The funding chart demonstrated not only a total amount allocated for every project in a given fiscal year, but also what had been already spent on the project since its start, as well as an amount needed to complete the project assessed by the project managers. Such transparency made the distribution of funds much easier and allowed for making decisions on funding support of individual projects for the coming fiscal year or vice versa, and for refusal of further funding of some projects in favor of new, more important projects.

The INSP program in Russia, as well as many other cooperative programs, was coordinated by the Joint Coordinating Committee (JCC INSP) comprising managers of the U.S. DOE, the R.F. Minatom, and other principal institutions involved in the program. Routinely, managers of individual INSP projects on both sides discussed the project needs, problems, and progress on their own level. For this reason, successful implementation of INSP projects often depended on mutual relations between the U.S. and Russian managers and on their readiness to make compromises as well. However, all decisions on the funding of INSP projects were made by the JCC INSP.

Twice a year the identification of projects to be funded during the next fiscal year was on the agenda of JCC INSP meetings. For every JCC meeting project managers prepared information on the project’s progress, problems emerging during their implementation that could not be resolved at their managerial level, and justification for additional funding if the relevant project needed money for the next fiscal year. Not only the total amount of funds to be allocated for the next fiscal year was approved at JCC INSP meetings, but also the distribution of funds among individual projects according to established priorities and effective use of already allocated funds.

2.5. Joint Verification Experiment

Cooperation between R.F. Nuclear Centers and U.S. National Laboratories began in the late 1980s. Joint experiments on the verification of nuclear tests was the first large project on this subject. Within the project framework, the U.S.S.R. experts measured a nuclear explosion’s power at the Nevada test site, while the U.S. scientists performed measurements at the Semipalatinsk test site. It should be especially stressed that, when implementing this project, both sides had to overcome many objective and subjective impediments, such as:

  • Need to protect sensitive information concerning fundamental national security issues,

  • Mutual distrust and even suspicion,

  • Different technical solutions of the methods used to perform nuclear tests and measure a nuclear explosion’s power,

  • Necessity for urgent solution of access control issues related to the arrival of large groups of technical experts of the other side, and

  • Examination of sophisticated equipment for installed intelligence devices.

Successfully overcoming these impediments was to a large extent due to thorough analysis of the issues at the U.S.-U.S.S.R. negotiations in Geneva with the participation of diplomats and representatives of leading research institutions of both countries. As a result of the Geneva

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