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Index

A

Acetaminophen, 428

Acid-base balance, 8, 136, 186-187, 189-190, 194, 221, 224-225, 228, 229, 240

Addison’s disease, 243

Adenosine triphosphate, 426

Adequate Intakes (AIs). See also individual nutrients

applicable population, 22

criteria used to derive, 6-7, 10, 12, 22, 28-29

defined, 3, 22, 26-27, 471

derivation of, 28-29, 30, 43-46, 140, 452, 454, 456-457

extrapolation between other age groups, 27

indicators used to set, 3-4, 28-29

for labeling, 456

RDA compared, 23, 27

uncertainty in, 27

uses, 18-19, 27, 144, 452, 453-456, 462-463

Adipose tissue, water content of, 75

Adolescents, ages 9 through 18 years

ages 9 through 13 years, 31-32, 143, 306

ages 14 through 18 years, 31-32, 143-144, 152, 239, 306, 382-383, 540-545

AIs, 27, 142-143, 232-234, 306-307, 316

blood pressure, 232-233

cystic fibrosis, 137, 138

energy intakes, 306

lactation, 153, 316, 383

physical activity, 540-545

potassium, 232-234, 239, 240, 249, 252

pregnancy, 152, 239, 316, 382-383

sodium and chloride, 306-307, 316, 382-383, 385-387

ULs, 373, 376-381, 385-387

water, 90, 142-144, 152, 153, 155-157, 159-160, 540-545

weights and heights, reference, 482, 483

Adrenal insufficiency, 253

Adults, ages 19 through 50 years

active, 154-155

ages 19 through 30 years, 32, 145, 148, 528-533, 540-545

ages 31 through 50 years, 32, 145, 148, 528-533, 540-545

AIs, 32, 144-147, 234-235, 307-310



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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Index A Acetaminophen, 428 Acid-base balance, 8, 136, 186-187, 189-190, 194, 221, 224-225, 228, 229, 240 Addison’s disease, 243 Adenosine triphosphate, 426 Adequate Intakes (AIs). See also individual nutrients applicable population, 22 criteria used to derive, 6-7, 10, 12, 22, 28-29 defined, 3, 22, 26-27, 471 derivation of, 28-29, 30, 43-46, 140, 452, 454, 456-457 extrapolation between other age groups, 27 indicators used to set, 3-4, 28-29 for labeling, 456 RDA compared, 23, 27 uncertainty in, 27 uses, 18-19, 27, 144, 452, 453-456, 462-463 Adipose tissue, water content of, 75 Adolescents, ages 9 through 18 years ages 9 through 13 years, 31-32, 143, 306 ages 14 through 18 years, 31-32, 143-144, 152, 239, 306, 382-383, 540-545 AIs, 27, 142-143, 232-234, 306-307, 316 blood pressure, 232-233 cystic fibrosis, 137, 138 energy intakes, 306 lactation, 153, 316, 383 physical activity, 540-545 potassium, 232-234, 239, 240, 249, 252 pregnancy, 152, 239, 316, 382-383 sodium and chloride, 306-307, 316, 382-383, 385-387 ULs, 373, 376-381, 385-387 water, 90, 142-144, 152, 153, 155-157, 159-160, 540-545 weights and heights, reference, 482, 483 Adrenal insufficiency, 253 Adults, ages 19 through 50 years active, 154-155 ages 19 through 30 years, 32, 145, 148, 528-533, 540-545 ages 31 through 50 years, 32, 145, 148, 528-533, 540-545 AIs, 32, 144-147, 234-235, 307-310

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate blood pressure, 234 Body Mass Index, 483 bone mass, peak, 32 bone mineral density, 234 cardiovascular disease, 234 dietary intakes, 86, 307-308, 309, 320 energy metabolism, 32, 386 extrapolation of data to infants and children, 45, 233, 386 extrapolation of data to older adults, 45 heat stress, 307 insulin resistance, 307 kidney stones, 234 lactation, 153, 316 lipid levels, 308 physical activity, 103, 154-155, 308, 540-545 potassium, 32, 191, 225, 226, 228, 234-235, 245, 249, 323, 530-531 pregnancy, 152, 316 pulmonary function, 225 renal function, 148 sodium and chloride, 11, 32, 148, 234, 270, 271, 276, 281-282, 307-310, 316, 320, 322, 323, 373, 376-381, 382-383, 532-533 special considerations, 144, 154-155, 308 stroke, 234 sulfate, 428, 433-436, 440-441 supplements, 249 thermoregulation, 83 ULs, 249, 373, 386-381 urine osmolalities, 82 water, 5-6, 75, 82, 83, 86, 87-88, 90, 92-93, 103, 144-147, 148, 153, 154-155, 157-158, 159-160, 161, 528-529, 540-545 weights and heights, reference, 482 Adults, ages 51 through 70+ years ages 51 through 70 years, 32-33, 150, 528-533, 540-545 ages 71 years and older, 32-33, 150, 528-533, 540-545 AIs, 45-46, 147-150, 236-237, 310-313 alcohol, 148 bioavailability of nutrients, 32 blood pressure, 46, 237, 311-312, 380 cognitive function and motor control, 105-108 dehydration, 148, 149 derivation of DRIs for, 32 diuretics, 299 energy expenditure, 33 energy intakes, 312 extrapolation of data from younger adults, 45-46, 237, 312 hyperinsulinemia, 236-237 hyperkalemia, 188, 237 hypernatremia, 149 hypertension, 283 hyponatremia, 299 physical activity, 540-545 plasma renin activity, 283, 311 potassium, 46, 188, 213, 236-237, 323, 530-531 renal function, 32, 99, 147-149, 236, 310-312 reserve capacity and functioning, 32 salt sensitivity, 311 sodium and chloride, 11-12, 45-46, 148, 270, 271, 280-281, 283, 299, 301, 310-313, 323, 381-382, 380, 381-382, 532-533 stroke, 150, 213 supplements thirst, 149-150 ULs, 381-382 urine osmolalities, 82, 147, 149 water, 82, 92-93, 99, 147-150, 159-160, 161, 310, 528-529, 540-545 Adverse effects, 50-51, 66, 70, 471 African Americans blood pressure, 187, 202-203, 212, 230-231, 234, 380, 387, 393 hydration of fat-free mass, 76-77 hypertension, 195-196, 218, 334-335, 340-341, 346, 347 left ventricular hypertrophy, 366 plasma renin activity, 283, 284-287

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate potassium, 9, 187, 195-196, 202-203, 212, 234, 245, 247, 334-335, 508-509 pubertal development, 32 salt sensitivity, 195-196, 230-231, 387 sodium, 202-203, 212, 334-335, 340-341, 346, 347, 514-515 water consumption, 141 Age. See also Adolescents; Adults; Children; Infants; Life-stage groups; Toddlers and hydration of fat-free mass, 76-77 Alcohol, 7, 123, 134-135, 148, 323, 329, 354-355, 458 Aldosterone, 189, 194, 238-239, 243, 277, 281, 291, 311, 314, 315, 393 Aldosteronism, 238-239, 314, 393 Alpha-adrenergic agonists, 243, 381 Altitude exposure, 80, 132-133 American Academy of Pediatrics, 30, 43, 44 American Water Works Association, 442 Amiloride, 227, 243 Amino acids, sulfur-containing, 187, 189, 244, 425, 427, 429, 434-435 5-Aminosalicylic acid, 440 Analgesics, 139 Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor drug therapy, 188, 241-242, 243, 283 Angiotensin gene, 394 Angiotensin II, 111, 273, 274, 281, 311, 315 receptor blocker, 392 Animal studies cardiovascular disease, 357-358 of dehydration, 79, 111, 120-121 extrapolation of data from, 53, 65, 68, 564, 565 potassium, 213, 236 pregnant animals, 437-438 relevance of, 38, 61-62, 63-64 sodium and chloride, 301, 302-303, 357-358, 373 sulfate, 437-438 young animals, 438 Antibiotics, 139 Anticholinergic drugs, 139 Antidepressants, 139 Arginine vasopressin, 92, 94, 104, 111, 134, 135, 139, 140, 148, 149, 151, 152, 163, 315 Asians sodium intake, 358 water requirements, 90 Asthma, 372, 377 Atherosclerosis, 386 Athletes. See also Physical exercise and activity body weight changes, 102 carbohydrate loading, 102 dehydration, 121, 125 potassium balance, 226-227 rapid weight loss, 121, 125 sodium balance, 317 sweating rates, 127, 226 total body water, 78 urine color chart, 99 water consumption, 127, 162, 163 Atrial natriuretic peptide, 139, 148, 273, 315 B Bacteria, sulfate-reducing, 439 Balance studies chloride, 280 defined, 39 potassium, 191-192, 193 pregnant women, 314 sodium and chloride, 275-281, 301-302, 314 water, 86-89, 93, 140, 142 Bartter’s syndrome, 239, 303 Beta-adrenergic blockade, 236, 237, 243 Bicarbonate, 190, 194. See also Potassium bicarbonate precursors, 8, 186, 188, 240-241, 242, 244

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Bioavailability of nutrients defined, 60 factors affecting, 60-61 from infant formula, 30 nutrient-nutrient interactions and, 60 and risk assessment, 60-61, 66 sulfate, 431 from supplements, 22, 60-61 Bioelectric impedance analysis, 91-92, 151 Biomarkers of disease, 39 Biotin, 426 Bladder cancer, 124-125 Bladder lesions, 164 Blood clots, 126 Blood lipid concentrations, 12, 270, 283, 292, 294-295, 308 Blood pressure. See also Hypertension calcium and, 388, 389, 390 and cardiovascular disease, 272, 323-325, 366, 377, 378, 379, 380, 385, 387 DASH diet and, 292, 295, 308, 309, 334-335, 346, 347, 348-349, 355, 369, 379, 390, 391, 472, 553-555 diabetes mellitus and, 16, 271, 272, 391-392 elevation in, 286-291 as endpoint, 376-377 epidemiological studies, 197-200, 323-324, 326-329 fruit and vegetable intakes and, 200-201 gender and, 348, 386, 390-391 genetic factors, 16, 271, 393-394 hydration status and, 118-120 interaction of dietary factors and, 388-390 intervention studies, 200-212, 325, 329-351, 546-557 intrinsic variability in, 287-290 longitudinal studies, 385-386 magnesium and, 388, 389, 390 measurement precision, 289, 328, 385 observational studies, 197-200, 326-329 plasma renin activity, 283 potassium and, 8, 9, 38, 186, 187, 194, 195-212, 213, 218, 228, 229, 230-231, 232-233, 234, 235, 237, 239, 241, 298, 330-345, 347, 388, 390 prehypertension category, 378 pressor response, 289 race/ethnicity and, 348, 380, 387, 388 and renal disease, 16, 271, 272, 325-326, 380, 392 salt resistant, 287, 292, 388 salt sensitive, 8, 9, 16, 38, 186, 187, 194, 195-197, 228, 230-231, 234, 235, 271, 287, 311, 380, 381-382, 387-388, 389, 391, 392, 393, 475 sodium bicarbonate and, 275 sodium chloride and, 15-16, 195-197, 202-212, 228, 230-231, 270-271, 273, 275, 281-291, 300, 311-312, 323-357, 376-379, 382-394, 395, 546-557 weight and, 390, 394 Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 98-99 BUN:creatinine ratio, 99 Body Mass Index, 34, 59, 348, 364, 482, 483 Body water. See also Hydration status; Water consumption adolescents, 90 adults (19-50 years), 75, 82, 83, 86-87, 90, 92-93 by age and gender group, 77-78 assessment of changes, 90-99; see also Hydration status balance, 92, 93, 100, 140, 142, 154, 367 bioelectric impedance analysis, 91-92, 151 children, 75, 90, 142 determinants, 79-86 distribution, 78 exchange, 78-79

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate fat-free mass, 75-77, 142, 457 function, 4, 37, 73, 74 hydrogen isotope activity, 89, 91, 142, 151 infants, 75, 90, 140-141 insensible and sweat losses, 83-85, 105, 127, 140, 154, 155-156, 163 metabolic production, 81, 83, 85-86, 102, 140-141 older adults (51+ years), 92-93 pregnancy, 151 respiratory losses, 80-81, 102, 132-133 total, 77-79, 90-99, 142, 163 turnover rates, 78, 89-90, 91, 140, 141, 142, 154 urinary and gastrointestinal losses, 81-83, 102, 105, 135-136, 140 weight and, 77, 78, 86-87 Bone catabolism, 38, 274 Bone mass, peak, 32 Bone mineral density calcium and, 190, 372, 374-375, 377 fluid intakes and, 126-127 hypercalciuria and, 372, 374-375 potassium and, 8, 38, 186, 187, 189, 190, 194, 219-222, 228, 231, 233, 234, 235, 240 sodium chloride and, 190, 372, 374-375, 377, 395 Breastfeeding. See also Human milk; Lactation recommendations, 29-30, 43, 384 and water intakes from weaning foods, 526 Bronchitis, 372 C Caffeine, 7, 133-134, 226, 458 Calcium, 33 and blood pressure, 388, 389, 390 and bone mineral density, 190, 372, 374-375, 377 dietary intakes, 309 in drinking water, 127 epidemiological studies, 374-377 gender differences, 369 high-protein diet and, 369 intervention studies, 370-371 and kidney stones, 122, 123, 223, 372, 374-377 potassium and, 189, 190, 194, 218, 219, 221, 222, 224, 228, 229, 230, 240 sodium chloride and, 222, 299, 369-372, 374-375, 377, 388, 389 supplements, 299, 389 urinary excretion, 240, 377 urolithiasis, 221-222 Calcium for Prevention of Preeclampsia trial, 245, 322-323 Canada dietary intake data, 48, 187, 245, 320, 394-395, 527-533 flavor preference in beverages, 103-104 hypertension prevalence, 351 potassium intakes, 187, 245 reference nutrient values, 1, 449, 478 sulfate standard for drinking water, 442 water intakes, 6, 74, 160, 528-529 weights and heights, reference, 482-483 Canadian National Institute of Nutrition, 478 Canadian Paediatric Society, 29-30, 43, 44 Carbamazepine, 299 Carbohydrate, 135, 309. See Low-carbohydrate, high-protein diets CARDIA Study, 200-201 Cardiac arrhythmias, 8, 38, 125-126, 186, 194, 227, 242, 248-249 CARDIAC Study, 360-361 Cardiovascular disease animal studies, 357-358 children, 385 diabetes and, 300 epidemiological studies, 358-365, 368

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate gender differences, 366 high blood pressure and, 272, 323-325, 357-365, 366, 377, 378, 379, 385, 387; see also Hypertension intervention studies, 364, 367, 368-369 left ventricular hypertrophy, 283, 323, 358, 365-369, 377 mortality, 324, 365 potassium and, 8, 186, 195, 213-219, 241, 323 prevention, 213-219 sodium chloride and, 12, 270, 283, 323-325, 357-365, 377, 378, 379, 385, 387, 395 Cardiovascular function arterial pH, 190, 221 cold beverages and, 125-126 heat stress and, 120 hydration status and, 110, 118-120, 125-126 long airline flights, 126 physical exercise and, 119-120 Caucasians blood pressure, 195-196, 202-203, 230-231 hydration of fat-free mass, 76-77 potassium, 506-507 pubertal development, 31 salt sensitivity, 195-196, 230-231 sodium, 512-513 water consumption, 141 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 433, 440 Central nervous system function, 110 Cerebroside sulfate, 13 Children, ages 4 through 8 years, 31. See also Life-stage groups; Toddlers active, 155 AIs, 24, 27, 45, 142-143, 232-233, 306-307 blood pressure, 232-233 dehydration, 110 energy intakes, 306, 386 extrapolation of data from adults to, 24, 27, 33, 45, 306, 386 flavor preferences, 103-104 hypercalciuria, 223 hypertension, 386 hyponatremia, 164 physical activity, 45, 103, 110, 538-539 potassium, 45, 223, 225, 232-233, 234, 237, 249, 252, 323 pulmonary function, 225 sodium and chloride, 45, 103-104, 278-281, 306-307, 323, 385-387 sweating, 155-156 UL derivation for, 45, 249, 252, 385-387 water, 45, 75, 87, 90, 103-104, 142-143, 155-157, 159-160, 164, 538-539 weights and heights, reference, 33, 482, 483 Chloride. See also Sodium and chloride AIs, 12-13, 270, 305, 307, 310, 313, 316 balance studies, 280 bicarbonate ratio, 228 deficiency, 280 infants, 280, 303 serum, 562-563 ULs, 382, 383, 385, 387 Chlorpropamide, 299, 300 Chondroitin sulfate, 13, 429, 431, 439 Chorthalidone, 227, 241 Chronic diseases dehydration and, 122-127, 136-138 preventive effects of potassium, 194, 213-219 Citrate excretion, 188, 224-225 Climate cold, 81, 83, 89, 102, 132-133 and exercise-related dehydration, 108-110, 111 hot, 81, 82, 83-84, 102, 104, 110, 111, 115, 117, 127, 128-129, 154, 155, 157, 164, 297-298 and hydration, 81, 82, 132-133, 154 and potassium, 225-227 and sodium, 275-276

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate and sweating rate, 102 and thirst, 104 and urine output, 82, 83 and water consumption, 6, 74, 88, 89, 90, 132-133, 157, 164 Cognitive function, 32, 105-108, 139, 150 Colon cancer, 124 Congestive heart failure, 227, 241, 242, 253, 365 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals, 47-48, 141, 157, 158, 231, 232, 233, 304, 306, 312, 320, 461, 471-472, 518-526 Coronary heart disease, 213, 216-217, 218, 283, 323, 325, 357-365, 377 Creatinine, 242, 358 Critical endpoint blood pressure as, 376-377 defined, 66 sodium and chloride, 376-377 Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors and, 242, 243 Cysteine, 27, 13, 424, 425, 426, 427, 429, 432, 439 Cystic fibrosis, 137-138, 163, 300, 303 Cystine, 439 D D-penicillamine, 430 DASH diet, 292, 295, 308, 309, 334-335, 346, 347, 348-349, 355, 369, 379, 390, 391, 472, 553-555 DASH-Sodium Trial, 308, 346, 347-348, 350, 391, 461, 472, 553-555 DASH trial, 231, 289-290, 472 Data and database issues availability of data, 2-3, 24, 27, 28, 29, 31, 298, 376, 451 critical data set, 65 for dose-response assessment, 65-66, 373, 376 for hazard identification, 61-62, 63-64 human studies, 2-3, 65 quality and completeness of, 3, 4, 13, 27, 41-43, 47, 51, 56, 63-64, 66, 123, 235, 307, 382, 424, 430, 441, 467 selection for dose-response assessment, 65-66, 373, 376 sodium and chloride, 373, 376 sulfate, 3, 4, 27 uncertainties in, 53, 56, 57 Death hydration status and, 120-121, 161 hyperkalemia and, 242 Dehydration altitude exposure and, 132 animal studies, 79, 111, 120-121 and blood clots, 126 and cardiac arrhythmias, 125-126 and cardiovascular function, 110, 118-120, 125-126 and central nervous system function, 110 children, 110 and chronic diseases, 122-127, 136-138 cognitive performance and motor control, 105-108 and death, 120-121 defined, 472 diuretic-induced, 97, 139-140 and gastric emptying rate, 131-132 and heat strain tolerance, 97, 111, 114-115, 131-132 indicators of, 92-94, 99, 100-101 infants, 384 and metabolic functions, 110 misdiagnosis as hyponatremia, 163 and mitral valve prolapse, 126 and muscular strength, 110, 116-117 and osteoporosis, 126-127 partitioning of water loss, 79 and physical work, 97, 108-110, 112-113, 114, 116-117, 163 plasma volume, 97 and renal function, 98, 99, 139, 148, 152 and thermoregulation, 79, 110, 111

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate and urinary tract infections, 121-122 and urine output, 82, 83 Depletion-repletion studies defined, 39 Desoxycorticosterone, 238, 315 Diabetes insipidus, 140, 152 Diabetes mellitus. See also Insulin and blood pressure, 16, 271, 272, 391-392 and cardiovascular disease, 300, 380 and dehydration, 136-137, 139 and hyperkalemia, 241, 242, 243, 252-253 and hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronism, 301 sodium and chloride and, 16, 300-301, 380, 391-392 urine osmolality and, 100, 136 Diarrhea, 78, 94, 303, 424, 427, 433-438, 440, 441 Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. See DASH diet Dietary intakes. See also Water consumption adjustment of, 47, 48, 450, 453 assessment of, 79, 326, 450-455 and bioavailability breast-fed infants, 30, 141-142, 526 calcium, 309 Canadian, 48, 527-533 day-to-day variations in, 326, 451, 453 energy, 45, 46, 452 food composition databases, 46, 47, 48, 79, 450, 453 form of, 58, 60 gender differences, 7, 504-507, 512-517, 530-531 potassium, 9, 10, 44, 48, 187, 192, 193, 194, 197, 202, 204, 206, 208, 210, 232, 234, 242, 245-247, 309, 504-507, 516-517, 526, 530-531 race/ethnicity and, 506-509, 512-515 self-reported, 40, 47, 48, 145, 224, 320, 326, 451 sodium chloride, 44, 46, 48, 203, 212, 272, 276, 277, 281, 282, 285, 287, 304, 320-323, 330, 332, 334, 336, 338, 340, 342, 344, 347, 394-395-396, 455, 510-513, 516-517, 526, 532-533 sources of data, 47-48 sulfate, 427, 428, 433, 434-435 uses of data, 450-455 Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) applicable population, 22 assessment applications, 17-19, 450-455 categories, 21, 22-29; see also Adequate Intakes; Estimated Average Requirements; Recommended Dietary Allowance; Tolerable Upper Intake Levels criteria for, 2-4, 6-7, 10, 12, 21, 28-29 defined, 3, 21-22, 35 extrapolation from other age groups, 33 framework, 450, 478-480 group applications, 18-19, 26, 453-455, 456 individual applications, 17-19, 451-452, 455-456 origin, 477-478 parameters for, 29-34; see also Life-stage groups; Reference weights and heights planning applications, 455-456 rationale for, 449 sources of data, 2-3, 450-451; see also Methodological considerations uses, 17-19, 449-463 WHO/FAO/WHO approach compared, 22 Dimercaptopropanol, 430 Diuretics and diuresis alcohol, 7, 134-135 caffeine, 7, 133-134 and dehydration, 97, 139-140 and hypochloremia, 299

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate and hyponatremia, 281, 299 medications, 97, 139, 382 osmotic, 136 plasma volume changes, 97 and potassium, 188, 194-195, 227, 239, 241, 242, 243, 249, 252-253 and sodium chloride, 281, 283, 299, 311, 382 and water intake, 7, 139-140 Dopamine, 381 Dose-response assessment adolescents, 385-387 adults, 249, 373, 376-381, 440-441 animal data, 61-62, 63 children, 249, 252, 385-387 components and process, 54, 55, 62, 378 critical endpoint, 65-66, 376-377 data quality and completeness, 3 data selection, 65-66, 373, 376 defined, 472 derivation of UL, 65, 68-69, 380-381 infants, 249, 252, 384-385, 441 lactation, 252-253, 382-383 LOAEL/NOAEL identification, 66, 377-379 older adults, 381-382 potassium, 212, 249-254 pregnancy, 252, 382-383 sodium and chloride, 15-16, 345-346, 373-387, 394, 546-557 special considerations, 68, 69, 442 sulfate, 438, 440-442 uncertainty assessment, 66-68, 379-380 water, 154-165 Drinking water bottled water, 318, 440 calcium in, 127 intakes by gender and life-stage, 73, 86, 158, 161, 498-501, 520-523 sulfate in, 13, 425, 430, 432, 433-435, 436-437, 438, 440, 442-443 taste, 102-104 temperature, 102-104, 135-126 E Electrolyte balance, 272 Electrolyte-carbohydrate beverages, 126, 226 End-stage renal disease, 139, 253, 325-326, 377, 442, 459 Endothelial relaxing factor, 274 Energy metabolism, 24, 32, 33, 45, 46, 85-86, 131, 132, 233, 270, 315, 386, 461, 485-493 Environmental factors water consumption, 4, 74, 88, 89, 90, 127-133, 144 Epidemiological studies. See also Observational studies analytic studies, 40 blood pressure, 197-200, 323-324, 326-329 bone demineralization prevention, 219, 220-221 calcium, 374-377 cardiovascular disease, 358-365, 368 kidney stone prevention, 222-224 meta-analyses, 323-324 potassium, 197-200, 212, 214-217, 219, 220-221, 222-224, 225, 234 sodium and chloride, 283, 323-324, 326-329, 358, 359, 368, 374-377, 378, 381 Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) coefficient of variation, 24 country comparisons defined, 3, 23-24, 451, 472 derivation of, 3, 24-26, 144, 480-481 method used to set, 24-26, 42, 453 and RDA, 23, 24-26 research recommendations, 466-467 standard deviation, 24, 480 uses, 18-19, 24-26, 42, 451-452, 4 62

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Exercise. See Physical exercise and activity Exposure acceptable or tolerable, 53 duration of, 63, 66 route of, 63, 65, 66 Exposure assessment process, 54, 55, 63 and UL derivation, 57, 70 water overconsumption, 165 F Factorial approach, 25, 480-481 Fainting, 118-119 Fat-free mass, 75-77, 142, 457 Fatigue, 106 Fecal potassium losses, 189, 191 sodium losses, 277 water losses, 135-136, 140 Fetal sulfate requirements, 429-430 Fever, 78, 111, 120-121. See also Temperature, core body; Thermoregulation Fiber, dietary, 135-136, 191, 201, 231, 309 Fire fighters, 154, 317 Food additives, 319 Food and Agriculture Organization, 22, 51, 56 Food sources determination of, 48, 22 potassium, 8-9, 186, 187, 188, 192, 200-204, 212, 242, 244-245, 249 sodium and chloride, 304, 318-320 sulfate, 4, 13, 27, 37, 424, 425, 426, 428, 430-433 water, 5, 502-503, 524-525 Formulas, infant bioavailability of nutrients from, 30, 43, 455 sodium and chloride, 280, 303, 305-306 sulfate, 301, 302, 303, 305-306, 432 Fortified foods, 28, 51, 58, 59. See also Formula, infant Framingham Heart Study, 365-566 Furosemide, 241, 299, 311 G Gallstones, 124 Gastric cancer, 372-373, 377, 395 Gastric emptying rate, 131-132 Gastrointestinal potassium-related discomfort, 247-249, 252 water losses, 81-83 Gender differences. See also Men; Women blood pressure, 348, 386, 390-391 body water, 77-78 calcium, 369 cardiovascular disease, 366 physical activity, 538-545 potassium, 10, 192, 504-509, 516-517, 530-531 puberty onset, 32 serum osmolality, 534-536 sodium and chloride, 312, 322, 348, 369, 390-391, 510-513, 516-517, 532-533, 560-563 water consumption, 7, 87, 88, 90, 91, 93, 127, 143-144, 145, 147, 150, 154, 155, 159-160, 161, 494-503, 518-525, 528-529, 534-545 Genetic factors, salt-sensitive blood pressure, 16, 271, 393-394 Genetic markers of disease, 39 Gentamycin, 439, 440 Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium, 78 Gitelman’s syndrome, 393 Glomerular filtration rate, 148, 149, 152, 241, 253, 315 Glomerulonephritis, 139 Glucosamine sulfate, 428-429, 431 Glucose excretion, 100 Glucose intolerance, 8, 186, 194, 292, 296-297; see also Diabetes mellitus Glutathione, 426, 429, 430

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Glycogen, skeletal muscle, 78, 102 Glycosaminoglycans, 430 Glycosuria, 136, 300 Growth sodium chloride and, 301-303 sulfate and, 427-428, 429-430 velocity, 29, 31, 32 H Hazard identification animal data, 61-62, 63 causality, 63, 70 components of, 54, 55, 62 data sources, 61-62 defined, 473 evaluation process, 62-63 human studies, 61 pharmacokinetic and metabolic data, 63-64, 69 potassium, 247-249 sodium and chloride, 323-373 sulfate, 433-440 water, 162-164 Health Canada, 1, 21, 320, 473, 478 Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 198-199, 214-215, 218, 223, 327 Heat acclimatization, 92, 97, 98, 109, 114, 115, 127, 129-130, 226, 276, 277, 296-297, 308 Heat balance, 133 Heat exhaustion, 115 Heat strain tolerance, 89, 97, 111, 114-117, 127-132, 485-493 Heat stress, 78, 83, 90, 105, 110, 118, 120-121, 131, 133, 157, 308 and potassium, 225-227 Heat stroke, 121 Heliobacter pylori infection, 373 Hematuria, 280 Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, 274 Heparin, 242, 243, 431 High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 283, 292, 294-295 Honolulu Heart Study, 213-215, 216 Human feeding studies, 38-39 Human milk potassium, 231-232, 239-240 sodium and chloride, 304, 305, 384 sulfate, 432 volume of intake, 30, 43, 141, 231 water content, 153 Hydration status. See also Dehydration; Hyperhydration and blood pressure, 118-120 blood urea nitrogen and, 98-99 and body weight changes, 101-102, 110, 151 and cardiovascular disease, 367 fluid consumption and, 86, 92, 94-95, 102 and health and performance, 105-127 heat acclimatization and, 92, 97, 98 indicators, 4, 5, 73, 77, 90-91, 122, 142, 144 lactation and, 153 methods for estimating, 90-127 plasma osmolality, 4, 92-94, 100, 102, 104, 115, 139, 151-152 plasma sodium concentration and, 95-97 plasma volume changes and, 37, 97-98, 102, 104-105, 119, 132, 150, 151 pregnancy and, 151-152 saliva specific gravity and, 100-101 serum osmolality, 4, 5, 94-95, 135, 137, 142-143, 148, 534-536 sodium and chloride and, 94, 95-97, 296, 301, 310 thirst and, 86, 102-105, 149-150, 151 total body water changes, 90-99 urine indicators, 82-83, 92, 99-101, 105, 148 and water consumption, 86, 94-95 Hydrochlorothiazide, 241 Hydrogen, 273 Hydrogen isotope activity, 89, 91, 142, 151 Hydroxyapatite, 190 Hyperaldosteronism, 280

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Elements Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Life Stage Group Calcium (mg/d) Chromium (µg/d) Copper (µg/d) Fluoride (mg/d) Iodine (µg/d) Iron (mg/d) Magnesium (mg/d) Infants 0–6 mo 210* 0.2* 200* 0.01* 110* 0.27* 30* 7–12 mo 270* 5.5* 220* 0.5* 130* 11 75* Children 1–3 y 500* 11* 340 0.7* 90 7 80 4–8 y 800* 15* 440 1* 90 10 130 Males 9–13 y 1,300* 25* 700 2* 120 8 240 14–18 y 1,300* 35* 890 3* 150 11 410 19–30 y 1,000* 35* 900 4* 150 8 400 31–50 y 1,000* 35* 900 4* 150 8 420 51–70 y 1,200* 30* 900 4* 150 8 420 > 70 y 1,200* 30* 900 4* 150 8 420 Females 9–13 y 1,300* 21* 700 2* 120 8 240 14–18 y 1,300* 24* 890 3* 150 15 360 19–30 y 1,000* 25* 900 3* 150 18 310 31–50 y 1,000* 25* 900 3* 150 18 320 51–70 y 1,200* 20* 900 3* 150 8 320 > 70 y 1,200* 20* 900 3* 150 8 320 Pregnancy 14–18 y 1,300* 29* 1,000 3* 220 27 400 19–30 y 1,000* 30* 1,000 3* 220 27 350 31–50 y 1,000* 30* 1,000 3* 220 27 360 Lactation 14–18 y 1,300* 44* 1,300 3* 290 10 360 19–30 y 1,000* 45* 1,300 3* 290 9 310 31–50 y 1,000* 45* 1,300 3* 290 9 320 NOTE: This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Manganese (mg/d) Molybdenum (µg/d) Phosphorus (mg/d) Selenium (µg/d) Zinc (mg/d) Potassium (g/d) Sodium (g/d) Chloride (g/d) 0.003* 2* 100* 15* 2* 0.4* 0.12* 0.18* 0.6* 3* 275* 20* 3 0.7* 0.37* 0.57* 1.2* 17 460 20 3 3.0* 1.0* 1.5* 1.5* 22 500 30 5 3.8* 1.2* 1.9* 1.9* 34 1,250 40 8 4.5* 1.5* 2.3* 2.2* 43 1,250 55 11 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 2.3* 45 700 55 11 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 2.3* 45 700 55 11 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 2.3* 45 700 55 11 4.7* 1.3* 2.0* 2.3* 45 700 55 11 4.7* 1.2* 1.8* 1.6* 34 1,250 40 8 4.5* 1.5* 2.3* 1.6* 43 1,250 55 9 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 1.8* 45 700 55 8 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 1.8* 45 700 55 8 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 1.8* 45 700 55 8 4.7* 1.3* 2.0* 1.8* 45 700 55 8 4.7* 1.2* 1.8* 2.0* 50 1,250 60 12 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 2.0* 50 700 60 11 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 2.0* 50 700 60 11 4.7* 1.5* 2.3* 2.6* 50 1,250 70 13 5.1* 1.5* 2.3* 2.6* 50 700 70 12 5.1* 1.5* 2.3* 2.6* 50 700 70 12 5.1* 1.5* 2.3* SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005). These reports may be accessed via http://www.nap.edu.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Recommended Intakes for Individuals, Total Water and Macronutrients Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Life Stage Group Total Watera (L/d) Carbohydrate (g/d) Total Fiber (g/d) Fat (g/d) Linoleic Acid (g/d) α-Linolenic Acid (g/d) Proteinb (g/d) Infants 0–6 mo 0.7* 60* ND 31* 4.4* 0.5* 9.1* 7–12 mo 0.8* 95* ND 30* 4.6* 0.5* 11.0+ Children 1–3 y 1.3* 130 19* NDc 7* 0.7* 13 4–8 y 1.7* 130 25* ND 10* 0.9* 19 Males 9–13 y 2.4* 130 31* ND 12* 1.2* 34 14–18 y 3.3* 130 38* ND 16* 1.6* 52 19–30 y 3.7* 130 38* ND 17* 1.6* 56 31–50 y 3.7* 130 38* ND 17* 1.6* 56 51–70 y 3.7* 130 30* ND 14* 1.6* 56 > 70 y 3.7* 130 30* ND 14* 1.6* 56 Females 9–13 y 2.1* 130 26* ND 10* 1.0* 34 14–18 y 2.3* 130 26* ND 11* 1.1* 46 19–30 y 2.7* 130 25* ND 12* 1.1* 46 31–50 y 2.7* 130 25* ND 12* 1.1* 46 51–70 y 2.7* 130 21* ND 11* 1.1* 46 > 70 y 2.7* 130 21* ND 11* 1.1* 46 Pregnancy 14–18 y 3.0* 175 28* ND 13* 1.4* 71 19–30 y 3.0* 175 28* ND 13* 1.4* 71 31–50 y 3.0* 175 28* ND 13* 1.4* 71 Lactation 14–18 y 3.8* 210 29* ND 13* 1.3* 71 19–30 y 3.8* 210 29* ND 13* 1.3* 71 31–50 y 3.8* 210 29* ND 13* 1.3* 71 NOTE: This table presents Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) in bold type and Adequate Intakes (AIs) in ordinary type followed by an asterisk (*). RDAs and AIs may both be used as goals for individual intake. RDAs are set to meet the needs of almost all (97 to 98 percent) individuals in a group. For healthy breastfed infants, the AI is the mean intake. The AI for other life stage and gender groups is believed to cover the needs of all individuals in the group, but lack of data or uncertainty in the data prevent being able to specify with confidence the percentage of individuals covered by this intake. The plus (+) symbol indicates a change from the prepublication copy due to a calculation error. a Total water includes all water contained in food, beverages, and drinking water. b Based on g protein per kg of body weight for the reference body weight, e.g., for adults 0.8 g/kg body weight for the reference body weight. c Not determined. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005); Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005). These reports may be accessed via http://www.nap.edu.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Macronutrient Range (percent of energy) Children, 1–3 y Children, 4–18 y Adults Fat 30–40 25–35 20–35 n-6 Polyunsaturated fatty acidsa (linoleic acid) 5–10 5–10 5–10 n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acidsa (α-linolenic acid) 0.6–1.2 0.6–1.2 0.6–1.2 Carbohydrate 45–65 45–65 45–65 Protein 5–20 10–30 10–35 a Approximately 10 percent of the total can come from longer-chain n-3 or n-6 fatty acids. SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005). Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Additional Macronutrient Recommendations Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Macronutrient Recommendation Dietary cholesterol As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet Trans fatty acids As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet Saturated fatty acids As low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet Added sugars Limit to no more than 25% of total energy   SOURCE: Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005).

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULa), Vitamins Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Life Stage Group Vitamin A (µg/d)b Vitamin C (mg/d) Vitamin D (µg/d) Vitamin E (mg/d)c,d Vitamin K Thiamin Infants 0–6 mo 600 NDf 25 ND ND ND 7–12 mo 600 ND 25 ND ND ND Children 1–3 y 600 400 50 200 ND ND 4–8 y 900 650 50 300 ND ND Males, Females 9–13 y 1,700 1,200 50 600 ND ND 14–18 y 2,800 1,800 50 800 ND ND 19–70 y 3,000 2,000 50 1,000 ND ND > 70 y 3,000 2,000 50 1,000 ND ND Pregnancy 14–18 y 2,800 1,800 50 800 ND ND 19–50 y 3,000 2,000 50 1,000 ND ND Lactation 14–18 y 2,800 1,800 50 800 ND ND 19–50 y 3,000 2,000 50 1,000 ND ND a UL = The highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for vitamin K, thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and carotenoids. In the absence of ULs, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. b As preformed vitamin A only. c As α-tocopherol; applies to any form of supplemental α-tocopherol. d The ULs for vitamin E, niacin, and folate apply to synthetic forms obtained from supplements, fortified foods, or a combination of the two. e β-Carotene supplements are advised only to serve as a provitamin A source for individuals at risk of vitamin A deficiency.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Riboflavin Niacin (mg/d)d Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (µg/d)d Vitamin B12 Pantothenic Acid Biotin Choline (g/d) Carotenoidse ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 10 30 300 ND ND ND 1.0 ND ND 15 40 400 ND ND ND 1.0 ND ND 20 60 600 ND ND ND 2.0 ND ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND ND 30 80 800 ND ND ND 3.0 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND ND ND 3.5 ND f ND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001). These reports may be accessed via http://www.nap.edu.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULa), Elements Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Life Stage Group Arsenicb Boron (mg/d) Calcium (g/d) Chromium Copper (µg/d) Fluoride (mg/d) Iodine (µg/d) Iron (mg/d) Magnesium (mg/d)c Infants 0–6 mo NDf ND ND ND ND 0.7 ND 40 ND 7–12 mo ND ND ND ND ND 0.9 ND 40 ND Children 1–3 y ND 3 2.5 ND 1,000 1.3 200 40 65 4–8 y ND 6 2.5 ND 3,000 2.2 300 40 110 Males, Females 9–13 y ND 11 2.5 ND 5,000 10 600 40 350 14–18 y ND 17 2.5 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 19–70 y ND 20 2.5 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 > 70 y ND 20 2.5 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 Pregnancy 14–18 y ND 17 2.5 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 19–50 y ND 20 2.5 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 Lactation 14–18 y ND 17 2.5 ND 8,000 10 900 45 350 19–50 y ND 20 2.5 ND 10,000 10 1,100 45 350 a UL = The highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population. Unless otherwise specified, the UL represents total intake from food, water, and supplements. Due to lack of suitable data, ULs could not be established for arsenic, chromium, silicon, potassium, and sulfate. In the absence of ULs, extra caution may be warranted in consuming levels above recommended intakes. b Although the UL was not determined for arsenic, there is no justification for adding arsenic to food or supplements. c The ULs for magnesium represent intake from a pharmacological agent only and do not include intake from food and water. d Although silicon has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding silicon to supplements. e Although vanadium in food has not been shown to cause adverse effects in humans, there is no justification for adding vanadium to food and vanadium supplements should be used with caution. The UL is based on adverse effects in laboratory animals and this data could be used to set a UL for adults but not children and adolescents.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Manganese (mg/d) Molybdenum (µg/d) Nickel (mg/d) Phosphorus (g/d) Potassium Selenium (µg/d) Silicond Sulfate Vanadium (mg/d)e Zinc (mg/d) Sodium (g/d) Chloride (g/d) ND ND ND ND ND 45 ND ND ND 4 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND 60 ND ND ND 5 ND ND 2 300 0.2 3.0 ND 90 ND ND ND 7 1.5 2.3 3 600 0.3 3.0 ND 150 ND ND ND 12 1.9 2.9 6 1,100 0.6 4.0 ND 280 ND ND ND 23 2.2 3.4 9 1,700 1.0 4.0 ND 400 ND ND ND 34 2.3 3.6 11 2,000 1.0 4.0 ND 400 ND ND 1.8 40 2.3 3.6 11 2,000 1.0 3.0 ND 400 ND ND 1.8 40 2.3 3.6 9 1,700 1.0 3.5 ND 400 ND ND ND 34 2.3 3.6 11 2,000 1.0 3.5 ND 400 ND ND ND 40 2.3 3.6 9 1,700 1.0 4.0 ND 400 ND ND ND 34 2.3 3.6 11 2,000 1.0 4.0 ND 400 ND ND ND 40 2.3 3.6 f ND = Not determinable due to lack of data of adverse effects in this age group and concern with regard to lack of ability to handle excess amounts. Source of intake should be from food only to prevent high levels of intake. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001); and Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate (2005). These reports may be accessed via http://www.nap.edu.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Estimated Average Requirements for Groups Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academies Life Stage Group CHO (g/d) Protein (g/kg/d) Vit A (µg/d)a Vit C (mg/d) Vit E (mg/d)b Thiamin (mg/d) Riboflavin (mg/d) Niacin (mg/d)c Vit B6 (mg/d) Infants 7–12 mo   1.0   Children 1–3 y 100 0.87 210 13 5 0.4 0.4 5 0.4 4–8 y 100 0.76 275 22 6 0.5 0.5 6 0.5 Males 9–13 y 100 0.76 445 39 9 0.7 0.8 9 0.8 14–18 y 100 0.73 630 63 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.1 19–30 y 100 0.66 625 75 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.1 31–50 y 100 0.66 625 75 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.1 51–70 y 100 0.66 625 75 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.4 > 70 y 100 0.66 625 75 12 1.0 1.1 12 1.4 Females 9–13 y 100 0.76 420 39 9 0.7 0.8 9 0.8 14–18 y 100 0.71 485 56 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.0 19–30 y 100 0.66 500 60 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.1 31–50 y 100 0.66 500 60 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.1 51–70 y 100 0.66 500 60 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.3 > 70 y 100 0.66 500 60 12 0.9 0.9 11 1.3 Pregnancy 14–18 y 135 0.88 530 66 12 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 19–30 y 135 0.88 550 70 12 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 31–50 y 135 0.88 550 70 12 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 Lactation 14–18 y 160 1.05 885 96 16 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 19–30 y 160 1.05 900 100 16 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 31–50 y 160 1.05 900 100 16 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 NOTE: This table presents Estimated Average Requirements (EARs), which serve two purposes: for assessing adequacy of population intakes and as the basis for calculating Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for individuals. EARs have not been established for vitamin D, vitamin K, pantothenic acid, biotin, choline, calcium, chromium, fluoride, mangan ese, or other nutrients not yet evaluated via the DRI process. a As retinol activity equivalents (RAEs). 1 RAE = 1 µg retinol, 12 µg β-carotene, 24 µg α-carotene, or 24 µg β-cryptoxanthin. The RAE for dietary provitamin A carotenoids is twofold greater than retinol equivalents (RE), whereas the RAE for preformed vitamin A is the same as RE. b As α-tocopherol. α-Tocopherol includes RRR-α-tocopherol, the only form of α-tocopherol that occurs naturally in foods, and the 2R-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (RRR-, RSR-, RRS-, and RSS-α-tocopherol) that occur in fortified foods and supplements. It does not include the 2S-stereoisomeric forms of α-tocopherol (SRR-, SSR-, SRS-, and SSS-α-tocopherol), also found in fortified foods and supplements.

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Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate Folate (µg/d)a Vit B12 (µg/d) Copper (µg/d) Iodine (µg/d) Iron (mg/d) Magnesium (mg/d) Molybdenum (µg/d) Phosphorus (mg/d) Selenium (µg/d) Zinc (mg/d)   6.9   2.5 120 0.7 260 65 3.0 65 13 380 17 2.5 160 1.0 340 65 4.1 110 17 405 23 4.0 250 1.5 540 73 5.9 200 26 1,055 35 7.0 330 2.0 685 95 7.7 340 33 1,055 45 8.5 320 2.0 700 95 6 330 34 580 45 9.4 320 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4 320 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4 320 2.0 700 95 6 350 34 580 45 9.4 250 1.5 540 73 5.7 200 26 1,055 35 7.0 330 2.0 685 95 7.9 300 33 1,055 45 7.3 320 2.0 700 95 8.1 255 34 580 45 6.8 320 2.0 700 95 8.1 265 34 580 45 6.8 320 2.0 700 95 5 265 34 580 45 6.8 320 2.0 700 95 5 265 34 580 45 6.8 520 2.2 785 160 23 335 40 1,055 49 10.5 520 2.2 800 160 22 290 40 580 49 9.5 520 2.2 800 160 22 300 40 580 49 9.5 450 2.4 985 209 7 300 35 1,055 59 10.9 450 2.4 1,000 209 6.5 255 36 580 59 10.4 450 2.4 1,000 209 6.5 265 36 580 59 10.4 c As niacin equivalents (NE). 1 mg of niacin = 60 mg of tryptophan. d As dietary folate equivalents (DFE). 1 DFE = 1 µg food folate = 0.6 µg of folic acid from fortified food or as a supplement consumed with food = 0.5 µg of a supplement taken on an empty stomach. SOURCES: Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride (1997); Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline (1998); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids (2000); Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc (2001), and Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (2002/2005). These reports may be accessed via www.nap.edu.

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