B
Biographical Sketches of Committee and Staff

RONALD W. ESTABROOK, Ph.D., (Chair) is Virginia Lazenby O’Hara Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School. In his 14-year tenure as Chairman of the Biochemistry Department, he built a world-recognized center of biochemical research, in particular, research related to the cytochrome P450s. In addition Dr. Estabrook served as the first Dean of the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at the Dallas campus of the University of Texas. In 1990 Dr. Estabrook was named the occupant of the Cecil and Ida Green Chair in the Biomedical Sciences at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. After undergraduate education at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Dr. Estabrook did his graduate training in biochemistry at the University of Rochester, after which he took a postdoctoral position in biophysics to work with Britton Chance at the University of Pennsylvania. After three years of research on mitochondrial cytochromes, he traveled to England to study at the Molteno Institute, Cambridge University, with David Kielin (the discoverer of cytochromes). Dr. Estabrook subsequently joined the faculty of the School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, where he advanced to the rank of Professor of Physical Biochemistry. It was during this time, in the early 1960s, that Dr. Estabrook, together with Drs. David Cooper and Otto Rosenthal of the Department of Surgery of the University of Pennsylvania, discovered the enzymatic (functional) properties of the hemoprotein, now known as cytochrome P450. Since 1982 Dr. Estabrook has been applying the techniques of molecular biology to the



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NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation B Biographical Sketches of Committee and Staff RONALD W. ESTABROOK, Ph.D., (Chair) is Virginia Lazenby O’Hara Professor of Biochemistry at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School. In his 14-year tenure as Chairman of the Biochemistry Department, he built a world-recognized center of biochemical research, in particular, research related to the cytochrome P450s. In addition Dr. Estabrook served as the first Dean of the Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences at the Dallas campus of the University of Texas. In 1990 Dr. Estabrook was named the occupant of the Cecil and Ida Green Chair in the Biomedical Sciences at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas. After undergraduate education at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Dr. Estabrook did his graduate training in biochemistry at the University of Rochester, after which he took a postdoctoral position in biophysics to work with Britton Chance at the University of Pennsylvania. After three years of research on mitochondrial cytochromes, he traveled to England to study at the Molteno Institute, Cambridge University, with David Kielin (the discoverer of cytochromes). Dr. Estabrook subsequently joined the faculty of the School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, where he advanced to the rank of Professor of Physical Biochemistry. It was during this time, in the early 1960s, that Dr. Estabrook, together with Drs. David Cooper and Otto Rosenthal of the Department of Surgery of the University of Pennsylvania, discovered the enzymatic (functional) properties of the hemoprotein, now known as cytochrome P450. Since 1982 Dr. Estabrook has been applying the techniques of molecular biology to the

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NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation study of the enzymatic properties of different P450s expressed in different types of cells and, with his colleagues in Dallas, potential commercial application of P450 enzymes to major problems of chemical synthesis, drug discovery, and the biomodification of organic systems. Dr. Estabrook has coauthored more than 260 publications, including editing 14 books. He has received many honors, including election to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences in 1975, election to the National Academy of Sciences in 1979, and an honorary Doctor of Medicine degree from the Karolinska Institut in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1981, and a Doctor of Science from the University of Rochester (1981). He has served on numerous national and international advisory committees including the Governing Board of the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences and the Council of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. SUSAN E. COZZENS, Ph.D., is Professor and Chair of the School of Public Policy at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Her current research is on science, technology, and inequalities, and she is active internationally in developing methods for research assessment and science and technology indicators. From 1995 through 1997, Dr. Cozzens was Director of the Office of Policy Support at the National Science Foundation (NSF). The Office coordinated policy and management initiatives for the NSF Director, primarily in peer review, strategic planning, and assessment. Dr. Cozzens has served as a consultant to the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy of the National Research Council, Office of Science and Technology Policy, NSF, Institute of Medicine, Office of Technology Assessment, General Accounting Office, National Cancer Institute, National Institute on Aging, the National Institutes of Health, and the National Institute on Occupational Safety and Health, and on advisory committees for the American Association for the Advancement of Science (Liberal Education and the Sciences, EPSCOR Evaluation), the National Academy of Sciences (NSF Decision-making for Major Awards), and the Office of Technology Assessment (Human Genome Project). She has been an invited speaker on science policy and research evaluation at the Ministry for Research and Technology in France, the Research Council of Norway, the Institute for Policy and Management in Beijing, and the Fundamental Science Foundation of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and is incoming chair of the Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Dr. Cozzens has a distinguished record of publication and service in the fields of science policy and science and technology studies. She is past editor of Science, Technology, & Human Values, the journal of the Society for Social Studies of Science, and has served on councils and committees for several professional societies. She is author of

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NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation Social Control and Multiple Discovery in Science: The Opiate Receptor Case, and coeditor of Theories of Science in Society (with Thomas F. Gieryn); The Research System in Transition (with Peter Healey, Arie Rip, and John Ziman); and Invisible Connections: Instruments, Institutions, and Science (with Robert Bud). Her work has appeared in Issues in Science and Technology, Policy Studies, Journal of Technology Transfer, Evaluation, and Program Planning, Neuroscience, Social Studies of Science, Knowledge: Creation, Diffusion, Utilization, Scientometrics, Science and Public Policy, and Research Policy, and she has contributed chapters to a dozen books. She is coeditor of Research Evaluation. Her Ph.D. is in sociology from Columbia University (1985) and her bachelor’s degree from Michigan State University (1972, summa cum laude). She is a recipient of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute’s Early Career Award, a member of Phi Beta Kappa and Phi Kappa Phi, and a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. IRWIN FELLER, Ph.D., is Senior Visiting Scientist, American Association for the Advancement of Science and Professor Emeritus of Economics, The Pennsylvania State University, where he served on the faculty from 1963-2002 and as Director of the Institute for Policy Research and Evaluation from 1977 to 2002. Dr. Feller’s current research interests include the evaluation of federal and state science and technology programs, the economics of academic research, and the university’s role in technology-based economic development. He is the author of Universities and State Governments: A Study in Policy Analysis and over 100 refereed journal articles, final research reports, and book chapters, as well as of numerous papers presented to academic, professional, and policy audiences. He has been a consultant to the President’s Office of Science and Technology Policy; National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government; Ford Foundation; National Science Foundation (NSF); National Institute of Standards and Technology; U.S. General Accounting Office; U.S. Department of Education; U.S. Department of Energy; and several state governments. He has served on National Academies committees on international benchmarking of U.S. science and manufacturing modernization. He formerly chaired the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. Currently, he is chair of NSF’s Advisory Committee to the Assistant Director for Social, Behavioral, and Economic Sciences, a member of NSF’s Advisory Committee on the Government Performance and Results Act, and a member of the National Research Council’s Transportation Research Board’s Research and Technology Coordinating Committee.

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NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation CHARLES K. FRANCIS, M.D. has served as president of Drew University since 1998. He oversees the University’s $60 million budget, the College of Medicine and the College of Allied Health, an extensive research portfolio and numerous community-based research, education, and training programs. Prior to becoming president at Drew, Dr. Francis was a professor of clinical medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University and chairman of the department of medicine at Harlem Hospital Center in New York City. A native of Newark, New Jersey, he is a graduate of Dartmouth College and received his medical degree from Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. Following an internship at Philadelphia General Hospital, he served as a General Medical Officer in the U.S. Air Force. He received his training in internal medicine and cardiology at Boston City Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Francis has held posts as clinical instructor and fellow in medicine at Tufts University School of Medicine, and clinical research fellow in cardiology and senior medical resident at Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School. Dr. Francis also served as assistant professor of medicine at Drew University, the University of Southern California, and the University of Connecticut School of Medicine, and he served as chief of cardiology at Mount Sinai Hospital in Hartford, Connecticut. Prior to his position at Columbia, he was an associate professor of medicine at Yale University School of Medicine and director of the cardiac catheterization laboratory at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Dr. Francis has contributed to the literature in the areas of coronary artery disease in African Americans, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction, hypertensive heart disease, mitral valve insufficiency, AIDS-associated heart disease, access to medical care, and the advancement of health care of minorities. He has received research support from the National Institutes of Health; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; and the Harlem Urban Health Research Institute. Dr. Francis is board certified in both internal medicine and cardiology and is a fellow with the American College of Cardiology, the Council on Clinical Cardiology, and the American College of Physicians. He is widely published, serves on several medical journal review boards and is a member of numerous medical professional associations. Dr. Francis currently serves on the Board of Governors of the Warren Magnuson Clinical Center at the National Institutes of Health. He has spent more than 20 years as a volunteer for the American Heart Association (AHA), serving as an affiliate president in Connecticut, on the board of directors in New York, as well as on the national board of directors. He currently chairs the Executive Committee of the AHA Council on Clinical Cardiology, serves on the Woman and Minority Leadership Committee, and sits on the Los Angeles AHA Board of Directors. Dr. Francis is a past recipient of the AHA’s Louis B. Russell, Jr., Memorial Award in recognition of his outstanding service to minority and

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NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation underserved populations and of the Association of Black Cardiologists’ Daniel B. Savage Scientific Achievement Award. RONALD G. GELLER, Ph.D., joined Health Research Associates as a Senior Associate in October 2002. He received his Ph.D. in 1969 from the University of Wisconsin for his research on cardiovascular physiology. His postdoctoral research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) focused on urinary kallikrein in animal models and in human subjects and on the pharmacology of peptides of nonmammalian origins, including wasp and hornet venoms. He then held successive positions of ever-increasing responsibilities at NIH. During his 33-year tenure, he participated in virtually every facet of NIH activities. As Chief of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s (NHLBI’s) Hypertension and Kidney Diseases Branch in the 1970s, he managed a research portfolio that included research grants, program projects, centers, contracts, clinical trials, and education research grants. He developed new application and administrative guidelines for the Hypertension Specialized Centers of Research and established collaborative research relationships between centers. As Associate Director for Extramural and Collaborative Programs of the National Eye Institute (NEI) in the 1980s, he promoted the use of cooperative agreements to support multicenter clinical trials and expanded the NEI’s use of Core Center Grants and shared resources. While serving as the Director of the Division of Planning and Evaluation in the Office of the NIH Director, he conducted numerous unique analyses that had an impact on NIH policies. During the 1990s, as the Director of the Division of Extramural Affairs in the NHLBI, Dr. Geller managed a staff of more than 100 scientists and other employees whose responsibilities included (1) initial peer review of grants and contracts; (2) grants, management policies, and procedures; (3) contract management; and (4) advisory committee management. The annual extramural budget for NHLBI during this period was about $1 billion. Dr. Geller’s most recent NIH position, Director, Office of Extramural Programs, in the Office of the NIH Director, focused on the development and monitoring of policies and procedures that have an impact across NIH. He and his staff performed NIH-wide guidance and oversight for (1) peer review policies, (2) publication of the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts, (3) resolution of issues related to human subjects concerns, (4) research misconduct, (5) research training and career development programs, (6) the Small Business Research programs, (7) the Academic Research Enhancement Award program, and (8) overall extramural staff training. DAVID G. KAUFMAN, M.D., Ph.D., is Professor and Vice Chair of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, and Professor of Biochemistry and of Toxicology in the School of Medicine of the University of North Carolina

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NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation at Chapel Hill. Following undergraduate study in physics at Reed College, he studied medicine and then obtained a Ph.D. in experimental pathology at Washington University. He pursued residency training in anatomic pathology at Barnes and Washington University Hospitals and did postdoctoral research training at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). He joined the faculty of the University of North Carolina in 1975. Dr. Kaufman’s research has focused on endometrial cancer. He participated in studies that confirmed that use of postmenopausal estrogens cause endometrial cancer and demonstrated that therapy with estrogens and progestins combined was protective against endometrial and ovarian cancer. He is a leader in studies of human endometrial cells in culture demonstrating conditions in vitro required to reproduce differentiation as seen in vivo including the formation of glands. He has also developed culture conditions to evaluate epithelial-stromal cell interactions involved in the regulation of structure and function in endometrial tissue and demonstrated that multiple paracrine factors are involved in the mutual signaling between these cells that are needed to achieve homeostasis. Dr. Kaufman served as the president of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB) (1999-2000). During his term as president of FASEB he focused on the status of physician scientists in biomedical research and advocated mechanisms to reverse negative trends in physician involvement in research. He is also former president of the American Society for Investigative Pathology, and is a member of the American Association for Cancer Research and the Society of Toxicology. He has served as member and chair of the NIH Chemical Pathology Study Section and was a member of the NCI Cancer Center Support Review Committee. He has also served as member and chair of the American Cancer Society Advisory Committee on Carcinogenesis and Nutrition, and currently sits on their Council for Extramural Grants. He has also served on the Science Advisory Board of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and has been a scientific advisor to the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, the Biology Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the U.S. Department of Energy Low Dose Radiation Research Program. He is presently a member of the Panel on Research of the American Association of Medical Colleges. J. RICHARD LANDIS, Ph.D., was appointed Director of the Division of Biostatistics, and Vice Chair of the Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology within the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in July 1997. He is Director of the Biostatistics Unit, and Associate Director of the Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (CCEB), an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental research unit. Dr. Landis also directs the Clinical Research Computing Unit (CRCU), a designated core research facility formed to support the conduct of multicenter clinical trials, patient-ori-

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NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation ented research projects, and collaborative biostatistical support for clinical research throughout the medical center and the university. He is Professor of Biostatistics within the School of Medicine and holds a secondary appointment as Professor of Statistics in the Wharton School. Dr. Landis earned a B.S. Ed. (1969, magna cum laude) in Mathematics from Millersville University and an M.S. (1973) and a Ph.D. (1975) in Biostatistics from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He was Professor of Biostatistics at the University of Michigan School of Public Health, where he served on the faculty for 13 years (1975-1988). In 1988, Dr. Landis founded the Center for Biostatistics and Epidemiology at the M.S. Hershey Medical Center of the Pennsylvania State University and served as its director for nine years until 1997, when he relocated to the University of Pennsylvania. His honors include Fulbright Senior Scholar (University of Newcastle, Australia, 1981-1982), Fellow of the American Statistical Association, elected member of the International Statistical Institute, recipient of the Mortimer Spiegelman Gold Medal Award (1984), and recipient of an Environmental Protection Agency Scientific and Technical Achievement Award (1987). He recently finished a term as Associate Editor for Biometrics, is a member of the Board of Trustees of the National Institute of Statistical Sciences, and is Chair of the Statistics Section of the American Public Health Association. STEPHEN MCCONNELL, Ph.D., is Vice President, Advocacy and Public Policy at the Alzheimer’s Association. McConnell joined the Association in 1989, and in his career there has led its advocacy and care programs. McConnell is a board member of Citizens for Long-Term Care, a national coalition devoted to raising awareness of the need for a comprehensive solution to long-term care financing. McConnell spent seven years working in the U.S. Congress. From 1984 to 1987, he was staff director of the U.S. Senate Special Committee on Aging under the chairmanship of Senator John Heinz. Earlier, he served as a professional staff member for the U.S. House of Representatives, Select Committee on Aging, under the chairmanship of Representative Claude Pepper. Before moving to Washington, D.C., in 1980, McConnell held a research associate appointment in the Andrus Gerontology Center of the University of Southern California. He has directed major research projects on aging and aging policy, including older worker employment, federal health and housing policy, and the cultural aspects of growing older. McConnell has taught and written on gerontology and social policy. He holds a Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Southern California. RUTH MCCORKLE, Ph.D., FAAN, is Professor and Director of the Center for Excellence in Chronic Illness Care at the Yale University School of Nursing (YSN). An international leader in cancer nursing, education, and

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NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation cancer control research, Dr. McCorkle has done landmark research on the psychosocial ramification of cancer. She was the first research chair of the Oncology Nursing Society and a charter member of that organization as well as of the International Society of Nurses in Cancer Care and has served on the boards of both groups. Dr. McCorkle has been a member of the study sections of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR). As the first nonmedical recipient of an NCI Institutional Research Training Grant, she opened the door for other nonmedical fields to become competitive in securing funding. An extremely well-funded researcher, Dr. McCorkle is the principle investigator of “Nursing’s Impact on Quality of Life and Cost Outcomes in Ovarian Patients,” a grant funded by NINR. She has published extensively and serves on numerous review panels, editorial boards, and professional boards including the American Psychosocial Oncology Society. She was also a member of the National Academy of Sciences Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel. Dr. McCorkle was elected to the American Academy of Nursing in 1979 and to the Institute of Medicine in 1990. She was recognized by the American Nurses Association in 1993 as Nurse Scientist of the Year. Dr. McCorkle joined the faculty of YSN in 1998 to assume leadership of the institution’s doctoral program. She is also the founding director of YSN’s Center for Excellence in Chronic Illness Care, where she collaborates with faculty at YSN and throughout the University who specialize in cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and HIV/AIDS. NICOLA C. PARTRIDGE, Ph.D., is Chair of Physiology and Biophysics, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. She was previously at Saint Louis University, where she was Professor of Pharmacological and Physiological Science and Orthopedic Surgery. During her tenure there, from 1985 to 2000, she progressed from Assistant Professor of Pediatrics and Orthopedic Surgery to Professor of Pharmacological and Physiological Science and Orthopedic Surgery. In addition, she was Director of the Cell and Molecular Biology Graduate Training Program. A graduate of the University of Western Australia for both her B.Sc. (Honors) and Ph.D. in Biochemistry, Dr. Partridge subsequently underwent postdoctoral training at the University of Melbourne and at Washington University in St. Louis. She has been continuously independently funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or the National Institutes of Health (NIH) since 1987 and has 83 publications. Her research interests are in the areas of parathyroid hormone regulation of gene transcription and regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in bone and cartilage. She is internationally recognized, and her studies have contributed to the understanding of how parathyroid hormone elicits both catabolic and anabolic effects on bone.

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NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation Dr. Partridge has co-chaired a number of scientific and policy meetings, and was co-chair of the 1999 Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology (FASEB) Consensus Conference on the Physician-Scientist. She has served on the editorial boards of the Journal of Biological Chemistry, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, and Calcified Tissue International. She has served on a number of NIH study sections, in particular, as a member from 1995 to 1999 of the NIH Oral Biology and Medicine Study Section. Dr. Partridge has also functioned in many capacities for the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. She is presently Vice President for Science Policy of FASEB. MICHAEL SAAG, M.D., is professor of medicine and director of the 1917 AIDS Outpatient Clinic at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). Saag, an internationally renowned AIDS researcher and physician, began the 1917 Clinic, originally named for its street address, in 1988. Today, the clinic, relocated in the Community Care Building on the UAB campus, provides medical and social services to approximately 1,000 patients with HIV/AIDS. Dr. Saag, a respected lecturer and mentor, has taught in the department of medicine’s division of infectious diseases since 1992. He also serves as a senior scientist and associate director of clinical care and therapeutics with the Center for AIDS Research at UAB, a post he has held since 1988. Dr. Saag serves as chair of the Infection Control Committee for the VA Medical Center in Birmingham and as a member of the executive committee of the UAB Center for AIDS Research. Among his other numerous UAB committee appointments, he is a member of the Hospital AIDS Committee, the UAB AIDS Education Advisory Committee, and the General Clinical Research Center Scientific Advisory Committee. Among his numerous professional associations, Saag chairs the Cryptococcal Subproject Committee of Mycoses Study Group of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). He is a member of the board of directors of the International AIDS Society-USA and serves on the Program Executive Committee of the organization’s Educational Program. He is also a member of the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation Grant Review Committee, the NIH Panel to Define Principles of Therapy of HIV Infection and the executive committee of the Forum for Collaborative HIV Research. Dr. Saag received his bachelor’s degree in chemistry from Tulane University in New Orleans and his medical degree from the University of Louisville in Kentucky. He completed his internship, residency, and a postdoctoral fellowship at UAB, joining the faculty in 1984 as an associate professor with the department of medicine. S. LEONARD SYME, Ph.D., is emeritus Professor of Epidemiology at the University of California at Berkeley. Dr. Syme’s research focuses on risk

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NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation factors for coronary heart disease. His major interest has been psychosocial risk factors such as job stress, social support, and poverty. Since his retirement in 1993, Dr. Syme has devoted most of his time to the development of interventions to prevent disease and promote health. He currently is Director of the Wellness Guide Project, which attempts to provide useful information for the maintenance of health. Dr. Syme was elected to the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and received the Berkeley Citation for Distinguished Achievement, the Lilienfeld Award for Excellence in Teaching, the California Senate Commendation for Illustrious Record of Accomplishment, and the J.D. Bruce Award for Distinguished Contributions in Preventive Medicine. MYRON L. WEISFELDT, M.D., is the William Osler Professor of Medicine and Director of the Department of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, as well as the Physician-in-Chief of Johns Hopkins Hospital. Prior to assuming these positions, Dr. Weisfeldt was the Chairman of the Department of Medicine and Director of the Medical Service at the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center in New York City. From 1975 to 1991, he was Director of the Cardiology Division at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. As Director, he was involved in research on cardiopulmonary resuscitation and survival from sudden cardiac death, the treatment and management of acute myocardial infarction and acute ischemic syndromes, and age-associated changes in cardiovascular function and response to stress. He was Director of the Johns Hopkins Specialized Center of Research in Ischemic Heart Disease from 1977 to 1991. Dr. Weisfeldt received his undergraduate and medical degrees from Johns Hopkins University. He received research training at the National Institutes of Health. His clinical training was at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center, and he received cardiology training at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Dr. Weisfeldt formerly was President of the American Heart Association and served on the National Advisory Council of the National Institute on Aging. He is currently a member of the Institute of Medicine, the American Society for Clinical Investigation, the Association of American Physicians, and the Association of Professors of Medicine. He received the Golden Heart Award and the Award of Merit from the American Heart Association. BOARD ON HEALTH SCIENCES POLICY LIAISON MICHAEL D. LOCKSHIN, M.D., is the Director of the Barbara Volcker Center for Women and Rheumatic Disease at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York, New York and Professor of Medicine at the Weill College of Medicine of Cornell University. He received his M.D. from

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NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation Harvard Medical School in 1963 and did his clinical training at Bellevue Hospital and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Hospital, followed by a fellowship at Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center. Dr. Lockshin is board certified in internal medicine and rheumatology and has a special interest in gender and rheumatic disease. Dr. Lockshin was Extramural Director (1989-1994), and then Acting Director (1994-1995), of the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Disorders. He is the author of more than 180 scientific papers and book chapters. IOM STAFF FREDERICK J. MANNING, Ph.D., is a Senior Program Officer in the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Board on Health Sciences Policy and study director. In nine years at IOM, he has served as study director for projects addressing a variety of topics including medical isotopes, potential hepatitis drugs, blood safety and availability, rheumatic disease, resource sharing in biomedical research, occupational safety and health, and chemical and biological terrorism. Before joining IOM, Dr. Manning spent 25 years in the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, serving in positions that included Director of Neuropsychiatry at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Chief Research Psychologist for the Army Medical Department. Dr. Manning earned a Ph.D. in psychology from Harvard University in 1970, following undergraduate education at the College of the Holy Cross. ANDREW POPE, Ph.D., is Director of the Board on Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine (IOM). With expertise in physiology and biochemistry, his primary interests focus on environmental and occupational influences on human health. Dr. Pope’s previous research activities focused on the neuroendocrine and reproductive effects of various environmental substances on food-producing animals. During his tenure at the National Academy of Sciences and since 1989 at the Institute of Medicine, Dr. Pope has directed numerous studies on topics that include injury control, disability prevention, biologic markers, neurotoxicology, indoor allergens, and the enhancement of environmental and occupational health content in medical and nursing school curricula. Most recently, Dr. Pope directed studies on priority-setting processes at the National Institutes of Health, fluid resuscitation practices in combat casualties, and organ procurement and transplantation. MELVIN WORTH, Jr., M.D., is a scholar-in-residence at the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dr. Worth completed his surgery residency at New York University-Bellevue in 1961 and remained on that faculty for 18 years. He

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NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation founded the Bellevue Trauma Service in 1966 and continued as Director until 1979, when he left to become Director of Surgery at Staten Island University Hospital. He served for 15 years with the New York State Office of Professional Medical Conduct and 8 years as a member of the New York State Hospital Review and Planning Council (for which he was Chair in 1993). He is a fellow of the American College of Surgeons, the American College of Gastroenterology, and the International Society for Surgery, and holds memberships in the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma, the Society for Critical Care Medicine, the Association for Academic Surgery, New York Surgical Society (for which he was President in 1979), and other academic and professional organizations. Dr. Worth retains his appointment at New York University, and is clinical professor of surgery at the State University of New York Downstate (Brooklyn) and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. Dr. Worth most recently served as an IOM study staff member to the Committee on Fluid Resuscitation for Combat Casualties and is the senior advisor to the Committee on Creating a Vision for Space Medicine During Travel Beyond Earth Orbit. BENJAMIN N. HAMLIN, B.A., is a Research Assistant at the Institute of Medicine. He received his bachelors in Biology from the College of Wooster in 1993 and a degree in health sciences from the University of Akron in 1996. He then worked as a surgeon’s assistant in the fields of vascular, thoracic, and general surgery for several years before joining the National Academies in 2000. As a Research Assistant for the Division on Earth and Life Studies at the National Academies, Ben worked with the Board on Radiation Effects Research on projects studying the health effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations on the human body. His work at the Institute of Medicine has included Testosterone and Aging: Clinical Research Directions, Review of NASA’s Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health, Health Literacy: A Prescription to End Confusion, Improving Medical Education: Enhancing the Behavioral and Social Science Content in Medical School Curricula, and NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation. Ben is currently pursuing graduate work in the sociomedical sciences. He is also involved with the U.S. Bangladesh Advisory Council, an organization that promotes governmental cooperation between the United States and Bangladesh on matters of trade and health care. NATASHA S. DICKSON has been a senior project assistant with the National Academies’ Institute of Medicine since March 2001. She is a graduate of the John S. Donaldson Technical Institute in Trinidad and Tobago. She gained administrative experience at the University of the West Indies,

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NIH Extramural Center Programs: Criteria for Initiation and Evaluation St. Augustine and also worked as an advertising sales representative and reporter for the Trinidad Express Newspapers. CONSULTANT MICHAEL MCGEARY, a political scientist, is a consultant on federal science, technology, and health policy, funding, organization, and evaluation and has authored a number of articles on those topics. He has served as a consultant to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and other units of the National Academies (Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy; Board on Life Sciences; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Board on International Scientific Cooperation; Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel; Committee on National Statistics; and Board on Science, Technology, and Economic Policy); Office of Science and Technology Policy; Association of American Universities; SRI International; Washington Advisory Group; Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research; and the Lasker Foundation. Between 1981 and 1995, he worked at the National Academies, where he directed the staff work for a dozen reports by IOM and other committees, including assessments of the cancer centers program of the National Cancer Institute and the AIDS research program of the National Institutes of Health. He did his graduate work at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and, prior to going to the National Academies, taught at Wellesley College and worked for the National Academy of Public Administration.