71,000+ data set, it should note matches for future review in the data set, and the statistical procedures used to assess match status.

No matter which statistical test is utilized by examiners, it is imperative that the same statistical protocol be applied in all investigations to provide a replicable procedure that can be evaluated.

Recommendation: The FBI’s statistical protocol should be properly documented and followed by all examiners in every case.

REFERENCES

Carriquiry, A.; Daniels, M.; and Stern, H. “Statistical Treatment of Case Evidence: Analysis of Bullet Lead,” Unpublished report, Dept. of Statistics, Iowa State University, 2002.

Chase, G.R., and Bulgren, W.G., “A Monte Carlo Investigation of the Robustness of T2,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 1971, 66, pp 499–502.


Eaton, M.L. and Efron, B., “Hotelling’s T2 Test Under Symmetry Conditions,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 1970, 65, pp. 702–711.

Everitt, B.S., “A Monte Carlo Investigation of the Robustness of Hotelling’s One- and Two-Sample T2 Tests,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 1979, 74, pp 48–51.


Holloway, L.N. and Dunn, O.L., “The Robustness of Hotelling’s T2,” American Statistical Association Journal, 1967, pp 124–136.


Owen, D.B. “Noncentral t distribution” in Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, Volume 6; Kotz, S.; Johnson, N. L.; and Read, C.B.; Eds.; Wiley: New York, NY 1985, pp 286–290.


Peele, E. R.; Havekost, D. G.; Peters, C. A.; Riley, J. P.; Halberstam, R. C.; and Koons, R. D. USDOJ, (ISBN 0-932115-12-8), 1991, 57.

Peters, C. A. Comparative Elemental Analysis of Firearms Projectile Lead by ICP-OES, FBI Laboratory Chemistry Unit. Issue date: Oct. 11, 2002. Unpublished (2002).


Peters, C. A. Foren. Sci. Comm. 2002, 4(3). <http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/july2002/peters.htm> as of Aug. 8, 2003.

Randich, E.; Duerfeldt, W.; McLendon, W.; and Tobin, W. Foren. Sci. Int. 2002, 127, 174–191.

Rao, C.R., Linear Statistical Inference and Its Applications: Wiley, New York, NY 1973.


Tiku, M. “Noncentral F distribution” in Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences, Volume 6; Kotz, S.; Johnson, N. L.; and Read, C.B.; Eds.; Wiley: New York, NY 1985, pp 280–284.


Vardeman, S. B. and Jobe, J. M. Statistical Quality Assurance Methods for Engineers, Wiley: New York, NY 1999.


Wellek, S. Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence; Chapman and Hall: New York, NY 2003.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement