hydrogen systems for ChevronTexaco Technology Ventures, where he was responsible for hydrogen supply and for developing and commercializing new hydrogen storage technologies. In 2000, he formed Texaco Ovonic Hydrogen Systems LLC, a joint venture between Texaco and Energy Conversion Devices to commercialize metal hydride hydrogen storage systems, and he was Texaco’s managing director for this joint venture through 2003. He represented Texaco in the California Fuel Cell Partnership in 2000–2001. Mr. Nemanich was one of seven industry leaders to prepare the DOE-sponsored Hydrogen Roadmap in 2002. He has 32 years of experience with integrated oil companies, including Exxon, Cities Service, Texaco, and ChevronTexaco, working in the areas of refining, clean coal technology, oil supply and trading, and hydrogen systems. He was responsible for Texaco’s worldwide oil products trading and supply business from 1987 to 1996 and was executive vice president of Tennessee Synfuels Associates, a company formed to build coal-to-gasoline plants, in 1980–1981. He has a B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Illinois and an MBA from the University of Houston.

William F. Powers (NAE) is retired vice president, research, Ford Motor Company. His approximately 20 years at Ford included positions as director, Vehicle, Powertrain and Systems Research; director, Product and Manufacturing Systems; program manager, Specialty Car Programs; and executive director, Ford Research Laboratory and Information Technology. Prior positions also include those of professor, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, during which time he consulted with NASA, Northrop, Caterpillar, and Ford; research engineer, University of Texas; and mathematician and aerospace engineer, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. He is a fellow, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; member, National Academy of Engineering; and foreign member, Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences. He has extensive expertise in advanced research and development of automotive technology. He has a B.S. in aerospace engineering, University of Florida, and a Ph.D. in engineering mechanics, University of Texas, Austin.

Maxine L. Savitz (NAE) is currently a consultant. She recently retired as general manager, Ceramic Components, AlliedSignal, Inc. She has held a number of positions in the federal government and private sector managing large R&D programs, especially with respect to the development of energy technologies. Some of her positions include those of chief, Buildings Conservation Policy Research, Federal Energy Administration; professional manager, Research Applied to National Needs, National Science Foundation; division director, Buildings and Industrial Conservation, Energy Research and Development Administration; deputy assistant secretary for conservation, U.S. Department of Energy; and president, Lighting Research Institute. She has extensive technical experience in materials, fuel cells, batteries and other storage devices, energy efficiency, and R&D management. She is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and has been or is serving as a member of numerous public and private sector boards, has served on many energy-related and other NRC committees, and is currently a member of the NRC Board on Energy and Environmental Systems. She recently served on the NRC’s Committee on DOE R&D on Energy Efficiency and Fossil Energy. She has a Ph.D. in organic chemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Walter W. (Chip) Schroeder is a founder of Proton Energy Systems, Inc., and has served as the company’s president and chief executive officer since its inception in 1996. Proton is involved in applications of proton exchange membrane fuel cell technology for energy conversion, storage, and power quality requirements. Mr. Schroeder has held executive positions with a number of energy and financial entities, including that of president, AES Corporation—Sonat Power; vice president, Investment Banking, Goldman Sachs & Company; and president, MidCon Corporation. Mr. Schroeder’s energy background began in 1975 when he joined the staff of the Interstate and Foreign Commerce Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives; later he served as director of the Office of Regulatory Analysis at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Mr. Schroeder received an S.M., Sloan School of Management, and a joint S.B., management and engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Robert H. Socolow is a professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at Princeton University, where he has been on the faculty since 1971. He was previously an assistant professor of physics at Yale University. Professor Socolow is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He currently codirects Princeton University’s Carbon Mitigation Initiative, a multidisciplinary investigation of fossil fuels in a future carbon-constrained world. From 1979 to 1997, Professor Socolow directed Princeton University’s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies. He has served on many NRC boards and committees, including the Committee on R&D Opportunities for Advanced Fossil-Fueled Energy Complexes, the Committee on Review of DOE’s Vision 21 R&D Program, and the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems. He has a B.A., M.A., and Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University.

Daniel Sperling is director, Institute of Transportation Studies, University of California, Davis; professor of civil and environmental engineering; and professor of environmental science and policy. He has served on numerous Transportation Research Board committees, including as chair of the Alternative Fuels Committee and member of the Committee on Energy and the Committee on Transportation and a Sustainable Environment. He has also served on several NRC committees,



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