impact on the programs, as in the case of changes in visa regulations that have flowed from the USA PATRIOT Act, mentioned previously. Implementing procedures, such as those for review of entry visas, or regulations can also be changed without changes in law.

The need for mechanisms to establish priorities within cooperative nuclear nonproliferation programs was expressed repeatedly during the workshop. It was argued that failures to establish agreed program priorities when programs were just beginning have increased the difficulty of completing the projects and resulted in misplaced efforts.

Participants noted that some have called for the appointment, in each government, of a single official who has direct links to the president and is responsible for facilitating interagency coordination of all cooperative nuclear nonproliferation activities.

Mechanisms for Disseminating the Benefits of Experience

Workshop participants suggested that a multi-program effort such as MPC&A will be most effective when the people involved in specific programs are aware of the situation in other programs and how their work relates to the overall effort. It was suggested that it is important to actively encourage and guide the development of institutional knowledge to increase the effectiveness of personnel and institutions. Similarly, there may be substantial benefit in establishing a unified program evaluation system that is transparent to program participants.

Other Tools or Fixes

Exemptions and Waivers: Some workshop participants argued that exemption and waiver systems could help address the types of bureaucratic roadblocks that are inevitable in a collaboration such as this one. The use of tools such as exemptions and waivers provides the opportunity to solve immediate problems without having to wait until their more fundamental causes have been addressed.

“Ad Hoc” Arrangements: Ad hoc arrangements in the early programs arose out of the necessity of getting work done despite the lack of agreements. As is argued in the American background paper, ad hoc arrangements have been useful to the programs historically, but have receded as the programs develop a system of agreements and procedures to underpin implementation; nevertheless, it was suggested that they must not be abandoned all together. At times, intervention from an individual willing to take responsibility might be necessary to accomplish an urgent project goal.

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