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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate
Neville et al., 1988). Because there is variation in both the composition of milk and the volume consumed, the computed value represents the mean. It is expected that infants will consume increased volumes of human milk during growth spurts.
Ages 7 Through 12 Months
During the period of infant growth and gradual weaning to a mixed diet of human milk and solid foods from ages 7 through 12 months, there is no evidence for markedly different nutrient needs. The AI can be derived for this age group by calculating the sum of (1) the content of the nutrient provided by 0.6 L/day of human milk, which is the average volume of milk reported from studies of infants receiving human milk in this age category (Heinig et al., 1993) and (2) that provided by the usual intakes of complementary weaning foods consumed by infants in this age category. Such an approach is in keeping with the current recommendations of the Canadian Paediatric Society (Health Canada, 1990), the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP, 1997), and the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 1991) for continued feeding of infants with human milk through 9 to 12 months of age with appropriate introduction of solid foods. The World Health Organization recommends the introduction of solid foods after 6 months of age (WHO, 2002). In this report the amounts of potassium and sodium from complementary foods were estimated National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III data and are presented in the nutrient chapters.
For some of the nutrients in other DRI reports, two other approaches were considered as well: (1) extrapolation downward from the EAR for young adults by adjusting for metabolic or total body size and growth and adding a factor for variability and (2) extrapolation upward from the AI for infants ages 0 through 6 months by using the same type of adjustment. Both of these methods are described below. The results of the methods are evaluated in the process of setting the AI.
Method for Extrapolating Data from Younger to Older Infants
When information is not available on the nutrient intake of older infants, intake data can be extrapolated from young to older infants. Using the metabolic weight ratio method to extrapolate data from younger to older infants involves metabolic scaling but does not include an adjustment for growth because it is based on a value