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blood pressure, 234

Body Mass Index, 483

bone mass, peak, 32

bone mineral density, 234

cardiovascular disease, 234

dietary intakes, 86, 307-308, 309, 320

energy metabolism, 32, 386

extrapolation of data to infants and children, 45, 233, 386

extrapolation of data to older adults, 45

heat stress, 307

insulin resistance, 307

kidney stones, 234

lactation, 153, 316

lipid levels, 308

physical activity, 103, 154-155, 308, 540-545

potassium, 32, 191, 225, 226, 228, 234-235, 245, 249, 323, 530-531

pregnancy, 152, 316

pulmonary function, 225

renal function, 148

sodium and chloride, 11, 32, 148, 234, 270, 271, 276, 281-282, 307-310, 316, 320, 322, 323, 373, 376-381, 382-383, 532-533

special considerations, 144, 154-155, 308

stroke, 234

sulfate, 428, 433-436, 440-441

supplements, 249

thermoregulation, 83

ULs, 249, 373, 386-381

urine osmolalities, 82

water, 5-6, 75, 82, 83, 86, 87-88, 90, 92-93, 103, 144-147, 148, 153, 154-155, 157-158, 159-160, 161, 528-529, 540-545

weights and heights, reference, 482

Adults, ages 51 through 70+ years

ages 51 through 70 years, 32-33, 150, 528-533, 540-545

ages 71 years and older, 32-33, 150, 528-533, 540-545

AIs, 45-46, 147-150, 236-237, 310-313

alcohol, 148

bioavailability of nutrients, 32

blood pressure, 46, 237, 311-312, 380

cognitive function and motor control, 105-108

dehydration, 148, 149

derivation of DRIs for, 32

diuretics, 299

energy expenditure, 33

energy intakes, 312

extrapolation of data from younger adults, 45-46, 237, 312

hyperinsulinemia, 236-237

hyperkalemia, 188, 237

hypernatremia, 149

hypertension, 283

hyponatremia, 299

physical activity, 540-545

plasma renin activity, 283, 311

potassium, 46, 188, 213, 236-237, 323, 530-531

renal function, 32, 99, 147-149, 236, 310-312

reserve capacity and functioning, 32

salt sensitivity, 311

sodium and chloride, 11-12, 45-46, 148, 270, 271, 280-281, 283, 299, 301, 310-313, 323, 381-382, 380, 381-382, 532-533

stroke, 150, 213

supplements

thirst, 149-150

ULs, 381-382

urine osmolalities, 82, 147, 149

water, 82, 92-93, 99, 147-150, 159-160, 161, 310, 528-529, 540-545

Adverse effects, 50-51, 66, 70, 471

African Americans

blood pressure, 187, 202-203, 212, 230-231, 234, 380, 387, 393

hydration of fat-free mass, 76-77

hypertension, 195-196, 218, 334-335, 340-341, 346, 347

left ventricular hypertrophy, 366

plasma renin activity, 283, 284-287



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