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TABLE 4-18 U.S. Estimated Daily Total Water Intake of Male and Female Older Children, Adolescents, and Adults

Age

Males, Total Water Intakea (L/d)

Females, Total Water Intake (L/d)

Mean

Median

5th to 95th Percentiles

Mean

Median

5th to 95th Percentiles

9–13 yr

2.54

2.44

1.50–3.90

2.24

2.13

1.27–3.58

14–18 yr

3.40

3.28

2.12–5.09

2.50

2.33

1.27–4.30

19–30 yr

3.91

3.71

2.26–6.23

2.84

2.69

1.40–4.80

31–50 yr

3.85

3.63

2.10–6.34

3.10

2.90

1.59–5.28

51–70 yr

3.55

3.39

2.02–5.64

3.02

2.90

1.65–4.83

71+ yr

2.99

2.90

1.77–4.56

2.62

2.54

1.54–3.97

a Total water intake reflects the sum of plain drinking (tap) water and the water content of all foods, formulas, and beverages consumed.

DATA SOURCE: Appendix Table D-1: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics, Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994.

SOURCE: ENVIRON International Corporation and Iowa State University Department of Statistics (2003).

had lower (relative to men) total water intake values by approximately 0.4 L/day early and late in life and by approximately 1.0 L/ day from 14 to 30 years of age. Differences in daily total water intake are probably somewhat due to differences in body size, physical activity, and climatic exposure.

Table 4-19 summarizes the total intake for moisture (water content from foods and beverages) in the Canadian Provincial survey 1990–1999 (Appendix Table F-1). They are somewhat lower than the estimates from the NHANES for individuals in the United States. However, similar trends are seen to that seen with the U.S. data: intake of females is lower on average for all adult age groups, and water intake as estimated by moisture remains relatively constant through adulthood, declining in the oldest age group (71+ years of age).

Table 4-15 summarizes the daily total water intake from the NHANES in the United States (from all sources—food and beverages) for the least active (reported no leisure activity during the week) and most active (leisure activity reported five or more times per week) persons surveyed (Appendix H). These data do not represent the water requirements for a specific metabolic rate, but rather the total water intake on a given day (whether or not the



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