Megawatts); the dismantlement of strategic ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) under the Strategic Offensive Arms Elimination agreement (SOAE); the Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy; export control programs; the Joint Verification Experiments; the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC); and the International Nuclear Safety Program (INSP). Some workshop participants held up aspects of these programs as possible models for current and future projects. Some workshop participants argued that the features listed below are program strengths that should be emulated.

  • The ability of the CTR agreement to expand and adapt in response to evolving circumstances. Supplementary agreements have been used to broaden CTR’s role to include a wide range of bilateral interactions and to address implementation problems and resolve disputes between the two sides.

  • The HEU Purchase Agreement is possibly the most successful U.S.-Russian effort in this arena, as costs are defrayed through commercial sales, and funds received by Russia are designated to upgrade the safety of the nuclear power plants, “convert nuclear cities,” and conduct research and development on advanced nuclear reactors and fuel cycles.

  • Dismantlement of decommissioned nuclear submarines is a high priority for Russia for several reasons, and United States assistance in elimination of strategic armaments by dismantling strategic ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) has moved along well.

  • The Materials Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC&A) program, which is administered jointly by DOE and the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom), has a long list of accomplishments to its credit, including developing MPC&A standards and regulations, building new, secure nuclear material storage facilities in Russia, and upgrading instrumentation, metrological, and methodological support for the control and accounting of nuclear materials.

  • Bilateral cooperative export control programs are administered by several agencies to address a wide range of dual-use technologies. Under the aegis of the Russian interagency Export Control Commission, Minatom coordinates export control in the nuclear sector by involving representatives of all ministries with responsibilities in this sector to reduce bureaucratic impediments to cooperation.

  • Scientists from the United States and U.S.S.R. conducted experiments, known as the Joint Verification Experiments,2 in 1988 to assess their technical ability to verify compliance with the Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests, also known as the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT). In the experiment, the two governments agreed that each would conduct an underground nuclear explosion, at their usual test sites, on a pre-agreed date. This enabled scientists from the two countries to carry out measurements of the explosions at their counterparts’ test site. Impediments to this experiment were overcome because prior negotiations produced an inter-governmental agreement that resolved many issues, and high-level managers who headed both teams of experts were empowered to resolve urgent problems.

  • The International Science and Technology Center’s (ISTC’s) success was attributed in part to the fact that key issues were formalized at the outset as an international agreement. These included requirements for project proposals, mechanisms for coordination with


The Joint Verification Experiments were cited during the workshop as successful examples of cooperation between the United States and Russia. Their effectiveness in verifying compliance was not discussed.

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