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Contributors JOHN S. ADAMS is professor of geography, planning, and public affairs at the University of Minnesota. From 1975 to 1976 he was Fulbright Professor at the Interdisciplinary Institute for Spatial Organization at the Economic University in Vienna, Austria. He has taught at Pennsylvania State University and the University of Washington and has consulted and lectured at many campuses throughout the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan. He has authored, coauthored, and edited articles, books, and reports on the American city, regional economic development and planning in the United States, and intraurban migration in American cities. Dr. Adams received his B.A. degree in economics from the College of St. Thomas and his M.A. degree in economics and statistics, and the Ph.D. degree in economic geography from the University of Minnesota. SIAMAK A. ARDEKANT is assistant professor of civil engineering at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. His current research is in transportation management issues in the aftermath of major urban disasters such as earthquakes and floods. He has coauthored numerous journal articles on urban traffic management and operation. He is associate editor of the Transportation Science Journal and a member of the Amer- ican Society of Civil Engineers, the Operations Research Society of Amer- ica, the Institute of Transportation Engineers, and the Transportation Research Board, where he serves as a member on the Committee on Traffic Flow Theory and Characteristics. He received his Ph.D. degree in civil engi- neering from the University of Texas at Austin. 333

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334 CONTRIB UTORS W. BRIAN ARTHUR is Morrison Professor of Population Studies and Eco- nomics at the Food Research Institute, Stanford University. From 1977 to 1982 he was with the methodology group at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria. His current research, for which he received a 1987-1988 Guggenheim Fellowship, is on the implications of increasing returns and nonconvexities for economic theory and demography. He has worked on a variety of subjects including prob- ability theory, the economics of technology, industry location theory, optimization theory, mathematical demography, and the economics of intergenerational transfers. Dr. Arthur holds a Ph.D. degree in operations research from the University of California, Berkeley. JESSE H. AususE~ is director of the Program Office of the National Acad- emy of Engineering. Mr. Ausubel became a resident fellow of the National Academy of Sciences in science and public policy in 1977. He then served for 2~/2 years as a research scholar in the resources and environment area at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, near Vienna, Austria. From 1981 to 1983 he served as a National Research Council staff officer principally responsible for studies of the greenhouse effect. Mr. Ausubel's interests generally revolve around long-term interactions of technology and environment. MARTIN BECKMANN is professor of economics at Brown University and professor of applied mathematics at the Technical University of Munich, Federal Republic of Germany. He has taught at the University of Chicago, Yale University, the University of Heidelberg, and the University of Bonn. He is author or coauthor of 11 books and 200 articles on economic theory and operations research. His research interests are in the economics of location and transportation and in the theory of organizations. He has received honorary doctorates from the universities of Umea (Sweden), Karlsruhe, and Hamburg. BERNARD B. BERGER, professor emeritus of civil engineering, was director of the Water Resources Research Center and professor of civil engineering at the University of Massachusetts from 1966 to 1978. From 1941 to 1966 Dr. Berger served in the Commissioned Corps of the U.S. Public Health Service. In 1954 he was named chief of water supply and pollution control research at the Robert A. Taft Sanitary Engineering Center and in 1963 became assistant chief for research in the Division of Water Supply and Pollution Control. In 1965 he was appointed deputy chief of the Office of Resource Development. During 1968-1969, he worked as a water resources specialist in the Office of Science and Technology of the Ex- ecutive Office of the President and served as chairman on the Federal

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CONTRIB UTORS 335 Committee on Water Resources Research. Dr. Berger has been consultant to several foreign governments on river sampling and water planning and has served as chairman and U.S. representative on related bilateral and international conferences and committees. Dr. Berger received an hon- orary doctorate of science from the University of Massachusetts in 1979. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. HARVEY BROOKS is Benjamin Peirce Professor of Technology and Public Policy, Emeritus, and Gordon McKay Professor of Applied Physics, Har- vard University. He came to Harvard from General Electric in 1950 as professor of applied physics. He became dean of engineering and applied physics in 1957 and served in that capacity until 1975, when he was appointed professor of technology and public policy and transferred most of his teaching and research to the Kennedy School of Government, where he heads the Science, Technology, and Public Policy Program. Dr. Brooks has served in many government and quasi-government advisory positions, including those with the President's Science Advisory Committee, the National Science Board, and various project advisory committees to the Office of Technology Assessment. Dr. Brooks is a member of the National Academy of Engineering, the National Academy of Sciences, and the Institute of Medicine. THOMAS R. CRAIG is director of market research at the Boeing Commercial Airplane Company, where he is responsible for economic, air passenger, air cargo, and product forecasting. Mr. Craig joined Boeing in 1958 and has served as sales and marketing research analyst, manager of air freight market research, member of the corporate planning staff, and manager of passenger traffic forecasting before being named to his present position. From 1948 to 1958, Mr. Craig served in the U.S. Foreign Service as a consular officer in Hamburg, Federal Republic of Germany, and Prague, Czechoslovakia. Mr. Craig holds a B.S. degree in economics from Rutgers University. EDGAR DONA received his M.S. degree in transportation at Virginia Poly- technic Institute and State University. He was an International Road Fed- eration Fellow and is now practicing civil engineering in the Philippines. D~EGo ECHEVERRY is a doctoral candidate at the University of Illinois and the University of California. DEAN G~ETrE is Henry R. Luce Professor of Information Technology and Society at Harvey Mudd and Claremont McKenna colleges. From 1953 to 1984, Dr. Gillette was a member of the technical staff at Bell

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336 CONTRIB UTORS Telephone Laboratories and served as director of military systems analysis, executive director of transmission systems engineering, and executive director of corporate studies. He is the author of numerous publications on telematics and telecommunications. Dr. Gillette has served on com- mittees and advisory boards of the Office of Technology Assessment and the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, among other organi- zations, for international communications and telecommunication policy research. Dr. Gillette received his B.S. degree in chemistry from the Oregon State University, and his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley. SHEKHAR Gov~No is a research engineer assistant at the University of Texas at Austin, where he earned an M.S. degree in civil engineering in 1984, majoring in structures. His work toward a Ph.D. degree in trans- portation in 1988 was related to pavement fatigue damage due to applied stress. ROYCE HANSON, professor of public affairs and planning, joined the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, as associate dean in 1983 after a career spanning academia, politics, research administration, and public service. In the late 1960s, he was president of the Washington Center for Metropolitan Studies, an interuniversity urban research institute. During the 1970s, he served as chairman of the Mont- gomery County Planning Board of the Maryland National Capital Park and Planning Commission. In 1981 Dr. Hanson served as study director on the National Research Council Committee on National Urban Policy. He is the author or editor of numerous publications on urban development and policy. Dr. Hanson received his A.B. degree in economics from Central State University in Edmond, Oklahoma, and M.A. and Ph.D. degrees in government and public administration and a law degree from the American University. ROBERT HERMAN is L.P. Gilvin Centennial Professor, Emeritus, in civil engineering and sometime professor of physics at the University of Texas at Austin. Before assuming his present position in 1979, Dr. Herman was with the General Motors Research Laboratories and headed the Department of Theoretical Physics from 1959 to 1972 and the Traffic Science De- partment from 1972 to 1979. Dr. Herman's research has covered a wide range of both theoretical and experimental investigations, including mo- lecular and solid-state physics, high-energy electron scattering, astro- physics and cosmology, as well as operations research, especially vehicular traffic science and transportation. With Ralph Alpher in 1948, Dr. Herman

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CONTRIB UTORS 337 made the first theoretical prediction that the universe should now be filled with a cosmic microwave background radiation, which is key evidence for the validity of the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe. Dr. Herman is a member of the National Academy of Engineering. He received his B.S. degree in physics at City College, New York, and his master's and Ph.D. degrees in physics from Princeton University. PAUL M. HOHENBERG is professor of economics at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Dr. Hohenberg has taught economics and economic history at Stanford, Cornell, and Concordia universities. He is the coauthor of The Making of Urban Europe with Lynn Hollen Lees and coeditor of the Journal of Economic History. Dr. Hohenberg received a bachelor's degree in chemical engineering from Cornell University, an M.A. degree in economics from the Fletcher School, Tufts University, and a Ph.D. degree in economics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. C. WILLIAM IBBS is associate professor of civil engineering in the con- struction engineering and management program at the University of Cal- ifornia, Berkeley. Dr. Ibbs moved to California from the University of Illinois, Urbana, in 1987. Before assuming his academic positions, Dr. Ibbs acquired substantial industrial experience in the private sector. This has allowed him to develop an extensive research program, for which he received the Presidential Young Investigator's Award in the Building System and Construction Engineering program of the National Science Foundation in 1985. Dr. Ibbs earned his B.S. and M.S. degrees in civil engineering at the Carnegie Mellon University and received his Ph.D. degree in civil engineering from Berkeley. LYNN HOLLEN LEES is professor of history at the University of Pennsyl- vania, where she has taught since 1974. Dr. Lees has been a visiting fellow at the Joint Center for Urban Studies of Harvard University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the Shelby Cullom Davis Center of Princeton University, and at the University of Leicester in England. She has written numerous publications on topics in European economic and social history, including The Making of Urban Europe (Harvard Uni- versity Press, 1985), which she coauthored with Paul M. Hohenberg. Dr. Lees has served on the executive boards of the Council for European Studies and the Social Science History Association and has been a con- sultant for the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Social Science Research Council. Dr. Lees received her B.A. degree from Swarthmore College and her Ph.D. degree from Harvard University. CESARE MARCHETT} is a research scholar at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) in Laxenburg, Austria. Dr. Marchetti

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338 CONTRIB UTORS came to IIASA from the European Community Research Center, where he had been head of the Division for Development of Materials and Technologies from 1959 to 1973. Dr. Marchetti's fields of interest extend from energy systems, technology of heavy water separation, and applied surface physics to the history of technology and general systems theory. Dr. Marchetti received his education in physics at the University of Pisa, Italy. In 1977 he received an honorary degree in science from the Technical University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland, for his work in systems analysis. GREGG MARLAND is a staff scientist in the Environmental Sciences Di- vision at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. From 1975 to mid-1987, he was at the Institute for Energy Analysis at Oak Ridge Associated Uni- versities and before that he was assistant professor of geology at Indiana State University. He is the author or coauthor of many scientific papers on energy systems, energy resources, and the environmental impacts of energy systems, in particular the CO2-greenhouse issue. Dr. Marland holds a B.S. degree from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and a Ph.D. degree in geology from the University of Minnesota. NEso~sA NAK~cENov~c is a research scholar at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria. He was formerly with the Nuclear Research Center, Karlsruhe, the Federal Republic of Germany, where he worked in the field of nuclear materials accountability. His broader research interests are in econometrics, game theory, global modeling, technological and social change, and information and data pro- cessing. His extensive study of economic and technological changes during the past three centuries evolved as his doctoral dissertation Growth to Limits. Dr. Nakicenovic received his M.A. degree in economics from Princeton University and his doctoral degree from the University of Vi- enna, Austria. A~v~N M. WEINBERG is a distinguished fellow of the Institute for Energy Analysis, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Dr. Weinberg was director of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory from 1955 to 1973; director of the Office of Energy Research and Development, Federal Energy Office, in 1974; and director of the Institute for Energy Analysis from 1975 to 1985. He has made numerous contributions to the design, development, and safety of nuclear reactors and the formulation of science policy. Dr. Weinberg is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Sciences.