multiple-target effectiveness. The feasibility of using a diagnostic sensor to provide an externally visible system check on the munition is also being explored. Smart Dart System (6.24. This system is a pneumatically launched, nontethered dart that can engage targets from 0 to 100 meters away with accuracy and variable velocity. The electrode is designed to attach itself to the target and deliver a non-lethal but incapacitating electrical shock upon impact. The neuromuscular disruption technology that is employed in this concept is relatively mature and proven. However, a need exists to miniaturize the equipment and optimize it for this specific intended use. In addition this NMD dart will provide an optional capability namely, to have its output energy con- trolled by an operator in real time. Development of Long-Range TASER (6.2~. Phase 1 of this project involved waveform development and testing. Waveforms were designed to test the key variables in neuromuscular disruption of mamma- lian subjects. The commercially available M26 TASER was used to establish a baseline. Various waveforms were subsequently applied to determine waveforms that would cause neuromuscular disrup- tion more efficiently. Phase 2 involves development of a proof of concept focusing on electronic circuit design, ballistic design testing, electrode design, and impact management. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue its non-lethal weapons projects neuromuscular dis- ruption system, smart dart system, and long-range TASER through completion of Phase 2 develop- ment. Recommendation. After the non-lethal weapons projects have been transferred to the Marine Corps Systems Command, as scheduled, Code 353 should undertake new efforts in non-lethal weapons tech- nology. A recently published study by the Committee for an Assessment of Non-Lethal Weapons

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CORE THRUSTS 59 Science and Technology (of the Naval Studies Board) contains extensive recommendations for research in the area of non-lethal weapons S&T.7 The current committee sees no need to restate these recommen- dations. However, it does recommend, in the strongest terms, that Code 353 review those recommenda- tions and structure a robust program based on them. Infantry Reconnaissance Round (6.2) The objective of the infantry reconnaissance round project is to give small units of Marine Corps infantry a responsive aerial reconnaissance capability by integrating a high-resolution miniature camera with an M853A1 81-mm mortar round. The project is developing a round (e.g., a modified M853A1 81- mm mortar cartridge) that has a charge-coupled device camera and data link transmitter to be used to sense and transmit an image of the battlefield. For night operation, it can be coordinated with an illuminator round. Findings and Recommendations. The committee believes that the infantry reconnaissance round project can provide useful images, probably enabling a properly equipped receiver to view the battlefield, detect enemy presence, and ascertain battle damage. That it will be controllable by a small unit, compatible with available equipment, and able to quickly provide an image will probably make it a useful device. However, as described, the concept for determining location, if needed, was sketchy, and no error analysis was provided. The potential for its transition to the LC-FNC or the Expeditionary Fire Support System was mentioned, although no time frame was indicated. Recommendation. Code 353 should ensure that the infantry reconnaissance round project's devel- opment goals support Marine Corps warfighting strategy and needs. If they do, Code 353 should continue the project as planned. Recommendation. Code 353 should ensure that the design of the infantry reconnaissance round is compatible with readily available signal receivers and display hardware. 6.3 Firepower Objective Crew Served Weapon The objective crew served weapon (OCSW) is the weapon subsystem portion of the Army's Land Warrior System. Considered the next-generation, crew served weapon system, it was planned and is managed by the Joint Small Arms Program Office. The OCSW is a 25-mm gun with laser range finder and day/night sight for full-solution fire control and is envisioned to replace select 44-mm MK19 automatic grenade launcher machine guns, .50-caliber M2 heavy machine guns, and medium machine guns. It is an Army S&T Objective program and a Defense Technology Objective program, as well as an ATD program organized principally by the Army, with General Dynamics as the prime developer. Findings and Recommendations. It was not clear from the presentation what the role of Code 353 and the Marine Corps is in this well-funded and mature Army program. The review materials claimed 7National Research Council. 2003. An Assessment of Non-Lethal Weapons Science and Technology, National Academies Press, Washington, D.C.

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72 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM It appears that Code 353 has discontinued its training program in MOUT even though training specific to MOUT continues to increase in importance. Cooperation and coordination with the other Services should allow the Marine Corps to reap substantial rewards with small investments. At the very least, the Marine Corps could consider becoming a testbed for the evaluation of Army-developed MOUT training technologies and could strive to influence work done in support of Special Operations forces in other Services. Recommendation. Code 353 should keep abreast of ONR and other Service investments in training and education in order to be able to influence them. In addition, programs in intelligent tutoring systems by ONR and the Army (especially the FY04 Science and Technology Objective in this area managed by the Army Research Institute) could offer significant benefits to the Marine Corps if appropriate personnel from Code 353 were placed on the relevant integrated product teams. Recommendation. On a very basic level, the Marine Corps should monitor the reorganization of all Navy education and training and the deployment of asynchronous distributed learning capabilities by both the Army and the Navy. The Marine Corps will probably have to develop some content that is specific to its doctrine and training needs, but the payoff from appropriate leveraging could be very large. Recommendation. Code 353 is strongly urged to leverage and influence research on human perfor- mance assessment, both within Code 353's current portfolio and in relation to all Marine Corps training and education. Research on human performance assessment should be an integral part of all human performance, training, and education research sponsored by Code 353, could be accomplished with relatively small investments, and would certainly yield large dividends in terms of the feedback pro- vided to current and future programs. Recommendation. Code 353 is encouraged to become familiar with the Commandant of the Marine Corps's Special Projects Directorate programs in training and education. Code 353 should also solicit the active participation of senior Marine Corps leadership in the S&T development process for training and education to ensure that innovative ideas and systems can be rapidly readied for testing by opera- tional forces. Projects Reviewed The projects in the Human Performance, Training, and Education thrust fall into four categories: Tactical decision-making technology and simulations, Training instrumentation and situational awareness, Synthetic environments, and Augmented cognition. Tactical Decision-Making Technology (6.2) and the USMC Family of Tactical Decision Simulations (6.3) The projects in the first category constitute the USMC family of tactical decision simulations (TDSs) and are being supported to develop and demonstrate technology for a series of low-cost personal computer (PC) games that provide realistic scenario-based training in decision making for individual marines, small units, and MAGTF staffs. They are intended to enhance formal instruction; to support

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CORE THRUSTS 73 multiechelon, multiplayer, network-compatible TDS with robust after-action review; and to provide multiscenario, high-repetition cognitive skills training for all MAGTF elements. The current objectives include the following: Develop and demonstrate a low-cost squad-to-platoon-level TDS by leveraging the Close Com- bat III commercial PC game. Develop and demonstrate a PC-based, low-cost, multiplayer company-to-battalion level TDS. Develop and demonstrate a low-cost, PC-based, multiplayer battalion-level and brigade-service support group TDS. Develop and demonstrate a low-cost, PC-based, multiplayer TDS that will support the interac- ~ , , ~ ~ ~ tons required tor mult~agency coordination and training related to the missions ot the 4th Marine Expeditionary Brigade/Anti-Terrorism (4th MEB AT). Develop and demonstrate a low-cost, PC-based, multiplayer battalion-level Combat Engineering TDS that will reflect Marine Corps Combat Engineering doctrine through tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) related to mobility, countermobility, field fortifications, and engineer support func- tions. Findings and Recommendations. The tactical decision-making technology and tactical decision simu- lations project has significant potential to impact the availability and relevance of Marine Corps training in tactical decision making. There is no evidence that the project is leveraging similar activities spon- sored by the Army at the Naval Postgraduate School, the Institute for Creative Technologies, and the University of Southern California. Although the briefings to the committee stated that evaluations were ongoing, no data were presented. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue the work on tactical decision-making technology and the USMC family of tactical decision simulations while monitoring the many similar efforts by the Army at the Naval Postgraduate School and the Institute for Creative Technologies and should consider seeking synergistic interactions to meet Marine Corps needs. Recommendation. Code 353 is urged to fund a third party (such as a university, the Army Research Laboratory, or the Naval Air Systems Command) to conduct objective evaluations of the tactical decision simulation systems being developed. Training Instrumentation and Situational Awareness Technology (6.2) The goal of the training instrumentation and situational awareness project is to develop technologies for the generation, communication, and display of position location information (PLI) in a live-fire training environment. The PLI includes information not only on geographic position but also on orien- tation (azimuth and elevation) for select weapons. Display and reporting technologies will also be developed that allow recording, displaying, and reporting the information from each training exercise, which in turn enables training commanders to replay and revisit training exercises and increase training effectiveness. Findings and Recommendations. This work can be valuable for training and safety at live-fire ranges and will be essential for the planned integration of the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center with the Army's National Training Center. However, the committee is concerned about the value of the data

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74 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM collected for after-action reviews. If the data are simply presented to the trainee without benefit of interpretation and comparison to baseline expectations, it may be of little value for after-action review purposes. The committee noted that this project, originally scheduled to start in FY02, has been delayed until FY04; the committee expressed concern that this delay might signal a low priority for this effort. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue the training instrumentation and situational awareness project, taking special note of the planned integration of the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center and the Army's National Training Center. This project offers an excellent opportunity for the Marine Corps to modernize its data collection and analysis technologies for use in live-fire exercises. Recommendation. Code 353 should fund the development of intelligent agent technology to access, digest, and organize data from the network of intelligent sensor nodes funded by this project. This postevent analysis stage should enhance the value of data collected for after-action reviews. lo, , lo, Synthetic Environment Technology (6.2) and Synthetic Environments (6.3) The purpose of the work on synthetic environment technology and synthetic environments is to develop technology for rapid and automated three-dimensional scene generation for capturing and converting real-world terrain and cultural features into three-dimensional images suitable for real-time training on urban settings. Desired capabilities include near-real-time scene generation. a common ~ - - -- - -A - --r -- - --- -- - - --- - - -- -- _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____ _ _ _ __ _ . . . ~ . . . ~ . . . ~ . . . .. . . ~ .. .. . ~ Database format, real-time video integration, and trainee immersion to allow interaction with synthetic opposing forces. Rapid terrain generation from contemporary data sources is essential for the creation and adaptation of useful synthetic environments. Findings and Recommendations. It was not clear to the committee whether the contractor was develop- ing all of the elements needed in this project or was making use of some COTS products and/or the products of other research groups inside or outside the military. The development of a common database format is important but should not be done in isolation from similar activities in other Service programs and in 1nclustry. l he project on 1ncloor position location 1ntormatlon IS necessary to support trammg tor MOUT. The integration of live and virtual environments could lead to large savings in training develop- ment costs and to low-cost improvements in fidelity. The briefings delivered to the committee stated that evaluations were ongoing, although no evalua- tions or evaluation criteria were presented. AnnarentlY it is the developers that are conducting the evaluations. The briefings did not provide any insight into the degree to which the synthetic environ- ment technology would support the imposition of stressors on the trainees to more realistically simulate the combat environment. rid - -rr --- -----a -r - Recommendation. Code 353 should continue the synthetic environment technology and synthetic environments projects, but with a clear understanding and leveraging of what is under development by other Services, industry, and academia. Recommendation. Code 353 should ensure that training tools for mission rehearsal take account of human factors. Recommendation. Code 353 should fund a third party (such as a university, the Army Research Laboratory, or the Naval Air Systems Command) to conduct objective evaluations of the systems being developed under the synthetic environment technology and synthetic environments projects.

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CORE THRUSTS 75 Recommendation. Code 353 should augment the synthetic environment technology and synthetic environments projects so that they can introduce combat-related stressors to high-fidelity visual scenes. Augmented Cognition (6.2) Code 353 has recently begun supporting DARPA's augmented cognition project. The purpose of this effort is to develop and demonstrate novel brain/machine symbiosis that would augment human cognition and performance. The goal is to enable asymmetric thinking, intuitive decision making, rapid pattern recognition, and dominant intellectual maneuver in volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous warfare environments. Findings and Recommendation. To date the augmented cognition project has been funded mostly by DARPA and has produced impressive results in cognitive monitoring and performance enhancement. It was not clear to the committee how the next phase of this project will connect to the other 6.1, 6.2, and 6.3 investments being made by Code 353. In Phase 2 the augmented cognition project will address ways to manipulate the cognitive states of individuals. This effort could have profound implications for training, but how will it inform current and future Code 353 R&D? The briefing indicated that ONR will "focus on defining requirements and assessing the most successful components" of the project. ONR is committing $5.8 million to the project through FY08. ~7 ~7 1 J Recommendation. Code 353 should develop a clear understanding of how the augmented cognition A, A, project could contribute to current and future R&D on training and education. The ONR investment should ensure that products of the augmented cognition project fill specific Marine Corps needs and can be transitioned both to the MCS&T program and to appropriate FNCs. In addition, some 6.1 investments could complement the larger investment in the augmented cognition project by focusing on neuropsy- chology. COMMAND, CONTROL, COMMUNICATIONS, COMPUTERS, INTELLIGENCE, SURVEILLANCE, AND RECONNAISSANCE (C4ISR) THRUST Tactical expeditionary warfare places heavy demands on a commander' s ability to provide effective command and control of assigned forces operating according to the advanced tactical warfare doctrines of STOM and OMFTS. One reason for this is that the commander's forces may be dispersed over an area extending several hundred miles in width and depth and encompassing different types of terrain and sea conditions. Integral to effective expeditionary warfare are capabilities associated with a comprehen- sive and timely knowledge of the battle region, the status and location of friendly forces, and the status, location, and intent of enemy forces. Technology associated with the development of new capabilities to support C4ISR is of paramount importance to realizing the goals of tactical expeditionary warfare. C4ISR Thrust Overall Findings and Recommendation ONR's MCS&T C4ISR thrust has directed its limited 6.2 and 6.3 resources to (1) projects con- cerned primarily with new communications technology and (2) projects more or less unique to Marine Corps needs. The committee finds that while this strategy is certainly the preferred approach, at the same time it means that ONR program managers must interface with the other Services and DARPA research efforts in C4ISR to ensure that Marine Corps technology needs are being addressed.

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76 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Recommendation. Code 353 should continue to invest its research resources in C4ISR areas that are tightly coupled to the Marine Corps operational concepts of Ship-to-Objective Maneuver and Opera- tional Maneuver From the Sea. Especially in the domain of C4ISR, a small investment in a critical area, coupled with other Service and Department of Defense investments, could produce significant results for the Marine Corps. The projects reviewed are grouped into the following three functional categories and are discussed below in the order shown: Communications Conformal antennas Mobile network management Wearable antenna Joint Tactical Radio System Ultrawideband radio assessment Command and Control Magnetic random access memory Marine Corps C3 S&T testbed ISR Mobile direction finding Conformal Antennas (6.2) Communications The conformal antenna research project is intended to provide broadband antennas (30 to 512 MHz) for application to armored vehicles, such as the MlA1 tank and the AAAV, in a conformal configuration that lacks a distinctive visual signature. Two approaches are being pursued. The first is the use of artificial magnetic conductors as an inductive backplane to produce relatively flat broadband UHF and VHF performance across the band in a multiarmed spiral antenna. This effort also includes development of a VHF slot antenna. The second approach uses low-temperature cofired ceramics as a textured impedance-matching receiver to allow a spiral planar conformal antenna to have tunable performance over both UHF and VHF bands. Considerable broadband capability exists in the class of antennas known as frequency independent, and the parameters of planar equiangular spiral antennas are well understood. Broadband antennas are used primarily in practical applications, one of which is point-to-point communications in the VHF-UHF range. The total arm length of a finite equiangular spiral antenna determines the lowest frequency of operation. Whether the antenna consists of two metallic arms in free space or a spiraling slot on a large conducting plane, the radiation patterns are bidirectional, single- lobed, and broadside, assuming a balanced feed structure. Polarization varies from linear through elliptical polarization to circular as frequency increases or the on-axis direction of the beam is ap- proached. When cavity backing is included in the design, the configuration becomes unidirectional. The artificial magnetic conductor back-plane in development is presumably intended to serve this same purpose and to enable mounting the antenna on a vehicle surface.

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CORE THRUSTS 77 Findings and Recommendations. The antenna is planned to consist of a flat panel mounted to the surface of a ground vehicle such as a tank and for this reason is referred to as conformal. Since this project represents an initial study to develop feasible conformal antennas, the proposed antenna location on the vehicle and the degree to which the antenna surface may depart from a plane were not discussed. Full-scale radiation pattern measurements of the tank-mounted configuration should be provided, to- gether with such additional data as beam width, gain, radar cross section, polarization, voltage standing wave radio as a function of frequency, and so on. The committee also found that although one of the objectives was to provide flexible, reasonable- cost, low-observable apertures for ground vehicles, there was no mention of any effort to study cost trade-offs among the back-plane materials and/or antenna designs that are being considered. ~ or ~ ~ ~., ~ , ~ ,. ~ r , ,~ ~ ~ , r ~ ~~ ~ , ~~ Attordab~l~ty has proven to be a critical factor In the development ot broadband antennas, especially when the intention is to create a conformal configuration on the surfaces of vehicles where multiple antenna faces are required to achieve acceptable multidirectional capabilities. The suggested configuration (i.e., conformal planar spiral antenna) is promising as a military com- munications antenna with low observable characteristics. Recommendation. Code 353 should obtain, at the earliest possible time, the measured properties of a single conformal antenna configuration mounted on a tank surface and determine the properties of arrays of such configurations. The project should explore the trade-offs inherent in selecting a set of locations and the number of elements in a suitable array. Recommendation. Code 353 should conduct an antenna affordability analysis to accompany the selection of antenna materials and should specifically address how cost will be traded off against performance objectives. Mobile Network Management (6.2) Commercial wireless networks using cell phones are growing in popularity all over the world. Technology for such networks is ubiquitous, has been well developed, and is still being developed. International protocols vary, and it is hoped that only a very few, possibly only two, will become standard the world over. These commercial networks have used fixed nodes (base stations) that relay messages between any two participating customers. Commercial fixed, dedicated base stations make routing tables possible and permit seamless connections between any two users. On a fluid battlefront, however, such fixed base stations do not exist, and the objective is to enable seamless routing through mobile backbone nodes with the Joint Tactical Radio System and legacy radio networks, with nodes that can communicate seamlessly through ad hoc multihop networks. The preferred solution is to make every user a potential node for other users. Code 353 is currently negotiating a contract with an industry performer that would build on previous ad hoc networking concepts developed through DARPA. Be- cause this project promises a software solution to enable automated control over dynamic network formation and maintenance, and seamless routing among subnetworks, it offers the potential for signifi- cant increases in network scalability and robustness. Recently, ad hoc networks have begun the transi- tion from military research to commercial applications, and commercial systems are expected to be available soon. Findings and Recommendations. The mobile network management project will be a new start on a vital capability. A Broad Area Announcement is expected by the end of FY03.

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78 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Recommendation. Code 353 should continue with its plan to start work on the management of mobile networks, but should incorporate into the criteria for project selection the wireless networking results of the recent experiment on extending the littoral battlefield. Recommendation. Code 353 should seek to leverage Army S&T efforts in the area of mobile networks.23 Recommendation. Code 353 should consider the impact on mobile networks of the increased battery power required when users double as distributed network nodes. Wearable Antenna (6.2) The wearable antenna project, intended to develop a wideband antenna wearable by ground forces to reduce exposure of radio personnel to potential threats, was concluded in early FY03 and transferred to the U.S. Army's Communications Electronics Command. Findings and Recommendation. The current wearable antenna configuration approximates a Faraday cage, so there is expected to be zero electromagnetic field strength where the wearer is. However, that claim cannot be made for the wearable antenna configuration that was presented. The committee was informed that the field inside the vest had been measured and was "quite small." The briefing materials stated that user safety had been documented at Brooks Air Force Base, but the committee expressed concern that wearer safety cannot be assured without longitudinal studies of the wearable antenna's effects on vital human internal systems and processes. Recommendation. If the Marine Corps is still interested in a wearable antenna system above and beyond the work transitioned to the Army, Code 353 should carefully monitor the Army's efforts in this area. If wearable antenna projects are to be pursued, Code 353 should investigate alternative antenna configurations that reduce or eliminate potential human safety issues. Joint Tactical Radio System (6.2 and 6.3) The Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS) is a joint Service effort to develop a software program- mable radio that will accommodate most existing tactical waveforms. The ONR JTRS research effort has focused largely on supporting Marine Corps participation in integrated product teams (IPTs) for JTRS waveform standards, development of a system-level architecture for a Marine Corps JTRS-based mobile radio network, and communications models to evaluate alternative architecture approaches. The effort began in FY01 and is planned to transition to Marine Corps development programs in FY04. Findings and Recommendations. The development of an interoperable tactical communications wide- band network based on the JTRS architecture should receive the highest priority in the MCS&T research program. The committee considers continued involvement in the JTRS effort to be critical to the development of future tactical communications systems. The presentations indicated that Marine Corps- 23For example, the Communication and Networking Collaborative Technology Alliance program established by the Army Research Laboratory, U.S. Army Material Command, Adelphi, Md., May 2001.

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CORE THRUSTS 79 based JTRS network architectures, network protocols, and network architecture development models were under way and would be concluding in early FY04. Recommendation. Code 353 should examine alternative Marine Corps tactical architectures em- ploying the JTRS standards and protocols that are emerging from the Army' s Cluster I effort. Recommendation. Code 353 should continue Marine Corps participation in the joint Service efforts to establish JTRS standards. Recommendation. Code 353 should use the results of the architectural studies funded by this project to guide the Marine Corps position on JTRS standards. Ultrawideband Radio Assessment (6.3) The ultrawideband (UWB) radio assessment is an advanced development activity for demonstrating the use of UWB radios in communicating limited distances in urban environments and in selected command center applications. UWB radios operate by emitting very short pulses that have extremely large bandwidths. Such radios may have fractional bandwidths of over 50 percent. A dual-use contract funded by Code 353 from FY 99 to FY01 produced several UWB radios, some of which operate at a center frequency of 50 kHz and others of which operate at a center frequency of 2 GHz. The potential benefits of UWB radios are that they offer some degree of low probability of intercept and low probabil- ity of detection, and they may be useful in MOUT for communicating through building walls, and they may have low power requirements and low cost. This project aims to verify the manufacturer' s technical specifications and determine the military uses of UWB radios. UWB radios require very precise timing synchronization (on the order of nanoseconds for microwave pulses) between stations, which places limits on how far apart the stations can be located. Findings and Recommendations. UWB radio technology offers several significant advantages in tacti- cal communications. While no specific information on the performance of these radios was available, clearly much more effort is needed to quantify how well these radios perform. The committee endorses Code 353's plan to perform such tests in FY03 and FY04. One critical test should be a controlled experiment to determine the technical feasibility of establishing UWB radio links and networks (at the bit error rate level) in various tactical environments (with structures, vegetation, trees, and so forth) to quantitatively measure and demonstrate communications performance. Military utility should be demonstrated first through the use of UWB radio system and propagation models and then in selected field experiments involving military operations in urban terrain and other settings, including background signal environments. Consideration should also be given to an analysis of mobile applications of UWB radios. The committee believes that Doppler effects could have a significant impact on precise timing synchronization in such a mobile network. Recommendation. Code 353 should proceed with the ultrawideband radio assessment through completion, as planned. Recommendation. Code 353 should ensure that the ultrawideband radio assessment tests examine the influence of multipath and background signal environments on radio performance.

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80 Magnetic Random Access Memory (6.2) 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Command and Control The extreme environments of Marine Corps warfighting take a heavy toll on electronic equipment. One especially sensitive component has been magnetic hard-drive data-storage devices. These devices have proven difficult to ruggedize to enable their routine use by individual marines in the field. While durable solid-state memory elements, such as memory sticks, are available, they employ a serial data- storage format (all data stored after a file was stored must be reread to reach and read a given file). As an alternative high-density storage media, ONR and other federal funding agencies are investing in the development of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) chips. In the early 1990s, basic research on multilayer magnetic films led to the discovery that the orientation of magnetic layers in a multilayer stack could be used to store bits of data. Bit densities of up to 400 Gbits/cm2 have been projected. Findings and Recommendations. The 3-year magnetic random access memory project seeks to inte- grate current chip manufacturing techniques to enable volume production of MRAM chips. Leveraging past ONR basic and applied research, it aims to develop and field a set of complete 80-kb MRAM data storage chips. The results of the project are being measured appropriately against existing solid-state devices and ruggedized hard drives to assess issues of potential durability and data density as well as ease and cost of manufacture. This project could impact the Marine Corps and other Service compo- nents. Recommendation. Code 353 should proceed with the magnetic random access memory project through completion, as planned. Recommendation. After concluding the magnetic random access memory research effort, Code 353 should closely examine the project and address how data-storage density, device durability, power needs, and the influence of stray radiation affect the devices. Recommendation. Owing to the rapid progress in the area of magnetic data storage and in new competing technologies, Code 353 should closely monitor other federal and industrial research pro- grams in this field and should seek out potential leveraging opportunities. Marine Corps C3 S&T Testbed (6.3) The Marine Corps C3 S&T testbed was described as a physical facility for testing and evaluating software designed for Marine Corps C2 systems. The testbed is located at the Marine Corps Tactical Systems Support Activity, Camp Pendleton, California, the site of the System Integration Environment where the Marine Corps Systems Command evaluates software for insertion into acquisition programs. The testbed was described as being able to replicate equipment and software associated with Marine Corps regimental-level C2 systems. No specific descriptions of the architecture, the supporting soft- ware, or the hardware for the testbed were given during the review. Findings and Recommendations. A stand-alone Marine Corps C3 software advanced developmental testbed could greatly reduce the technical risk in emerging tactical demonstrations and acquisition programs. The committee endorses the need for a testbed as a means of investigating and validating new

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CORE THRUSTS 8 software concepts and implementation approaches and providing a proof-of-concept capability for demonstrating military utility prior to insertion in an acquisition program. Such an investment is entirely appropriate in light of Marine Corps requirements and developmental objectives for state-of-the-art C3 capabilities and should have a significant impact on achieving these objectives. The effort exhibits reasonably close integration with similar ongoing Navy and other Marine Corps testbed activities, although the presentations did not specify any results of integration efforts thus far. The fact that the testbed is located adjacent to the Marine Corps system integration environment indicates that there is at least a potential for experimentation using a direct feed from systems that are in developmental testing. Also, interaction is planned with a similar Navy C3 testbed at the SPAWAR Systems Center in San Diego (SSC-SD), which could lead to improved interfaces with Navy supporting software. The review indicated that SSC-SD was one of the supporting performers, and thus interactive testing is entirely possible, although it was not brought up during this review. The documentation and briefing material on the testbed were not adequate for the committee to evaluate the size of the effort and compare it with other testbed activities. Development of the testbed was scheduled to take place over 4 years, but no specific milestones were presented in the briefing material. The final testing phase was presented as starting in FY03 and being completed in late FY04. of O - - 1- Specific tests and test results obtained up to that time were not presented. Technical risk is considered to be moderate at this time, given the lack of specific information on testbed architecture, infrastructure, interoperability among supporting software routines, and measures of effectiveness and performance. Recommendation. Code 353 should proceed with development of the Marine Corps C3 S&T testbed through completion and testing, as planned. Recommendation. Following completion, Code 353 should transition this project to a Future Naval Capability or to the Marine Corps Systems Command as soon as is feasible. Recommendation. Code 353 should establish, at the earliest possible time, a set of specific test objectives for the testbed and a plan to achieve them. Intrinsic to this plan should be a series of interface demonstrations showing the ability of the testbed to take direct feeds from the system integration environment and, accordingly, the advantages of new software approaches and concepts for Marine Corps tactical utility. The plan should also provide qualitative and quantitative measures of performance to demonstrate the testbed's utility and operational effectiveness. Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Mobile Direction Finding (6.2 and 6.3) The goal of the recently completed/transferred mobile direction finding project was to develop hardware and software for mobile direction-finding operations. The activities included development of software for compression and characterization of signals and hardware for antenna and system timing. In general, the direction of arrival of a radio wave can be deduced by pointing a directional antenna or from the time difference of arrival of the wave at three (or more) points of a base array. For typical systems, the larger the antenna or array, the more accurate the direction finding will be. Errors tend to increase as the signals environment becomes more complex, usually because of external noise or multiple reflections.

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82 2003 ASSESSMENT OF ONR'S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Findings and Recommendations. Code 353 has undertaken to improve the hardware and software necessary for improved direction finding and to develop signal characterization and compression algo- rithms efficient enough to run on a personal computer. It was not clear which antennas or mobile platforms were used in this project, which terrain models were being considered, or what the total system looked like. The Army also has a vital interest in mobile direction finding, but Code 353 indicated that relevant Army work was not being monitored. This project has since been transferred to the LC-FNC as a follow-on effort that is reviewed in Chapter 2, in the section titled "EC 1 Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance for the Amphibi- ous Force," under the radio frequency emitter mapping payload project, where related recommendations are presented.