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Contributors William F. Ballhaus, Ir. is president and chief executive officer of The Aero- space Corporation, an independent, nonprofit organization dedicated to the ob- jective application of science and technology toward the solution of critical is- sues in the nation's space program. Dr. Ballhaus joined Aerospace as president in September 2000, after an 11-year career with Lockheed Martin Corporation, where he served as corporate officer and vice president, Engineering and Tech- nology. Prior to his tenure with Lockheed Martin, Dr. Ballhaus served as presi- dent of two Martin Marietta businesses, Aero and Naval Systems, and Civil Space and Communications. He also was vice president and program director of Titan IV Centaur operations at Martin Marietta Space Launch Systems. Before joining Martin Marietta, Dr. Ballhaus served as director of the National Aero- nautics and Space Administration's Ames Research Center. He also served as acting associate administrator for Aeronautics and Space Technology at NASA headquarters in Washington, D.C. Dr. Ballhaus is a graduate of the University of California at Berkeley, where he earned a doctorate in engineering and bachelor's and master's degrees in mechanical engineering. He is a member of the Defense Science Board and the National Academy of Engineering, where he is also a councillor. He is a member of the International Academy of Astronau- tics and a fellow of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the Royal Aeronautical Society. He serves on the Jet Propulsion Lab Advisory Council and on the board of directors of the Space Foundation. At Charles Stark Draper Lab, Dr. Ballhaus is one of the 47 members of the corporation who oversee the governance of the laboratory. In addition, he is a member of the engineering advisory boards at the University of California, Berkeley, the Mas- sachusetts Institute of Technology, Johns Hopkins University, and the Univer- 153

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154 FRONTIERS OF ENGINEERING sity of Southern California. Dr. Ballhaus is the recipient of numerous awards, including the presidential ranks of distinguished executive and meritorious ex- ecutive, conferred by President Ronald Reagan, the NASA Distinguished Ser- vice Medal, the Air Force Exceptional Civilian Service Medal, the Distinguished Engineering Alumnus Award from the University of California, Berkeley, and the AIAA's Lawrence Sperry Award. Gregory W. Characklis is an assistant professor in the Department of Environ- mental Sciences and Engineering at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (UNC). His areas of research are integrated planning of water supply/ treatment systems through use of engineering and economic criteria, impacts of water quality on resource value and allocation, and market-based reform of envi- ronmental regulation. From 1997 to 1999, Dr. Characklis was a fellow at the National Academy of Engineering. Prior to joining the faculty at UNC, he was director of resource development and management at Azurix Corp. where his responsibilities centered around assessing the technical and financial merits of water supply development projects throughout the United States, including most of the western states. Dr. Characklis received a B.S. in materials science and engineering from Johns Hopkins University, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in environmental science and engineering from Rice University. William R. Cheswick is chief scientist at Lumeta, a Lucent Technologies' Bell Labs spin-off in Somerset, New Jersey. Prior to assuming his current position, Mr. Cheswick was a member of the technical staff at Bell Labs/Lucent and a systems programmer and consultant with Systems and Computer Technology Corporation. While at Bell Labs, Mr. Cheswick did early work on firew all design and implementation, including the first circuit-level gateway, for which he coined the term "proxy." He also worked on PC viruses, mailers, Internet munitions, and the Plan 9 operating system. In 1994, he co-authored the first book on firewalls, Firewalls and Internet Security: Repelling the Wiley Hacker, which was reissued in second edition in Spring 2003. In 1998, Mr. Cheswick started the Internet Mapping Project, which became the core technology for Lumeta. The Internet Mapping Project explores the extent of corporate and government intranets and checks for host leaks that violate perimeter policies. Mr. Cheswick holds five patents, has been interviewed broadly by the media on security issues, and has served on numerous program committees for security conferences. He has a B.S. from Lehigh University. Mr. Cheswick has a wide interest in science, and his avocations include home automation and security, time lapse photography, high power model rocketry, radio-controlled model air- craft, and interactive exhibits for science museums. James R. Heath is the Elizabeth W. Gilloon Professor of Chemistry at the California Institute of Technology, where his research focuses on understanding

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CONTRIBUTORS 155 how to fabricate, assemble, and utilize nanometer scale structures, learning how to chemically synthesize a computer, and understanding the nanocircuitry of biological systems. Dr. Heath is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Packard Fellowship (1994), Sloan Fellowship (1997), Fellow of the American Physical Society (1999), Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology (2000), Raymond and Beverly Sackler Prize in the Physical Sciences (2001), and Scientific Ameri- can Top 50 (2002~. He received a B.S. from Baylor University and a Ph.D. from Rice University. jack Hergenrother is a research staff member in Silicon Technology at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, where he focuses on the design and fabrication of advanced silicon CMOS devices. Be- fore joining IBM in August 2003, Dr. Hergenrother was a technical manager at Agere Systems and a distinguished member of the technical staff at Lucent Tech- nologies' Bell Laboratories. From 1995 to 1997, he studded the physics and applications of single-electron transistors as a postdoctoral fellow at Harvard University. Dr. Hergenrother is the recipient of numerous awards, including a Marshall Scholarship, a National Science Foundation Fellowship, a Joint Ser- vices Electronics Program Fellowship, and the White Award for Excellence in Teaching at Harvard University. He is one of the few Americans to earn a Cambridge University "Blue" in soccer. Dr. Hergenrother's work on the Verti- cal Replacement-Gate (VRG) MOSFET, a novel silicon transistor in which all critical dimensions are controlled precisely without lithography, was recognized by Discover Magazine as a semifinalist for Technological Innovation of the Year in 2000. He is a member of the IEEE and the American Physical Society, and he serves on the CMOS Devices Subcommittee for the International Electron De- vices Meeting. Dr. Hergenrother received a B.S.E. in chemical engineering and engineering physics from Princeton University, an M.A. in applied mathematics and theoretical physics from Cambridge University, and a Ph.D. in applied phys- ics from Harvard University. Christopher ,Iarzynski is a technical staff member in the Theoretical Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory. His current research interests include non- equilibrium statistical physics, computational biology, and computational chem- istry. Dr. Jarzynski received an A.B. with high honors from Princeton Univer- sity and a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley, both in physics. He is the recipient of a Fulbright Scholarship and an Outstanding Teaching Assis- tant Award from the University of California, Berkeley. Mohamed Athher Mughal is a biological weapons response subject matter ex- pert with the U.S. Army Soldier and Biological Chemical Command, Homeland Defense Business Unit. He has over 17 years of research and technical experience with chemical and biological warfare and terrorism. Prior positions include co-

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156 FRONTIERS OF ENGINEERING leader of the Biological Weapons Improved Response Team; strategic planner, Treaty Verification Team; team leader, Nondestructive Equipment Team; and branch chief, Chemical Detectors/Protection Branch. In 1998, Dr. Mughal helped organize and lead a team of over 60 response professionals from around the coun- try that worked through a structured series of five technical workshops, focusing on city- and state-level response strategies for biological terrorism. He has pub- lished on biological terrorism preparedness and homeland defense in numerous journals and co-authored two Department of Defense technical reports on bio- terrorism preparedness. Dr. Mughal received a B.S. in chemical engineering from the University of Maryland, College Park, and a Ph.D. in policy science from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. He is a branch-qualified U.S. Army chemical officer and an honor graduate of the U.S. Army Chemical School. Dianne K. Newman is the Clare Boothe Luce Assistant Professor of Geobiology and Environmental Science at the California Institute of Technology where her research focuses on the molecular basis of microbe/mineral interactions. Dr. Newman received a B.A. from Stanford University in German studies, a Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in civil and environmental engi- neering, and was a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics at Harvard Medical School. Her awards include an ONR Young Investigator Award (2002) and a Packard Fellowship in Science and Engineering (2002~. Gregory A. Norris founded and directs Sylvatica, a life cycle assessment (LCA) research consulting firm in North Berwick, Maine. Dr. Norris is program man- ager for the United Nations' Environment Program' s (UNEP) global Life Cycle Initiative, directing the Program on Life Cycle Inventory Analysis. He teaches graduate courses on LCA and Industrial Ecology at the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH), where he also advises graduate students from HSPH and visit- ing research fellows from abroad. He consults on LCA and sustainable con- sumption to UNEP, to federal and state agencies in the United States, and to the private and nonprofit sectors. Dr. Norris has developed several software tools to assist analysis and decision making related to life cycle assessment and sustain- able enterprise. Recent research integrates socio-economic pathways to human health within the LCA framework and develops the function-based approach to sustainable consumption analysis. He is adjunct research professor at the Com- plex Systems Research Center, University of New Hampshire; he directs the life cycle assessment activities of the Athena Sustainable Materials Institute in Ot- tawa, Canada; and he is a program associate in the Center for Hazardous Sub- stance Research at Kansas State University and an editor of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment. Dr. Norris has an S.B. in mechanical engineer- ing from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, an M.S. in aeronautics and astronautics from Purdue University, and a Ph.D. in natural resources from the University of New Hampshire.

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CONTRIBUTORS 157 Alan ,1. Russell is director of the McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine and professor of surgery at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, professor in the Departments of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering at the University of Pittsburgh School of Engineering, and executive director of the Pittsburgh Tissue Engineering Initiative. After spending two years as a NATO Research Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. Russell joined the University of Pittsburgh as an assistant professor of chemical engineering in 1989. He was named Nikolas DeCecco Professor and chairman of the depart- ment in 1995. In 1999, Dr. Russell co-founded the biotechnology company, Agentase LLC. Dr. Russell's research has focused on the symbiotic interface between enzymes and materials. Recently, his group has focused on the bio- catalytic detoxification of chemical weapons, the study of proteins in extreme environments, biocatalytic polymer synthesis, biotechnology in supercritical flu- ids, and biomaterial design synthesis for tissue engineering. His awards include: R&D 100 Award, Carnegie Award for Excellence in Science and Technology, Fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering, and Presidential Young Investigator Award. Dr. Russell received a Ph.D. in chemis- try from Imperial College, the University of London. Thomas ,1. Silva is project leader of the Magnetodynamics Project, Magnetic Technology Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Boulder, Colorado. Before assuming his current position in 2000, Dr. Silva was a staff scientist in the Electronics and Electrical Engineering Lab at NIST. He is recipient of the Presidential Early Career Award in Science and Engineering and the IEEE Distinguished Lectureship as well as co-recipient of a NIST Compe- tence Award for research on atomic-scale metrology for ultra-high-density mag- netic recording. Dr. Silva is a member of the IEEE Magnetics Society and the American Physical Society, and he is program chair/co-chair for the Metallic Multilayers Symposium in 2004 and the MMM/Intermag Joint Conference 2004, respectively. He received a B.S. in engineering science from the University of California, Berkeley, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in electrical and computer engineering from the University of California, San Diego. Willem P. C. Stemmer is the vice president of research and founder of Avidia Research Institute and founder of Maxygen in Redwood City, California. He is the inventor of DNA shuffling, also called molecular breeding, which gave rise to Codexis, Inc. and Verdia, Inc. Dr. Stemmer received a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, where his research was on bacterial viru- lence mechanisms. This was followed by a postdoctoral fellowship in medical genetics, where he worked on antibody engineering for radioimmunotherapy of cancer. David Wagner is an assistant professor of computer science at the University of California, Berkeley. As a graduate student researcher, he co-founded UC

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158 FRONTIERS OF ENGINEERING Berkeley's ISAAC security research group, which has made substantial contri- butions in computer, network, and wireless security and in online privacy. Dr. Wagner is a co-author of The Twofish Encryption Algorithm: A 128-Bit Block Cipher and System Security: A Management Perspective. Recent awards include being named one of Popular Science's Brilliant 10 (2002), honorary mention for the ACM Dissertation Award, Computer Science Division Information Technol- ogy Faculty Award, and Computing Research Association Digital Government Fellow. He serves on numerous program committees, steering committees, and study groups related to cryptography and software security. Dr. Wagner re- ceived an A.B. in mathematics from Princeton University, and M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in computer science from the University of California, Berkeley. Ron Weiss is an assistant professor of electrical engineering at Princeton Uni- versity, where his research focuses on programming biological organisms by embedding synthetic biochemical logic circuits into cells, as well as embedding sensors, actuators, and intercellular communication mechanisms. Application areas include drug and biomaterial manufacturing, programmed therapeutics, embedded intelligence in materials, environmental sensing and effecting, and nanoscale fabrication. As a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Dr. Weiss worked on the MIT Project on Mathematics and Computation, associated with both the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab and the MIT Laboratory for Computer Sciences. He completed a Ph.D. at MIT in the area of programming biological cells in 2001. Erik Winfree is an assistant professor in computer science and computation and neural systems at the California Institute of Technology. His research concerns the theory and engineering of autonomous biochemical algorithms using in vitro systems of DNA and enzymes, including programmable DNA self-assembly, DNA and RNA conformational switches and devices, and RNA transcriptional circuits. Such systems are envisioned as embedded information processing and control for bottom-up nanofabrication, nanorobotics, biochemical diagnostics, and other biochemical processes. Dr. Winfree is the recipient of numerous awards, including the NSF PECASE/CAREER Award (2001), the ONR Young Investigators Award (2001), a MacArthur Fellowship (2000), and Technology Review's first TR100 list of "top young innovators" (1999~. Prior to joining the faculty at Caltech in 1999, Dr. Winfree was a Lewis Thomas Postdoctoral Fel- low in Molecular Biology at Princeton, and a visiting scientist at the Massachu- setts Institute of Technology's Artificial Intelligence Lab. Dr. Winfree received a B.S. in mathematics and computer science from the University of Chicago in 1991, and a Ph.D. in computation and neural systems from Caltech in 1998.