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Appendix A Biographical Sketches of Committee Members . Ronald L. Atkins (Chair) was director of the Energetic Materials Center (EMC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from 1993 to 1999. His responsibilities included the development of a program plan to address the energetic materials research, development, technology, and evaluation requirements of LLNL and the Department of Energy (DOE); the implementation of joint programs addressing conventional weapons energetic materials needs of the DoD; and leading the High Explosives Working Group. In 1999 Dr. Atkins served on an international panel chartered to review the Swedish Defense Ministry's FOA 2 Division, which conducts the energetic materials research and development program for the Swedish government. From fall 1999 through spring 2000, Dr. Atkins served as a member with a team of scientists and engineers that assisted Lockheed Martin Corporation in its start-up activities as Lockheed Martin, and two British firms took over the contract to operate the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) of the United Kingdom. His role was to examine the energetic materials research and development program at AWE, Aldermaston, and to recommend future programs and structure of the U.K. programs in supporting their nuclear weapons program. Prior to joining LLNL, Dr. Atkins was employed at the Naval Weapons Center at China Lake, California. He was part of the Chemistry Division, Research Department, for many years, as a research chemist (1973-1980), branch head of the Energetic Materials Branch (1980-1985), and head of the Chemistry Division (1985- 1989~. From 1989-1993, Dr. Atkins served as deputy program manager, Standoff Weapons Program Office, Attack Weapons Department, Naval Air Warfare Weapons Division at China Lake, Calif., where he contributed to the management of the Tomahawk Cruise Missile Project and was direct supervisor of the Tomahawk Baseline Improvement Project. Until his transition to the Attack Weapons Department, Dr. Atkins was very active in the American Chemical Society (ACS), and served for 3 years as chair of the Mojave Desert Section. He has also been involved in Sigma Xi and the Research Society of America, for which he served 2 years as chair of his local chapter. Dr. Atkins received a B.S. degree in chemistry from the University of Wyoming in 1966, an M.S. in organic chemistry from the University of Wyoming in 1968, and a Ph.D. with highest honors in organic chemistry from the University of New Hampshire in 1971. David E. Bender is vice president of operations at Aerojet. In this position he is responsible for the company's design, development, manufacture, and testing of advanced energetic subsystems that include divert and attitude control systems (DACS), variable thrust axial propulsion systems, armament systems, and advanced energetics. Before assuming his current position, Mr. Bender was responsible for the company's tactical propulsion and warhead development product sector. Mr. Bender began his career with Aerojet at the Aerojet Ordnance Company in 1982 and was active in explosively formed penetrator (EFP) warhead design and demonstrated finned aerostable EFPs for programs such as Select Armor Defeating Artillery Munitions and Wide Area Side Penetrator Mine as well as Long Rod EFPs for programs such as Tube-Launched, Optically-Tracked, Wire-Guided Weapons System 2B and Advanced Anti-Tank Weapons System-Medium. He has also served in positions at Aerojet responsible for Predator engineering and manufacturing development and the Multipurpose Individual Munition/Short Range Assault Weapon Technology Demonstration programs. Mr. Bender has more than 21 years of experience in warhead and propulsion 40

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APPENDIXES 41 technology as well as program management. He has authored or coauthored more than 15 technical publications and holds a patent for finned EFP formation methods. He has served as co-chair for multiple National Defense Industrial Association Ballistics conferences as well as for the International Symposium on Ballistics. He has received the Neill Griffiths Memorial at the 2001 International Symposium on Ballistics. He holds a bachelor's degree in mechanical engineering from California State University at Long Beach and a master's degree in business management from the Peter Drucker Center at the Claremont Graduate University, and he has completed the Engineering Management Short Course Program at the University of California at Los Angeles. Thomas B. Brill is a professor of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of Delaware. His research is aimed at gaining fundamental insights into chemical processes at extreme conditions. Examples are the pyrolysis processes that occur on the surface of a burning material and the hydrothermolysis processes that occur in water at very high temperature and pressure. His areas of expertise include infrared and Raman spectroscopy, solid-state effects, thermal decomposition, explosions, supercritical water, and combustion. Since receiving a B.S. in chemistry (with honors) from the University of Montana and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Dr. Brill has served on the faculty of the University of Delaware in three departments: chemistry and biochemistry, chemical engineering, and art conservation. He has also been a visiting professor at Zhongshan University, Guangzhou, China (1990), and at the University of Oregon (19771. He is a member of the American Chemical Society, Sigma Xi, the Combustion Institute, the Materials Research Society, and the Society of Applied Spectroscopy. Philip M. Howe is currently program manager of Nuclear Weapons Surety, where he is responsible for managing the surety program at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANLy. This involves design, implementation, and supervision of analyses, studies, and research on use control technologies, weapons safety, and explosives safety. Previously, he led LANL programs on explosives research, core explosives science, and explosives surety. He has also worked in the Advanced Technology Assessment Center group at LANL. Prior to joining LANL in 1990, Dr. Howe was director, Antiarmor Munitions Technology Office, Army Materiel Command (1987-1990) and chief, Explosives Effects Branch, Terminal Ballistics Division, U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory (1975-19871. Dr. Howe holds a B.S. (with distinction) in chemistry from Worcester Polytechnic Institute, an M.A. in physical chemistry from Johns Hopkins University, and a Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Johns Hopkins. Dr. Howe's honors and awards include the following: R&D Achievement Award, Invention Awards 1979, 1980, and 1981; elected Ballistics Research Laboratories fellow (1982~; Secretary of the Army fellowship (1985-1986~; member, Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) Users Group Committee, LANL, (1997-1998~; and member, LANSCE Advisory Committee, LANL, (1999 to the present). He is a member of the Materials Research Society, Sigma Xi, Phi Lambda Upsilon, the editorial board of the Journal of Energetic Materials, and the organizing committee for the Seventh and Eighth Symposium (International) on Detonation. Malcolm F. Nicol is executive director of the High Pressure Sciences and Engineering Center and visiting professor of chemistry and physics at the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. Dr. Nicol holds a B.A. cum laude degree in chemistry from Amherst College and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California, Berkeley. For most of his postdoctoral career, Dr. Nicol was with the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), where he retired as professor of physical chemistry. He served on many high-level committees, including the following: Academic Senate Budget and Planning (chair at UCLA and systemwide), Undergraduate Curricula (chair), Educational Policy

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42 ADVANCED ENERGETIC MATERIALS (chair), and UC President's Council on the (DOE Defense Programs) National Laboratories. He also has been Gastprofessor Experimentalphysik at the Universitat G.H. Paderborn (1979~; associate editor (1980-1990) and senior editor of the Journal of Physical Chemistry (1991-19981; chemist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1985-1989~; and visiting professor at the Materials and Structures Laboratory of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta (1996-19971. Dr. Nicol's research interests include spectroscopy and the structure and bonding of solids and macromolecules under extreme conditions. His projects include the polymerization of CO, HCN, and other compounds; the search for new phases of materials at high temperatures and pressures; and the study of high explosives (RDX, POX, triaminotrinitrobenzene, and hexanitrostilbene) and their decomposition products at high temperature and high pressure to learn how they work and to prevent accidents. Dr. Nicol has authored and coauthored over 150 publications and has given more than 50 invited and 125 contributed presentations at professional meetings. His honors and awards include the following: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation fellow, 1973-1977; Gordon Research Conference, Physics and Chemistry at High Pressures, co-chair, 1982; and the Herbert Newby McCoy Award in 1984. Dr. Nicol is a member of the American Chemical Society, Sigma Xi, and the American Geophysical Union and is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Physical Society. Jimmie C. Oxley has been a professor of chemistry at the University of Rhode Island since 1995. She was an associate professor in the Chemistry Department at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NMIMT) from 1983 to 1995. She was one of the founding investigators in the Research Center for Energetic Materials (RCEM), a center supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), industry, government and military laboratories. Dr. Oxley is also the founder and head of the NMIMT thermal hazards group and developer of the NMIMT Ph.D. program in explosives chemistry. Her primary research interests are the thermal decomposition of energetic materials, ammonium nitrate chemistry, and improvised explosive devices. Her other research interests include the development of better small-scale predictive tests, hazard analysis, explosive detection, and the characterization and prevention of terrorist bombings. Among the materials that Dr. Oxley studies are military explosives, such as nitramines, nitroarenes, and nitrate esters; improvised explosives, such as triacetone triperoxide and hexamethylenetriperoxidediamine; energetic salts, such as ammonium nitrate and perchlorate; and reactive chemicals, such as peroxides, hydrazines, and hydroxylamines. Dr. Oxley is the author of more than 40 papers on the subject of energetic materials and presenter of as many invited lectures. She served as deputy director of the Gordon Research Conferences from 1995 to 1998, and as vice- chair (1994) and chair (1996) of the Energetic Materials Gordon Research Conference. Dr. Oxley cofounded the Conference on Life Cycles of Energetic Materials. She has also organized numerous national symposia for the North American Thermal Analysis Society (NATAS), Eastern Analytical, and American Defense Preparedness Association (ADPA). She was elected a NATAS fellow in 1995. She also organizes special explosives workshops for government and industrial labs. Dr. Oxley is a visiting scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory and a board member of the International Calorimetry Conference, NATAS and ADPA Energetic Materials Technology group. Dr. Oxley received her B.S. degree in 1971 from the University of California, San Diego; M.S. degree in bioinorganic chemistry from California State University, Northridge; and Ph.D. in organometallic chemistry in 1983 from the University of British Columbia. She has served previously on four National Research Council committees, including most recently the Committee on Commercial Aviation Security and the Committee on Review and Evaluation of Alternative Technologies for Demilitarization of Assembled Chemical Weapons-Phase 1.

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APPENDIXES 43 Anita M. Reniund is a senior scientist in the Explosive Projects/Diagnostics Department at Sandia National Laboratories. She holds a B.S. in general chemistry from Stanford University (1974) and a Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Utah (1977~. Dr. Renlund joined Sandia in 1981 and has worked in the Explosive Technologies Group since that time. She is recognized internationally as an expert in the field of energetic materials (EMs), with specific emphasis on initiation and shock-induced chemistry of EMs. This area includes laser initiation of explosives, explosive response to abnormal environments, and the dismantlement of explosive systems. She currently directs research efforts in advanced energetic materials for highly miniaturized explosive components and hazards assessments of explosive ordnance. Albert A. Sciarretta is president of CNS Technologies, Inc., consultants in research and development, modeling and simulation, management, and support of advanced information technologies and systems. CNS's clients include the Defense Modeling and Simulation Office, the office of the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Science and Technology, and the Joint Personnel Recovery Agency. He previously was manager of advanced information technologies at Quantum Research International, Inc. and program area manager of advanced information technologies for the MITRE Corporation. While at MITRE, he managed all of MlTRE's support to DARPA, his division's information systems independent research and development efforts, and some efforts involving Army command, control, communications, computers, and intelligence technologies. He has experience in developing technology plans for modeling and simulation, combating terrorism, personnel recovery, DUSD (S&Ty's Smart Sensor Web initiative, and advanced concept technology demonstrations. Mr. Sciarretta has a B.S. degree in general engineering from the U.S. Military Academy and M.S. degrees in mechanical engineering and in operations research from Stanford University. He has worked on National Research Council studies as a member of the NRC staff. Jean'ne M. Shreeve is a professor of chemistry at the University of Idaho. She has also served as the head of the Chemistry Department (1973-1987) and as vice president for research and graduate studies from (1987-19991. Dr. Shreeve received a B.A. degree in chemistry from the University of Montana, an M.S. degree in analytical chemistry from the University of Minnesota, and a Ph.D. degree in inorganic chemistry from the University of Washington, Seattle. She also received an honorary D.Sc. from the University of Montana in 1982. Her expertise involves the synthesis, characterization, and applications of fluorine- containing compounds. Dr. Shreeve has an extensive background in studies relating to fluoride chemistry and high-temperature fluids. She has published more than 340 technical papers dealing with the chemistry of fluorine and its compounds in refereed journals. Dr. Shreeve's extensive list of honors and awards includes the Garvan Medal, the Harry and Carole Mosher Award, and the Fluorine Award from the American Chemical Society (ACS). She is a fellow and was a board member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (MAS) and a member of the ACS, Royal Society of Chemistry, and American Institute of Chemists. Dr. Sh reeve has been active in the ACS since 1964, including participation at the national level on the board of directors, Budget and Finance Committee, Development Advisory Committee, and Committee on Science; in the AAAS, she has served as chair of the Chemistry Section and on the board of directors and Committee on Nominations. Dr. Shreeve was a committee member for the National Research Council study on Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory High Level Waste Alternate Treatments (1998-1999~. She was recently appointed as chair of the President's Committee for the Medal of Science.

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44 ADVANCED ENERGETIC MA TERIALS Robert B. Wardle is manager of the Propellants, Explosives, and Pyrotechnics Research Department at ATK Thiokol Propulsion. He received B.S. and Ph.D. degrees in chemistry from the California Institute of Technology in 1981 and 1986, respectively. His research programs are on the synthesis and evaluation of new ingredients for application in propellants, explosives, and pyrotechnics and have included chemical process development and optimization for commercial synthesis of new ingredients. Dr. Wardle holds 37 patents in the areas of energetic materials, propellants, gas generants, and explosives and is the author or coauthor of more than 110 technical publications. In 1996, he chaired the American Defense Preparedness Association (ADPA) Energetic Materials meeting, and in 1997 he organized a CL-20 symposium. He has also chaired numerous meeting sessions for ADPA, Joint Army-Navy-NASA-Air Force (JANNAFy, and Fraunhofer Institute of Chemical Technology conferences.