6-11

 

Estimated amounts of natural gas to generate hydrogen (current and possible future hydrogen production technologies) compared with projections by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of natural gas supply, demand, and imports, 2010–2050,

 

74

6-12

 

Estimated gasoline use reductions compared with natural gas (NG) use increases: current hydrogen production technologies, 2010–2050,

 

74

6-13

 

Estimated gasoline use reductions compared with natural gas (NG) use increases: possible future hydrogen production technologies, 2010–2050,

 

75

6-14

 

Estimated amounts of coal used to generate hydrogen (current and possible future hydrogen production technologies) compared with Energy Information Administration (EIA) projections of coal production and use, 2010–2050,

 

76

6-15

 

Estimated land area used to grow biomass for hydrogen: current and possible future hydrogen production technologies, 2010–2050,

 

77

6-16

 

Estimated annual amounts of carbon dioxide sequestered from supply chain for automobiles powered by hydrogen: current hydrogen production technologies, 2010–2050,

 

77

6-17

 

Estimated cumulative amounts of carbon dioxide sequestered from supply chain for automobiles powered by hydrogen: current hydrogen production technologies, 2010–2050,

 

78

6-18

 

Estimated annual amounts of carbon dioxide sequestered from supply chain for automobiles powered by hydrogen: possible future hydrogen production technologies, 2010–2050,

 

78

6-19

 

Estimated cumulative amounts of carbon dioxide sequestered from supply chain for automobiles powered by hydrogen: possible future hydrogen production technologies, 2010–2050,

 

79

6-20

 

Estimated total annual fuel costs for automobiles: current hydrogen production technologies (fossil fuels), 2000–2050,

 

80

6-21

 

Estimated total annual fuel costs for light-duty vehicles: current hydrogen production technologies (electrolysis and renewables), 2000–2050,

 

81

6-22

 

Estimated total annual fuel costs for light-duty vehicles: possible future hydrogen production technologies (fossil fuels and nuclear energy), 2000–2050,

 

82

6-23

 

Estimated total annual fuel costs for light-duty vehicles: possible future hydrogen production technologies (electrolysis and renewables), 2000–2050,

 

82

7-1

 

Feedstocks used in the current global production of hydrogen,

 

85

F-1

 

World fossil energy resources,

 

195

F-2

 

Annual production scenarios for the mean resource estimate showing sharp and rounded peaks, 1900–2125,

 

196

G-1

 

Schematic representation of the steam methane reforming process,

 

199

G-2

 

Estimated investment costs for current and possible future hydrogen plants (with no carbon sequestration) of three sizes,

 

202

G-3

 

Estimated costs for conversion of natural gas to hydrogen in plants of three sizes, current and possible future cases, with and without sequestration of CO2,

 

202

G-4

 

Estimated effects of the price of natural gas on the cost of hydrogen at plants of three sizes using steam methane reforming,

 

204

G-5

 

Power cycle net efficiency (ηel) and thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency (ηH) for the gas turbine modular helium reactor (He) high-temperature electrolysis of steam (HTES) and the supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) advanced gas-cooled reactor HTES technologies,

 

212

G-6

 

The energy needs for hydrogen production by the gas turbine modular helium reactor (He cycle) high-temperature electrolysis of steam (HTES) and the supercritical CO2 (S-CO2 cycle) advanced gas-cooled reactor HTES technologies,

 

213



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement