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Meal

Food/Beverage Consumed

Calories (kcal)

Sodium (mg)

 

Iced tea, brewed, decaffeinated (16 oz)

5

14

 

Coffee, decaffeinated (1 cup)

9

2

 

Total for meal

663

445

Daily total

 

2,219 kcal

1,552 mg (67.5 mmol)

NOTE: Vegetables and rice were prepared without added sodium. This diet meets the Adequate Intake or Recommended Dietary Allowance for adult men and women for all nutrients for which one has been established (for fiber, it meets the ratio of 14 g/1,000 kcal), and provides energy nutrients within the acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges. To convert mg of sodium to mmol or mEq of sodium, divide the mg by 23 (the molecular weight of sodium). To convert mg of salt to mg of sodium, divide the mg by the percent of salt that is sodium (23/58.5)—39.3%. Nutrient totals may not equal the sum of the parts due to rounding.

FOOD COMPOSITION DATA: USDA Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16.

DATA SOURCE: Environ International.

59 years of 183 mmol (4.2 g)/day in men and 142 mmol (3.3 g)/ day in women.

Worldwide, there has been even greater variation in sodium intake, ranging from an estimated mean intake of 0.02 g (1.0 mmol)/day in Yanomamo Indians (below the 1st percentile of adults in NHANES III) to over 10.3 g (450 mmol)/day in Northern Japanese (above the 99th percentile of NHANES III) (Oliver et al., 1975; Sasaki, 1964).

There is a lack of data on average sodium intakes during pregnancy and only a few studies have reported sequentially measured urinary sodium excretion. The median sodium intake for pregnant women was 3.48 g (151 mmol)/day in NHANES III (Appendix Table D-8). In the Calcium for Prevention of Preeclampsia study (CPEP), dietary recalls were obtained on the 4,589 participants at recruitment (during weeks 13 to 21 of gestation) (Morris et al., 2001). Daily sodium intake of the 3,125 nonhypertensive pregnant women averaged 4.24 g (184 mmol)/day. Mean sodium excretion in three small serial studies were approximately 2.3 to 3.5 g (100 to 150 mmol)/day (Brown et al., 1988; Steegers et al., 1991b; Wilson et al., 1980). Of note, the populations in the CPEP study



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