D
Glossary

Acronyms and Terminology


AAS

Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

Ag

Silver, a metallic element sometimes present as an impurity in bullet lead

Ammunition

The loaded “round” commonly consisting of a primed case, propellant (powder), and bullet

As

Arsenic, a semi-metallic element sometimes present as an impurity in bullet lead


Bi

Bismuth, a metallic element sometimes present as an impurity in bullet lead

Billet

A cylinder of lead, usually weighing about 70 lbs, that is used as the stock for an extrusion press to make wire for the production of lead bullets

Blast furnace

A large vertical furnace used to reduce lead ores to molten lead in which hot coke reduces the sinter roast through the formation of CO2; the necessary heat is produced by the reaction of the coke with air forced into the furnace from below

Bullet

The lead-based projectile in small-arms ammunition

Bullet caliber

The diameter of the bullet, which may be expressed either as a fraction of an inch, e.g., .22 caliber means 0.22 inch diameter, or in millimeters


CABL

Compositional Analysis of Bullet Lead

Cartridge

A term used to refer either to the completely assembled ammunition or to the brass case that holds the primer and powder and is pressed onto the bullet



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OCR for page 130
Forensic Analysis Weighing Bullet Lead Evidence D Glossary Acronyms and Terminology AAS Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Ag Silver, a metallic element sometimes present as an impurity in bullet lead Ammunition The loaded “round” commonly consisting of a primed case, propellant (powder), and bullet As Arsenic, a semi-metallic element sometimes present as an impurity in bullet lead Bi Bismuth, a metallic element sometimes present as an impurity in bullet lead Billet A cylinder of lead, usually weighing about 70 lbs, that is used as the stock for an extrusion press to make wire for the production of lead bullets Blast furnace A large vertical furnace used to reduce lead ores to molten lead in which hot coke reduces the sinter roast through the formation of CO2; the necessary heat is produced by the reaction of the coke with air forced into the furnace from below Bullet The lead-based projectile in small-arms ammunition Bullet caliber The diameter of the bullet, which may be expressed either as a fraction of an inch, e.g., .22 caliber means 0.22 inch diameter, or in millimeters CABL Compositional Analysis of Bullet Lead Cartridge A term used to refer either to the completely assembled ammunition or to the brass case that holds the primer and powder and is pressed onto the bullet

OCR for page 130
Forensic Analysis Weighing Bullet Lead Evidence CCI CCI, bullet manufacturer Cd Cadmium, a metallic element sometimes present as an impurity in bullet lead CIVL Compositionally Indistinguishable Volume of Lead Compositional group A set of bullets determined to be compositionally similar via use of the FBI’s “chaining” technique COV Coefficient of Variation CS Crime Scene (bullet) Cu Copper, a metallic element used in jacketing high velocity ammunition and sometimes present as an impurity in bullet lead Extruder The machine that forces lead from a billet through an orifice or die to form a wire (much like squeezing toothpaste from a tube) FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation FED Federal, bullet manufacturer Hog A one ton casting of lead ICP-MS Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry ICP-OES Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy Ingot A 65–125 lb casting of lead; more generally, a casting that has solidified after having been poured from a vessel in the form of molten metal Jacket A metal external shell, often copper, surrounding the lead core of a bullet, frequently used for high velocity ammunition LA Laser Ablation MC-ICP-MS Multi-Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Melt A quantity of molten lead Mold The container into which molten metal is poured to allow it to solidify NAA Neutron Activation Analysis Pb Lead, a metallic element used to form bullets PCA Principal Components Analysis Pig A 65–125 lb. casting of lead Pot A vessel within which lead is melted Pour The action of transferring a molten metal from a vessel into an ingot mold, in which it will solidify Primary lead smelter A facility that transforms lead-bearing ore, normally a sulfide, into nearly pure lead by the steps of sintering, reduction, and refining PS Probable Suspect (bullet)

OCR for page 130
Forensic Analysis Weighing Bullet Lead Evidence Reduction The chemical process of converting the lead ore into molten lead Refining The process of removing unwanted contaminants by various treatments carried out on a bath of molten lead REM Remington, bullet manufacturer RF Radio-Frequency RSD Relative Standard Deviation Sb Antimony, an element used to harden lead for bullets. SD Standard Deviation Secondary lead smelter An organization that remelts scrap lead from various sources and carries out refining and alloying operations to produce lead ingots, pigs, billets, etc. of specified composition for further processing and/or product formation Slug A cylinder of lead that has been cut for an extruded wire and that approximates the size (length and diameter) of the finished bullet Sn Tin, a metallic element also used for hardening lead, but it is more expensive and less effective than antimony. Also a metal sometimes present as an impurity in bullet lead SRM Standard Reference Material SSMS Spark Source Mass Spectrometry Suspect bullet Unused cartridges in the possession of a suspect Swage An operation that involves rotary forging, employing rotating dies that periodically open and close, used to reduce the diameter of rods, wires, or tubes. (Often used in the firearms industry to mean pressing of a slug into a bullet.) TIMS Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry WDXRF Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence WIN Winchester, bullet manufacturer Wire A long piece of lead of the correct diameter used to produce a desired caliber bullet, formed by extrusion Statistical Terminology Ka critical value ta critical value σ within-bullet standard deviation