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A
Glossary and Acronyms


ACE

Angiotensin converting enzyme

Adverse effect

Any significant alteration in the structure or function of the human organism, or any impairment of a physiologically important function, that could lead to an adverse health effect

AI

Adequate Intake; a category of Dietary Reference Intakes; an amount of a nutrient that is a recommended intake for a life stage or gender group for which it is established and is based on experimentally derived intake levels or approximations of observed mean nutrient intakes by a group (or groups) of healthy people

ANP

Atrial natriuretic peptide

ARB

Angiotensin II receptor blocker


BIA

Bioelectric impedance analysis


CDC

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

CF

Cystic fibrosis

CFTR

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulatory gene

CHD

Coronary heart disease

CID

Cold-induced diuresis

CSFII

Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals; a survey conducted periodically by the Agri-



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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate A Glossary and Acronyms ACE Angiotensin converting enzyme Adverse effect Any significant alteration in the structure or function of the human organism, or any impairment of a physiologically important function, that could lead to an adverse health effect AI Adequate Intake; a category of Dietary Reference Intakes; an amount of a nutrient that is a recommended intake for a life stage or gender group for which it is established and is based on experimentally derived intake levels or approximations of observed mean nutrient intakes by a group (or groups) of healthy people ANP Atrial natriuretic peptide ARB Angiotensin II receptor blocker BIA Bioelectric impedance analysis CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services CF Cystic fibrosis CFTR Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulatory gene CHD Coronary heart disease CID Cold-induced diuresis CSFII Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals; a survey conducted periodically by the Agri-

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate cultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture CVD Cardiovascular disease; includes heart disease and stroke DASH Diet Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension; a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and reduced in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol DASH-Sodium Trial A clinical trial that tested the effects on blood pressure of three different sodium levels in two distinct diets DASH Trial A clinical trial that tested the effects of different dietary patterns on blood pressure Dehydration The process of decreasing total body water; lower than normal total body water (euhydration) (see hypohydration) DEXA Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry Dose-response assessment Second step in a risk assessment in which the relationship between nutrient intake and an adverse effect (in terms of incidence or severity of the effect) is determined DRI Dietary Reference Intakes EAR Estimated Average Requirement; a category of Dietary Reference Intakes; an amount of a nutrient that is estimated to meet the requirement, as defined by the specified indicator or criterion of adequacy, of half of the apparently healthy individuals in the life stage or gender group for which it is established ECF Extracellular fluid ECG Electrocardiogram EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Euhydration Normal hydration FDA Food and Drug Administration; an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services FFM Fat-free mass FNB Food and Nutrition Board; a division of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Function Role played by a nutrient in growth, development, and maturation GFR Glomerular filtration rate Hazard identification First step in a risk assessment, which is concerned with the collection, organization, and evaluation of all information pertaining to the toxic properties of a nutrient Health Canada The federal department in Canada responsible for maintaining and improving the health of Canadian people HDL High-density lipoprotein Hyperhydration Higher than normal total body water (euhydration) Hyperkalemia Serum potassium concentration > 5.0 mEq/L or mmol/L Hypernatremia Serum sodium concentration > 145 mEq/L or mmol/L Hypertension Systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mm Hg Hypohydration Lower than normal total body water (euhydration) (see dehydration) Hypokalemia Serum potassium concentration < 3.5 mEq/L or mmol/L Hyponatremia Serum sodium concentration < 135 mEq/L or mmol/L ICF Intracellular fluid IOM Institute of Medicine LDL Low-density lipoprotein LOAEL Lowest-observed-adverse-effect level; the lowest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which an adverse effect has been identified MAP Mean arterial pressure; diastolic pressure times 2 plus systolic pressure over 3; the average pressure during a cardiac cycle MCL Maximum contaminant level; a level set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for environmental contaminants

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate MVP Mitrial valve prolapse NFCS Nationwide Food Consumption Survey; a food consumption survey conducted through 1965 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; a survey conducted periodically by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention NOAEL No-observed-adverse-effect level; the highest intake (or experimental dose) of a nutrient at which no adverse effect has been observed NRC National Research Council PAPS 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate Psychogenic polydipsia The excessive consumption of fluid, especially water, among chronic psychiatric patients, particularly those with schizophrenia RDA Recommended Dietary Allowance; a category of Dietary Reference Intakes; an amount of a nutrient that is the recommended average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the requirement of nearly all (97 to 98 percent) healthy individuals in the particular life stage and gender group for which it is established; it is derived from the Estimated Average Requirement Rhabdomyolysis Injury to skeletal muscle tissue that results in the destruction of skeletal muscle cells and allows for the escape of cellular contents into the extracellular fluid, leading to renal failure and compartment syndromes Risk assessment The organized framework for evaluating scientific information that has as its objective a characterization of the nature and likelihood of harm resulting from excess human exposure to an environmental agent (in this case, a nutrient); it includes the development of both qualitative and quantitative expressions of risk Risk characterization The final step in a risk assessment, which summarizes the conclusions from steps 1 through 3 of the assessment (hazard identification, dose

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate response, and estimate of exposure) and evaluates the risk; this step also includes a characterization of the degree of scientific confidence that can be placed in the Tolerable Upper Intake Level Risk management Process by which risk assessment results are integrated with other information to make decisions about the need for, method of, and extent of risk reduction; in addition, it considers such issues as the public health significance of the risk, the technical feasibility of achieving various degrees of risk control, and the economic and social costs of this control Salt sensitivity The extent of blood pressure change in response to a reduction in salt intake; the term “salt-sensitive blood pressure” applies to those individuals or subgroups who experience the greatest reduction in blood pressure from a given reduction in salt intake SD Standard deviation SE Standard error SEM Standard error of the mean SHRSP Stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (in-bred strain of rats) TBW Total body water TOHPII Trials of Hypertension Prevention-Phase II: a clinical trial that tested the effects of sodium reduction and weight loss, alone or combined, as a means to prevent hypertension Total water Includes drinking water, water in beverages, and water that is part of food UF Uncertainty factor; the number by which the NOAEL (or LOAEL) is divided to obtain the Tolerable Upper Intake Level; the size of the UF varies depending on the confidence in the data and the nature of the adverse effect UL Tolerable Upper Intake Level; a category of Dietary Reference Intakes; the amount of a nutrient that is the highest level of daily intake likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects for al-

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate most all apparently healthy individuals in the specified life stage group for which it is established USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture WBGT Wet bulb globe temperature WHO World Health Organization