Taxation of the assistance;

Access control of foreign specialists to WMD destruction facilities;

Holding tenders for the right of performing WMD destruction-related work;

Nuclear liability related issues, including the issue of ratifying the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage.

The above-mentioned draft legislative act "On the order of use of the foreign assistance for elimination and dismantlement of WMDs in the Russian Federation" might be a solution to ensure the economic, scientific, and technical assistance to Russia is provided in keeping with the uniform long-term rules.

3.3. Scientific and Technical Cooperation

3.3.1. The present-day nuclear power industry based on defense nuclear reactor technologies and related fuel cycles (uranium enrichment for thermal reactors and plutonium extraction from SNF to close the fuel cycle) creates a potential risk of generating weapons-grade nuclear materials. A non-nuclear country importing conventional nuclear power technologies can under specific conditions make an attempt to divert it for military or terrorist purposes.

In case of further expansion of these technologies and facilities in the world the international control over them will be bulky and not quite reliable, whereas the prospects for nuclear disarmament will become doubtful. When thousands of tons of fissionable uranium and plutonium isotopes are circulating in the world's nuclear industry, there will be almost no way of tracing their use. In such a context, technological support of the nonproliferation regime should be put in the forefront: international scientific and engineering programs focused on the development of proliferation-resistant commercial nuclear technologies are needed.

It should be emphasized that, in principle, the nuclear nonproliferation problem cannot be resolved only by technological methods, because there will always be a possibility for illegal use of advanced technologies of uranium enrichment or plutonium extraction from the SNF stored for a long time in cooling ponds or dry storage facilities. Such risks could be only averted by upgrading the present day international, political, and legal nonproliferation regime, including relevant measures of protection, control, and enforcement. The introduction of nuclear technologies not requiring uranium enrichment and/or plutonium extraction, as well as other measures related to the implementation of nuclear nonproliferation, should simplify the control problem.

3.3.2. The lack of a U.S.-Russian agreement on peaceful use of nuclear energy and the presence of the so-called “unresolved intergovernmental political issues” hinder the expansion of joint bilateral research and development on advanced nuclear reactors and fuel cycles resistant to nuclear proliferation.

Such work, which is of crucial importance for both countries, was initiated at the U.S.-Russian Presidents' summit in Moscow in May 2002, where a decision was made on the establishment of a working group to prepare proposals on a joint working program on this subject. At that time the

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