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MONITORING INTERNATIONAL LABOR STANDARDS INTERNATIONAL PERSPECT VIES Summary of Regiona/ Forums Crispin Rigby, Editor Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Eclucation Policy and Global Affairs Division NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Of THE NATIONAL ACADEMifS THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, DC www.nap.edu

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. DOL-4653 between the National Academy of Sciences and U.S. Department of Labor. Any opinions, findings, conclu- sions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Labor. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09137-3 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-52986-7 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334- 3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://ww~v.nap.edu. Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Cover photo credits: The four cover photos are courtesy of the International Labour Organization, with individual credit as follows: upper left corner, P. DeLoche; upper right corner. A. Khemka: the two remaining photos- left mid-page and bottom left, T. D ' ' ~ 1 Maillard. Suggested citation: National Research Council. (2004~. Monitoring International Labor Standards: International Perspectives, Summary of Regional Forums. Crispin Rigby, editor. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education and Policy and Global Affairs Division. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMI Advisers to the Notion on Science, Engineering, aniMedirine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Eng~neer~g was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal govern- ment. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the supe- rior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sci- ences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the ex- amination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is presi- dent of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Na- tional Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.nationcil-academies.org

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Acknowledgments This summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Ralph M. Doggett, Hagen Resources International, Geneva, Switzerland; Howard T. Dooley, International Affairs, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI; Sonali Gunasekera, Ethical Trading Initiative, Colombo, Sri Lanka; Mark Hankin, Program Development, Solidarity Center, Wash- ington, OC; and Donald Robbins, Universidad Javeriana, Colombia. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive com- ments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the content of the report nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Burt Barnow, Institute for Policy Studies, Johns Hopkins University. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent exami- nation of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional proce- dures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibil- ity for the final version of this report rests entirely with the author and the . . ~ Institution. v

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Contents List of#~nyms 1 Introduction The Intcrnadona1 About Organlzadon gong Commend Bade Melons 5 EM 5 15 ~4 55 6 Nongo~rnment~ Onions and ^~demlcs 67 Open Forums ~pend~es ^ Forum genies B Committee on ~onltorlng Internadona1 Labor Standards ~002-2003) and Undone monarch ~ .. ~ ~ , . a% go go 97 109

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LiSt of Acronyms AFL-CIO American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations AGOA African Growth and Opportunity Act APFOL All Pakistan Federation of Labour AWARD Actual Wage Rates Database (South Africa) BCEA Basic Conditions of Employment Act (South Africa) BEPZA Bangladesh Export Processing Zones Authority BFTU Botswana Fecleration of Trade Unions BGMEA Bangladesh Garment Manufacturers and Exporters . . . Assoclatlon BOI Board of Investment (Sri Lanka) CEACR Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations (ILO) CFA Committee on Freedom of Association (ILO) CMILS Committee on Monitoring International Labor Standards (NRC) COVERCO Commission for the Verification of Corporate Codes of Conduct DOL U.S. Department of Labor DOLE Department of Labor and Employment (Philippines) fix

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x ECC EPZ FSE GSP LIST OF ACRONYMS Employment Conditions Commission (South Africa) Economic Processing Zone/Export Processing Zone Federation of Swaziland Employers Generalized System of Preferences HIV/AIDS human immunodef~ciency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ICEM International Federation of Chemical, Energy, Mine and General Workers' Unions ICFTU International Confederation of Free Trade Unions ILA13 Bureau of International Labor Affairs (DOL) ILO International Labour Organization ILS international labor standards IMP International Monetary Fund IMSS Mexican Institute of Social Security INEGI National Institute of Geography and Computer Sciences (Mexico) IPEC International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (ILO) ITGLWF International Textile, Garment and Leather Workers' Federation LCHR Lawyers Committee for Human Rights LRS Labour Research Service (South Africa) LSAS Labor Standards Advisory Service MPHS Multipurpose Permanent Household Survey NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NATURE National Association for Trade Union Research and Education (Sri Laflka) NEPAD New Partnership for Africa's Development NGO nongovernmental organization NRC National Research Council NTUC Nepal Trade Union Congress

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LIST OF ACRONYMS SAD C Southern African Development Community SFTU Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions SLASA Strengthening Labour Administration in Southern Africa TBP Time-bound Programme (ILO) UN United Nations UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund UNITE Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees WEBCOP Workers-Employers Bilateral Council of Pakistan WRC Workers Rights Consortium WTO World Trade Organization WWC Workers' Welfare Committee (Bangladesh) ZCTU Zimbabwe Congress of Trade Unions X1 v

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