bullet matching. The chapter recommends alternate tests to be used in place of the FBI’s current procedure.

The process of CABL culminates in its use as circumstantial evidence in court. The first half of Chapter 4 provides basic information about lead refining and bullet manufacturing to further an understanding of their significance in the interpretation of CABL data. It also offers some statistics on bullet production and the various volumes of liquid and solid lead that are eventually used to form bullets. Sections on the homogeneity of lead volumes and on the definition of source are integral to the committee’s findings. The second half of the chapter introduces the admissibility of scientific evidence, relevance, and how CABL evidence has been used in trials. It discusses inconsistencies and changes in CABL-related testimony, laboratory reports, and printed handbooks and discusses the importance of these inconsistencies and changes. The chapter includes the rules governing pretrial discovery of reports and summaries of expert testimony, and the use of expert witnesses.


1. Randich, E.; Duerfeldt, W.; McLendon, W.; and Tobin, W. Foren. Sci. Int. 2002, 127, 174–191.

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