Click for next page ( R2


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
NINTH ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON FRONTIERS OF ENGINEERING NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ENGINEERING OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

OCR for page R1
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS - 500 Fifth Street, N.W. - Washington, D.C. 20001 NOTICE: This publication has been reviewed according to procedures approved by a National Academy of Engineering (NAB) report review process. Publication of signed work signifies that it is judged a competent and useful contribution worthy of public consideration, but it does not imply endorsement of conclusions or recommendations by the NAE. The interpretations and conclusions in such publications are those of the authors and do not purport to represent the views of the council, officers, or staff of the National Academy of Engineering. Funding for the activity that led to this publication was provided by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of De- fense-DDR&E-Research, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Eastman Kodak, Microsoft Corporation, ATOFINA Chemicals, Inc., Cummins, Inc., Science Ap- plications International Corporation, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Millipore Cor- poration, GE Foundation, Dr. John A. Armstrong, and other individual donors. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09139-X (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-52992-1 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from The National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334- 3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright C) 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

OCR for page R1
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of . ~ . . . engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Insti- tute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the Nation- al Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www. nationa l-academies.org

OCR for page R1
ORGANIZING COMMITTEE PABLO G. DEBENEDETTI (Chair), Class of 1950 Professor and Chair, Department of Chemical Engineering, Princeton University JANE BARE, Chemical Engineer, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency MATT BLAZE, Research Scientist, AT&T Laboratories GANG CHEN, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOSEPH B. HUGHES, Professor and Chair, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology LILA KARI, Associate Professor and Canada Research Chair in Biocomputing, Department of Computer Science, University of Western Ontario STEPHEN J. LEE, Chemist, U.S. Army Research Office MITSUNORI OGIHARA, Professor, Department of Computer Science, University of Rochester ROBERT J. SCHOELKOPF, Assistant Professor, Applied Physics, Yale University Staff JANET R. HUNZIKER, Program Officer JENNIFER M. HARDESTY, Senior Project Assistant MARY W. L. KUTRUFF, Administrative Assistant V

OCR for page R1
Preface This volume highlights the papers presented at the Ninth Annual National Academy of Engineering (NAE) Frontiers of Engineering Symposium. Every year the symposium brings together 100 outstanding young leaders in engineer- ing to share their cutting-edge research and technical work. The 2003 sympo- sium was held September 18-20 at the Beckman Center in Irvine, California. The papers included in this volume are extended summaries of the presentations prepared by the speakers. The intent of this volume, and of the preceding vol- umes in the series, is to describe the philosophy behind this unique meeting and to highlight some of the exciting developments in engineering today. GOALS OF THE FRONTIERS OF ENGINEERING PROGRAM The practice of engineering is changing. Engineers today must be able to adapt and thrive in an environment of rapid technological change and globaliza- tion. Engineering is becoming increasingly more interdisciplinary, and the fron- tiers often occur at intersections between engineering disciplines or at intersec- tions between traditional "science" and engineering disciplines. Thus, both researchers and practitioners must be aware of developments and challenges in areas other than their own. At the three-day Frontiers of Engineering Symposium, we invite 100 of this country's best and brightest engineers, ages 30 to 45, to join their peers to learn about cutting-edge developments in engineering. This broad overview of cur- rent developments in many fields of engineering often stimulates insights into cross-disciplinary applications. Because the engineers at the symposium work in academia, industry, and government, they can establish contacts with and v

OCR for page R1
v! PREFACE learn from people they would probably not meet in the usual round of profes- sional meetings. We hope this networking will lead to collaborative work that facilitates the transfer of new techniques and approaches from one field of engi- neering to another. The number of participants at each meeting is kept to 100 to maximize oppor- tunities for interactions and exchanges among the attendees, who have been cho- sen after a competitive nomination and selection process. The topics and speakers for each meeting are selected by an organizing committee of engineers in the same age group as the participants. Different topics are covered each year, and, with a few exceptions, different individuals are invited to participate. Each speaker faces a unique challenge to convey the excitement of his or her field to a technically sophisticated but nonspecialist audience. To meet this challenge, speakers are asked to provide brief overviews of their fields (includ- ing a definition of the frontiers of the field); a brief description of current exper- iments, prototypes, and design studies; a description of new tools and method- ologies; identification of limitations on advances and controversies; a brief description of the most exciting results and most difficult challenges of the past few years; and a summary statement of the theoretical, commercial, societal, and long-term significance of the work. THE 2003 SYMPOSIUM The presentations this year covered four broad areas: environmental engi- neering, the fundamental limits of nanotechnology, counterterrorism technolo- gies and infrastructure protection, and biomolecular computing. The talks in the Environmental Engineering session illustrated the interface between engineering and the natural sciences, resource economics, systems analysis, and risk man- agement. Specifically, the presentations delved into how an understanding of microbial mineral respiration can inform the remediation of contaminated envi- ronments, the interface of water resource engineering with economics and public policy, and the use of life cycle analysis to address sustainability issues. While nanotechnology has been a topic at several past Frontiers meetings, the talks at this year's meeting focused on the fundamental limits of nanotechnology and sought to answer the question: How far down is the bottom? The speakers addressed the prospects in top-down approaches as applied to silicon microelec- tronics, the limits in the bottom-up approach to molecular electronics, the limits of storage in magnetic materials, and limits imposed on nanotechnology by the behavior of thermal systems at very small length scales. Presentations in the Counterterrorism Technologies and Infrastructure Protection session addressed chemical and biological threats, as well as threats to infrastructure systems such as power distribution, telecommunications, and transportation systems that are dependent on computing systems for their control and operation. Here presenta- tions covered biocatalytic decontamination/demilitarization, the use of engineer-

OCR for page R1
PREFACE vii ing problem-solving approaches for dealing with biological terrorism, and soft- ware and network security issues. The symposium concluded with a session on Biomolecular Computing, also known as DNA computing, biocomputing, and molecular computing. The primary goal of this field is to investigate the po- tential of molecules such as DNA for massively parallel computation. Here the talks covered some of the most promising areas in the field: computation based on DNA self-assembly, molecular breeding of DNA sequences by DNA shuffling, and programmable biological cells. (See Appendix C for complete program.) It is traditional to invite a distinguished engineer to address the participants at dinner on the first evening of the symposium. This year's dinner speaker was William F. Ballhaus, Jr., president and CEO of The Aerospace Corporation, whose talk was titled, "The Most Important Lessons You Didn't Learn in Engi- neering School." The full text of Dr. Ballhaus's remarks are included in this volume. NAE is deeply grateful to the following organizations for their support of the Ninth Annual Symposium on Frontiers of Engineering: Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, U.S. Depart- ment of Defense-DDR&E-Research, National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- tration, Eastman Kodak, Microsoft Corporation, ATOFINA Chemicals, Inc., Cummins, Inc., Science Applications International Corporation, Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Millipore Corporation, GE Foundation, and Dr. John A. Armstrong and other individual donors. NAE would also like to thank the mem- bers of the Symposium Organizing Committee (see p. iv), chaired by Pablo Debenedetti, for planning and organizing the event.

OCR for page R1

OCR for page R1
Contents ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING Microbial Mineral Respiration Dianne K. Newman Water-Resource Engineering, Economics, and Public Policy Gregory W. Characklis Life Cycle Development: Expanding the Life Cycle Framework to Address Issues of Sustainable Development Gregory A. Norris FUNDAMENTAL LIMITS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY: HOW FAR DOWN IS THE BOTTOM? Status, Challenges, and Frontiers of Silicon CMOS Technology Jack Hergenrother Molecular Electronics James R. Heath Limits of Storage in Magnetic Materials Thomas J. Silva Thermodynamics of Nanosystems Christopher Jarzynski Fix 3 11 19 27 41 49 67

OCR for page R1
x COUNTERTERRORISM TECHNOLOGIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION Biological Counterterrorism Technologies Using Biotechnology to Detect and Counteract Chemical Weapons Alan J. Russell, Joel L. Kaar, and Jason A. Berberich An Engineering Problem-Solving Approach to Biological Terrorism Mohamed Athher Mughal Infrastructure Protection Internet Security William R. Cheswick BIOMOLECULAR COMPUTING DNA Computing by Self-Assembly Erik Winfree Natural Computation as a Principle of Biological Design Willem P. C. Stemmer Challenges and Opportunities in Programming Living Cells Ron Weiss DINNER SPEECH CONTENTS 93 105 119 121 The Most Important Lessons You Didn't Learn in Engineering School 133 William F. Ballhaus, Jr. APPENDIXES Breakout Session Contributors Program Participants 143 153 159 163

OCR for page R1
NINTH ANNUAL SYMPOSIUM ON FRONTIERS OF ENGINEERING

OCR for page R1