3.4. Program organization and management

3.4.1. An optimum balance between managerial flexibility and the rigid structure necessary to implement decisions can hardly be reached at early collaboration phases. Such flexibility can only be attained on the basis of personal contacts between program managers once they gain a better understanding of each other’s problems and make attempts to meet halfway between the need of fulfilling the orders of their superiors and the possibility for making a decision within the established rules.

An efficient managerial structure can be quickly established only if good practices of the other U.S.-Russian cooperative programs, not necessarily in the nuclear nonproliferation area, have been learned from and emulated (see, e.g., INSP, Item 2.4.). For these purposes the information on such good practices should be widely disseminated, and one of the best ways to do it is by arranging conferences and workshops.

3.4.2. Diversification of cooperative programs by status and scope seems beneficial because specialists of some laboratories are sometimes rather dissatisfied by the progress and results of the U.S.-Russian cooperation. On the one hand, the laboratories express a desire to avoid excessive administration, but, on the other hand, when issues of access control and/or taxation emerge, they look for administrative support from their ministries. An optimum balance could be found by concluding inter-agency agreements, whose execution should be placed on specific laboratories.

3.5. Interactions at different levels

3.5.1. When developing and implementing new programs at every cooperation phase, interactions between the U.S. and Russian Parties at all levels are of crucial importance.

Judging by the very nature of issues accumulated to date within the bilateral U.S.-Russia cooperation (in particular, within the CTR Agreement), which in many cases are matters of principle and hard to solve, improvement of the interactions between the relevant U.S. and Russian structures should be considered as a burning and important task.

An analysis of the status of U.S.-Russian relations in general as well as of the progress and perspectives of the bilateral programs and factors affecting the cooperation is needed to work out recommendations.

It should be noted that, during the first seven years of the CTR Program implementation, U.S.-Russian interactions at the Governmental level, as well as at the level of executive bodies established to implement specific agreements, were rather consistent and effective. Because of that, the CTR Program was in many respects productive in terms of the scientific, technical, and economic assistance to Russia in implementing its international obligations to eliminate its strategic offensive arms, especially in ensuring their nuclear safety and physical protection.

Unfortunately, in recent years the U.S. has reassessed its participation in the international agreements on arms reduction and disarmament. For instance, approaches to the reduction and

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