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potassium, 9, 187, 195-196, 202-203, 212, 234, 245, 247, 334-335, 508-509

pubertal development, 32

salt sensitivity, 195-196, 230-231, 387

sodium, 202-203, 212, 334-335, 340-341, 346, 347, 514-515

water consumption, 141

Age. See also Adolescents;

Adults;

Children;

Infants;

Life-stage groups;

Toddlers

and hydration of fat-free mass, 76-77

Alcohol, 7, 123, 134-135, 148, 323, 329, 354-355, 458

Aldosterone, 189, 194, 238-239, 243, 277, 281, 291, 311, 314, 315, 393

Aldosteronism, 238-239, 314, 393

Alpha-adrenergic agonists, 243, 381

Altitude exposure, 80, 132-133

American Academy of Pediatrics, 30, 43, 44

American Water Works Association, 442

Amiloride, 227, 243

Amino acids, sulfur-containing, 187, 189, 244, 425, 427, 429, 434-435

5-Aminosalicylic acid, 440

Analgesics, 139

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor drug therapy, 188, 241-242, 243, 283

Angiotensin gene, 394

Angiotensin II, 111, 273, 274, 281, 311, 315

receptor blocker, 392

Animal studies

cardiovascular disease, 357-358

of dehydration, 79, 111, 120-121

extrapolation of data from, 53, 65, 68, 564, 565

potassium, 213, 236

pregnant animals, 437-438

relevance of, 38, 61-62, 63-64

sodium and chloride, 301, 302-303, 357-358, 373

sulfate, 437-438

young animals, 438

Antibiotics, 139

Anticholinergic drugs, 139

Antidepressants, 139

Arginine vasopressin, 92, 94, 104, 111, 134, 135, 139, 140, 148, 149, 151, 152, 163, 315

Asians

sodium intake, 358

water requirements, 90

Asthma, 372, 377

Atherosclerosis, 386

Athletes. See also Physical exercise and activity

body weight changes, 102

carbohydrate loading, 102

dehydration, 121, 125

potassium balance, 226-227

rapid weight loss, 121, 125

sodium balance, 317

sweating rates, 127, 226

total body water, 78

urine color chart, 99

water consumption, 127, 162, 163

Atrial natriuretic peptide, 139, 148, 273, 315

B

Bacteria, sulfate-reducing, 439

Balance studies

chloride, 280

defined, 39

potassium, 191-192, 193

pregnant women, 314

sodium and chloride, 275-281, 301-302, 314

water, 86-89, 93, 140, 142

Bartter’s syndrome, 239, 303

Beta-adrenergic blockade, 236, 237, 243

Bicarbonate, 190, 194.

See also Potassium bicarbonate

precursors, 8, 186, 188, 240-241, 242, 244



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