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Index A Advanced Research Projects Agency Network, 242 Agglomeration economies city formation through, 12- 13., 85, 95 96 definition, 95, 99 early European, 78-79 growth of, 80 industry location under, 85-86, 90-91, 93 model of, 90-92, 93-94 size of, 15 Agricultural sector irrigation technologies, 261, 263, 267- 268 pollution contribution, 283, 290 production function, 102- 107 responses to climate change, 268 urban growth relative to, 13, 101-102, 103-107, 110 water conservation, 259, 267-268 water supply shortages for irrigation, 261, 263, 267 Air traffic control, 16, 223, 224, 226, 230-232 forecasts, 10, 16, 154-156, 157, 181, 229, 231 339 saturation point, 153 Air transport air taxi/commuter operations, 229-231 commercial fleet, 179 components, 178 continental, 159 Darwinian behavior applied to, 153-154 deficiencies, 10 demand, 16, 155 deregulation, 230 dynamics, modeling of, 1 5 2- 1 5 9 energy sources, 203 forecasts, 7, 148, 157, 203, 208, 229 global intercity, 148 growth pulses, 176-180, 199, 208, 222 indicators, 152-153 infrastructure components, 187, 195; see also Airports introduction, 190 landside problems, 16, 222-232 life cycle, 183 logistic growth function (S-curves), 176- 180, 199 productivity, 179-180 saturation levels, 153-154, 177, 178, 180-183, 209 shuttles, 15, 148 speeds, 147, 148

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340 travel delays, 222-223, 232 volume, 176- 178 Aircraft Airbus, 181, 340 B-747, 156, 159, 180-181, 183 classification, 154 commercial in service, number, 155 Concorde, 155, 181 DC-2, 183 DC-3, 176, 179-180, 182-183 DC-9, 159 DC-10, 181 design projections, 180-181, 183 development time constants, 183 engines, 156-158, 175, 182-183, 210 fleet, 155, 179, 229 hypersonic, 16, 15, 148, 158-159, 162, 181, 199, 210 L-1011, 181 Mach 8 Jumbo 1000, 16, 148, 156, 158 MD11, 181 performance of, 154, 157-158, 176, 179-182, 209-210 routes, 196-197 size of, 16, 180-181, 226 supersonic, 16, 181, 183, 199, 210 weight and speed differences, 224 Airports arrivals and departures, 224-228 capacity, 226, 228 as central places, 16 Charlotte-Douglas, 229 configurations, 226-227 congestion, 16, 222-232 construction, 223 Dallas-Ft. Worth, 227 Denver, 229 Hartsfield (Atlanta), 224-225, 228 Logan International (Boston3, 228 Minneapolis, 229 Newark International, 227 noise abatement, 229 O'Hare (Chicago), 39, 55, 227-228 operations, 227-228 San Francisco, 229 siting considerations, 5, 9, 158 St. Louis, 229 traffic, 224-225 American National Standards Institute, 239 INDEX Amsterdam air traffic, 158 historical urbanization, 77, 83 Anaheim, new housing units, 142 Antwerp, historical urbanization, 77 Arizona? water conservation measures, 268 AT&T, 239, 243-244, 246 Atlanta amenities, quality of, 42-43 characteristics, 37, 42-43, 45, 52-53 Hartsfield Airport traffic, 224-225 health care services, 45, 53 revenue per capita, 37, 52 snowflake diagrams, 42-45 Atlantic Coast ports and urban development, 74, 109-110 Austin data resources for studies, 24 efficiency of land use, 24 energy consumption, 11, 32, 34 evolutionary path, 24-35 expenditures (public), 37 growth in area, 24-25 infrastructural attributes, 11, 24-35 population density, 24-25 population growth, 25-26 postal receipts, 34 restaurants, 11, 27-28, 30-31 service orientation, 11, 32 street miles, 24-27 telephone service, 33 vehicle burden, 28-29 water consumption, 11, 18, 31, 33 Automobiles challenge to railroad, 184 decentralizing effects of, 80 electric, 37-38 fleet in use, 187 growth pulses, 149- 150, 184 as infrastructure load indicators, 26-27 introduction of, 163, 184, 190 parallels to railroad development, 193 parking inadequacies, 10 projected use, 16, 209 saturation in growth, 16, 150, 186 speeds, mean, 147 substitution for horses, 184- 186, 192 surfaced roads correlated with growth, 187

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INDEX Baltimore B new housing units, 138-139 row houses, 5 water system, 265-266 Banks automatic teller machines, 235, 238 as indicators of city characteristics? 33- 34 Belgium Borinage, urbanization, 79 motorway construction, 165 Bell System, 250-251 Bicycle paths, 38 Birmingham, population growth, 80 BITNET, 242 Boston agglomeration economies along Route 28, 80 colonial, 109 new housing construction, 132 railroads, 190 sewer system, 281, 295 urban growth, 109, 110 Brasilia, 23 Bridges Brooklyn, 2, 325 concrete, 322 construction and repair, 304, 305 covered, 322 design of, 321-322, 327 deterioration of, 295 development of, 321-322 Eads, 322 elimination of, 324 Golden Gate, 2, 322 High, 320 history, 320-322 iron, 322 London, 321 longevity of, 320-322, 329 masonry, 321-322 Milwaukee, 305 Pennsylvania management system, 311 Ponte Adolphe, 322 Pont de la Concorde, 321 repair of, 295, 305 replacement, 322 St. Petersburg-Fort Myers, 327 341 steel, 322 stone arch, 321-322 Sunshine Skyway, 304 suspension, 327 Tacoma Narrows, 325 timber, 322 Brooklyn, sewerage system, 2 Buffalo, new central city housing units, 133 C California, water supply, 268, 269 Canada, water control, 262, 269, 275 Canals Blackstone, 190 Chesapeake and Ohio, 190 decline, 195, 207-208 Erie, 2, 190 growth of, 195, 208 for interbasin water transfers, 269 mileage of, 195-196, 209 new uses, 6 Panama, 1 railway displacement of, 190, 194-195 Richmond Falls, 195 saturation levels, 195 sewage discharge to, 282 Suez, 1 Capital cities economic, 72 European, 75-79 growth and development, 12, 72, 76-77, 79-80, 82 infrastructure development in, 12, 82 political, 12, 72, 77, 79-80, 98 provincial, 76 public expenditures for infrastructure improvements, 12, 83 regional, 76 size changes in, 75, 77 Cars, see Automobiles Central city household income levels, 119 housing construction, new, 130- 143 housing values, 119 rents, 119, 129 see also Inner city Central place systems airports as, 16 barriers to exchange in, 74

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342 financial resources, 82-83 governance patterns, 82 growth and development of, 75-76, 77- 79, 99-100, 101 hierarchy in, 72, 73, 77, 81, 99, 100 improvements, financing of, 82-83 infrastructure diffusion in, 82 medieval Leicester as, 72 predicting changes in, 100 sets of settlements as, 72 size determinants, 99, 146 spatial distributions in, 73-74 towns as, 72 trade in, 75 Cesspools, 279, 280 Chandigarth, 23 Chicago airports, 39, 55, 227-228 amenities, quality of, 42-43 characteristics, 35, 37, 42-45, 54-55 health care services, 39, 55 hotel rooms, 35, 54 households and housing units, 54, 115- 117 housing values, 120-122, 124 population density, 35, 42, 54 rent levels, 120-122, 124 road development, 55, 324-325 sewer system, 37, 55, 325 snowflake diagrams, 424-425 tall buildings, 35, 54 television stations, 39, 55 theaters, 35, 55 Tunnel and Reservoir Plan (TARP), 18, 282, 291 urban growth, 110, 112 worker use of public transportation, 37 China canal and dike maintenance, 1-2 coal dependency of, 167 roads, 323 Cincinnati Cities INDEX Atlantic coastal, 76; see also Ports business orientation indicators, 30-31, 33 capitals, see Capital cities cathedral, 2 central portion, see Central city characterization, dynamic, 11, 29-70, 71-72 circular domed, 37-38 classification by infrastructure, 23 climatological differences, 31 compact, 22-23, 37-38 comparison of, 35-46; see also Cluster analysis computerized, experimental, 17, 252-253 data resources for studies, 11, 23-24, 52-67, 75 decentralized, 38-39, 100 definition, 1, 12, 71, 95 economic base, 98-99 economic determinism in formation of, 12-13, 95-96 economic health determinants, 14, 113 European, 75; see also specific cities evolutionary paths, 24-35, 42, 45, 46, 71-83, 85, 95-96 fires and firefighting, 6 future shape of, 100, 148 geographical differences, 31 growth and change dynamics, 12, 72, 75-80, 82, 98-100, 110 growth indicators, 29 historical chance in formation of, 12, 85, 95-96 characteristics, 39, 44-45, 56-57 health care services, 45, 57 income per capita, 39, 56 new housing units, 136 snowflake diagrams, 44-45 telecommunications infrastructure, 45 administrative centers, 72 industrial, 80 infrastructure growth and development and, 12, 82, 108-144 inner, see Inner city interactions, modeling of, 71; see also Central place systems; Network systems Italian Renaissance, 2 limits, definition, 12 linkages between, 12, 72; see also Network systems medieval, 2, 12, 72-74, 75 municipal government financing, 82-83 population/building achievement relationship, 2 ports, 75, 77, 109-110 post-Roman, 75

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INDEX power consumption discriminators, 32 quality of life in, 7 returns to scale, 13, 101-102 service orientation indicators, 27-30, 45 size determinants, 15, 71, 75, 77, 99 100, 147 snowflake diagrams of growth and development, 42-45 spatial distributions, 12, 15, 73-75, 85, 96, 252 telecommunications effects on configuration, 252 trading, 82-83; see also Network systems transient population indicators, 34 transportation innovations affecting, 110 111 water supplies and distribution, 264, 266-267 see also Urban growth/development; and specific cities Clean Water Act amendment of 1987, 285 Cleveland new housing units, 134-135 urban growth, 110 Climate change, impact on water systems, 260-265, 268 Cluster analysis to compare cities snowflake diagrams, 42-45 variables used in, 39, 40, 42, 52-67 see also Factor analysis Coal consumption, 166, 200 demand, 166-167, 168 geographic distribution of use, 167 market share, 166-167, 201-202, 204 molten-iron coal burning, 167 infrastructure, 166 slurry pipeline, 270 substitution, 192, 201-202 transport of, 190, 200, 203-204, 209 urbanization near deposits, 79, 110, 111 Colorado River, 268 Columbus, new housing units, 134 Communications and computing, 233-256; see also Telematics linkages between urban systems, 82, 146-147 social considerations, 7 343 see also Telecommunications Competition construction industry, 299 energy source, 164, 166-170 Fisher-Pry transforms, 150, 152, 173 174, 212, 215-216 for intercity passengers, 156-157, 198 199 Malthusian modeling of, 149- 150, 160, 162, 172-173 multiple, 151-152, 174 between network systems, 73 one-to-one, 150-151, 173 Volterra-Lotka equations for, 149, 172 Computers adaptation to telematics applications, 235 building operation with, 304 communication standards and protocols, 238-240, 244-245 compatibility between, 234, 239 distributed processing, 235, 238 knowledge-based expert systems, 308- 309 manufacturing applications, 254-255 monitoring of infrastructure condition, 304 parallel processing, 238 personal, 238 remote intrusion with, 243, 246 standardization, need for, 238 wastewater systems automation, 304 see also Data processing; Information services/technologies Concrete fiber inclusion in, 301 lifetime, 320 nondestructive testing of, 304-305 polymer impregnated, 302 roller-compacted, 302-303 superplasticizers, 301 Conservation of water, 10, 259, 266-268, 271-272 Constantinople, dams, 317 Construction of infrastructure circular city, costs, 38 concrete technology, 301-303 CONSAES system, 309 government funding for, 296-297 housing, 124, 128-130, 133-143 inflation and, 296-297

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344 innovations for, 109, 294-310 international competition in, 19, 299-300 management control, 294, 308-310 materials technology, 300-302 monitoring and sensing technologies, 302, 304 nondestructive testing, 304-305 nonunion, 299 pavement innovations, 305 productivity, 19, 297-298 robotics in, 306-308 subways, 163 technological progress, 294-310 tunneling innovations, 305-306 waves, 163 Consulting Committee for International Telephone and Telegraph, 240, 247 Corridors Bosnywash, 15, 22, 148 housing along, 117, 118 San Diego-San Francisco, 15 Shinkansen, 148 Costs of air travel delays, 222-223 electric power plants, 314, 316 of infrastructure, 108-109, 328 of modems, 235 of public works facilities, 295 of repairing infrastructure, 295 of telematics components, 235, 238, 244, 245 of water systems, 259-260, 255-266, 295 see also Agglomeration economies; Economies of scale D Dallas Dams INDEX airport operations, 227 new housing units, 140-141 abandonment of, 320 Alicante, 318, 325 Bonneville, 319 Bouzey, 318 Constantinople, 317 conversion to wildlife refuge, 320 Davy Crockett, 320 design of, 327 dismantling, 320 early, 317-318 Espada, 318 failures, 318-319, 325, 327 functions of, 317 Furens, 318 Grand Coulee, 319 Grand Teton, 325 Great Falls, 319 Habra, 318 Hales Bar, 320 history, 317-319 Hoover, 319 Jones Falls, 318 Kebar, 318 Lake Mangla, 320 Lake Meade, 320 Lake of Homs, 317 longevity of, 317-320, 325 Merida, 317 Nickajack, 320 Norris, 320 Ponte Alto, 318 Puentes, 318 retirement of, 319-320 San Mateo, 318-319 siltation, 320 siting of, 319 Teton, 317, 319 Walter Bouldin, 319 Whinhill, 318 Willow Creek, 302 Data bases for infrastructure management, 309-310 Data processing, distributed, 235, 238 Data switching facilities, 236-237, 239, 244-245 Data transmission facilities, 235-236, 240 Defense work, settlement growth around, 100 Delaware River basin, 268 Demographic trends historical urbanization and, 75-76 infrastructure planning and, 7 see also Population density; Population growth Denver, water supply, 268 Deterioration of infrastructure age and, 4-5, 295 bridges, 295

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INDEX causes, 6 evidence of, 295 forecasting, 4 housing, 4-5 inner city, 114 rates, 6 sewer systems, 295 studies/research, 6 treatment strategies, 6 of water systems, 265 see also Longevity of infrastructure Detroit households and housing units, 115- 117 urban growth, 110 Developing countries energy sources, 200 technology gap, 252 Digital Equipment Corporation, 245 E Economic determinism and industrial location, 92-96 Economic exchange, urban systems and, 72- 75 Economic growth, Kondratief cycles, 157, 159 Economic model of urban growth, 13, 98- 107 Economies of agglomeration, see Agglomeration economies Economies of scale, 13, 99, 101-102, 328 Electric power plants age distribution, 314-315 construction vs. renovation, 316 costs, 314 economies of scale, 328 efficiency, 316 fossil fuel, 264, 316, 317; see also Coal; Oil generation capacity, 314-315, 317 hydroelectric, 200, 201, 316, 317, 319 licensing constraints, 4 longevity of, 313-317, 328, 329-330 renovation, 316 siting of, 316-317, 329-330 see also Nuclear power-plants Electronic Industry Association, 239 Electronics industry spatial distributions, 86, 88 345 sp~n-offs, 88 see also Silicon Valley Employment, service sector, 111, 233 Energy consumption, 164, 166, 199-201, 264 fusion, 162 innovation waves in, 162 market shares, 151 - 152, 164, 166, 202 203, 204 mechanical water power, 200, 201 primary sources, 199-207 substitution, 152, 167, 192, 201-203, 209 transport systems, 164, 190, 200, 203 207, 209 use determinants, 200, 264 zero emissions source, 167 see also specific types of energy resources Engines aircraft, 156-158, 175, 182-183, 210 hydrogen-fueled, 183 internal combustion, 80, 109; see also Automobiles lifetime, 327 methane-fueled, 183 pulses in improvements, 182-183 saturation levels for, 182 train, 190, 192-193 England historical urbanization, 75, 77, 79 see also United Kingdom Environmental Protection Agency, 284 Essen, 75 Ethernet, 239, 242 Europe automobile introduction, 184 historical patterns of urbanization, 75-80 motorways construction, 163-164, 165 population growth, 75-81 see also specific countries and cities F Factor analysis matrix of correlation coefficients, 68-70 principal-component approach, 40-42 see also Cluster analysis Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), 222-223, 229-232

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346 Federal Communications Commission (FCC), 239, 245-246 Federal funding for air traffic control, 223, 231-232 for wastewater treatment, 284-285 for water systems, 272 Federal Highway Act, 322 Federal Highway Administration, 295 Federal Republic of Germany motorway construction, 165 telecommunications demonstration project, 253 Fireproofing robot, 306-307 Fisher-Pry model, 150, 152, 212, 214, 219 Forecasting/forecasts air traffic, 10, 154-156, 157, 181, 229 air transport, 7, 148, 157, 208, 209-210 aircraft design, 180- 181, 183 construction schedules, 309 energy market shares, 16, 203 future of cities, 100 health consequences of pollution, 287 288 industry locational patterns, 88-89Households Malthusian cases in, 149-150, 160, 162, 172-173 Polya process in, 88-89 product demand, 100 urban systems configurations, 13, 96,118 100 see also Models/modeling France dams, 318 historical urbanization, 77 motorway construction, 165 nuclear power plants, 317 see also Paris Fuelwood, 199-200, 202, 204, 205, 209 Funding, see Federal funding G Garden Grove, new housing units, 142 Care d'Orsay, France, 6 Gas, see Methane; Natural gas German Industry Location School, 85 Germany, see. Federal Republic of Germany Gramm-Rudman-Hollings Act, 232 Greenhouse effect, impact on water systems, 18, 260-262 INDEX Groundwater pollution, 258, 262-265 GTE Corp., 242 H Hamburg, historical urbanization, 75, 82 Harbors, new uses, 6 Hazardous waste dealing with, 9, 10, 306, 330-331 disposal sites, 262 groundwater contamination by, 262-263 pretreatment of, 288-289 Hinterlands, 72 colonial struggle for, 110 growth in von Thunen system, 101 Historical chance, and industrial location, 92-96 Hospitals, as indicators of city characteristics, 33-34 Hotels and motels city comparisons, 35 as indicators of transient population, 34- 35 central city and metropolitan area comparisons, 115-116 ethnic/minority, 117, 118-119, 125 life-cycle stage and spatial segregation, socioeconomic status and spatial segregation, 117-118 water conservation, 259 Housing units capacity of a circular city, 37 central city and metropolitan area comparisons, 115- 116 construction, 119, 129, 133-143 life cycle, 120 preservation, rehabilitation, and renovation of, 120, 130 quality, low-income, 4-5 Housing values central city and metropolitan area comparisons, 119-131 in Chicago, 120-122, 124 elements of, 120 in Los Angeles, 123- 125 market indicators, 30-31 in New York City, 125-128 population movement and, 115

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INDEX social status of neighborhoods and, 117, 119-128 Houston characteristics, 39, 58-59 employment, 39, 58 income per capita, 39, 58 new housing units, 140- 141 perimeter size, 39, 58 public schools, 39, 58 service industry financing, 114 snowflake diagrams, 43-44 Hydroelectric power, 200, 201, 316, 317, 319 Hydrogen, 162, 170, 183, 210 IBM Corp., 239, 242 Immigration inner city population growth through, 117, 125 see also Migration Industry siting of, 77, 79, 80, 85-96, 99, 100; see also Agglomeration economies spin-offs, 88-89, 93 wastewater, 288-289 water recycling, 259, 267 see also specific industries Inflation in construction industry, 296-297 rent controls and, 128 Information services/technologies access to, 251-252, 254 ancient, 146-147 construction management, 308-310 employment, 233 infrastructure, 113 Japanese innovations in, 251-253 organizational effects of, 254 urban development role of, 80, 82, 146- 147 see also Communications; Postal services; Telecommunications infrastructure; Telematics Infrastructure elements age/value relationship, 4 behavior and, 7 capital intensity of, 265, 312 centralization, 329-330 347 construction, see Construction of infrastructure cost of, 108, 328 decentralization of, 329 design considerations, 5, 9 deterioration, see Deterioration of infrastructure functions, see Infrastructure functions/ services; and specific functions human factors and, 7, 8 importance, 2 innovations, 9 interactions of subsystems, 9 labor force distributions, 8 life-cycle approach to, 5, 120, 151-152 load indicators, 24-35 longevity of, see Longevity of infrastructure maintenance and repair, 4, 6, 8, 295, 305 medieval, 2 objectives, 7 permanence, 19 private investment in, 108 public investment in, 82-83, 108, 296 public vs. private ownership and control, 3 quality of, 7-8, 45 research and development, see Research and development resilience, 5-6 resource allocation, 8 saturation, 159 siting, see Siting of infrastructure time studies of, 45 types, 1; see also specific elements urban, 98, 108-115 utilidor, 9 vulnerabilities, 5-6 walls as, 2 see also specific elements Infrastructure functions/services access to, 3, 8 adequacy, 10 in central place systems, 75 competitian/dependency among, 9, 13 demand for, 98-99 efficiency, 7, 10 expenditures for, 8 housing expansion strains on, 129, 131

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348 individualization of, 8 labor force distributions, 8 level of effort exerted for, 8 private investment in, 108 public investment in, 82-83, 113-114 public vs. private ownership and control, 3, 10, 14 quality of, 7-8 resource allocation, 8, 113-114 usage patterns, 8 valuation, 7-8 see also Information services; Service industries; and other specific services Infrastructure growth/development achievements/lanclmarks, historical, 2-3 6 city development and, 80-83, 108 construction considerations, 5, 29-30, 129, 294-310 cost distribution, 3, 129 data resources for studies, 11, 23 demand determinants, 98, 114, 117 design considerations, 5, 9, 20 forecasting, 5, 15 indicators of, 29-30 innovations for, 9 local-scale, 108-109, 114-115 motives for, 2, 71 national-scale, 108-111; see also Metropolises/metropolitan areas patterns, 3-4, 13, 117; see also Industry; Siting of infrastructure political influences on, 9-10 population migration and, 114-115 siting considerations, 5, 331; see also Siting of infrastructure technological choices and, 13 see also specific elements and services Inner city infrastructure deterioration, 114 land acquisition, 131 new housing construction in, 138, 140, 143 redevelopment, 130- 131 socioeconomic status, 117 Innovations adoption of, 13, 83 bursts of, 9, 15 in construction, 294-310 definition. 160 INDEX diffusion of, 17, 82, 251 in energy, 162 in infrastructure, 9, 15 and invention, 159-162 Malthusian populations of, 160, 162 in railroads, 191-192 rates, 160 substitution models, 212-218 in telecommunications, 256 in telematics, 243-244, 245, 246 in transportation, 9, 109-110 and urban infrastructure construction, 9, 109-111 by urban populations, 82 3, waves, 15, 160-162 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 239 International Coalition for Land and Water Stewardship, 275 International Standards Organization, 240 International Telecommunications Union, 240 Invention definition, 159- 160 waves, 160 see also Innovations Iron ore, 110, 111 Irrigation and water systems, 261, 263, 267 268 Islamabad, 23 Israel, water recycling, 259 Italy historical urbanization, 74, 77 motorway construction, 165 Japan experimental cities, 17, 252-253 Maglev train, 15, 148, 157, 159, 170 robotics research, 306 telecommunication infrastructure, 251- 253, 254 K Kansas City, new housing units, 136-137 Kondratief cycles air transport projections, 156-157, 159 innovation waves in, 162, 170

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INDEX L Labor construction industry, 298, 299 merit shop, 299 and returns to scale, 101 Labor demand computerization and, 255 primary and secondary industries, decline, 111 value-added determinants of, 99 and urbanization, 111 Land prices, 80, 115; see also Real estate Land use distance from city and, 101 efficiency in cities, indicators of, 24 planning for wastewater and sewage systems, 282-283 and returns to scale, 101 LANs, see Local area networks Leicester, medieval, central place theory applied to, 12, 72-73 Liquefied natural gas (LNG), 170, 207 Liverpool, historical urbanization, 83 Local area networks (LANs), 239, 241-242 Location, see Siting London air traffic, 158 historical urbanization, 77, 80 underground transportation, 163 Longevity of infrastructure of bridges, 320-322, 329 of dams, 317-320 determinants, 4-5, 19, 312-313 of electric power plants, 313-317, 328, 329-330 ethical issues, 313, 328-329 of roads, 323-325, 328 strategies for prolonging, 6 telecommunications, 4, 256 see also l:)eterioration of infrastructure Lorraine, industrial growth, 79 Los Angeles airports, 39, 61 characteristics, 37, 38-39, 43-45, 60-61 freeway miles, 37, 61 health care services, 38-39, 61 households and housing units, 60, 115- 117 housing values, 123-125 349 radio stations, 39, 61 rent levels, 123-125 snowflake diagrams, 43-45 television stations, 39, 61 urban growth, 112 Low Countries, historical urbanization, 74, 77 Lufthansa Airlines, 153- 154 M Madrid historical urbanization, 77 political basis for growth, 98 public expenditures for improvements, 83 Maglev train, 15, 148, 157, 159, 170 Mail, see Postal systems Management decentralization of, 82 information systems in construction, 308-309 Manchester, population growth, 80 Manufacturing, flexible, 254-255 Market economy city growth and development in, 98-101 forces operating in, 101 Market shares of coal, 166-167, 201-202, 204 of construction of infrastructure, 300-301 Darwinian competition for, 164, 166- 170 of natural gas, 169, 203 of oil, 167-168 of primary energy resources, 164, 166, 202-203, 204 of transportation modes, 151 - 152, 156- 157, 196-199 Maryland. wastewater program, 289 Mass transit in a domed circular city, 37 underground, 162- 163 Materials technology, construction-related innovations, 300-302 Mechanical water power, 200, 201 Megalopolises Bosnywash, 15, 35 definition, 22 growth and decline of, 13, 80 transport in, 15 Methane, 183, 203, 205, 210 Methanol, synthesis, 167

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350 Metropolises/metropolitan areas attraction of, 80 classification, 23 definition, 22 design, 23 dissimilarities, 112 growth, 100, 111-113 households and housing units in, 115- 119 infrastructure development in, 109-111 similarities among, 112 social geography of, 117-119 urban planning for, 112 see also Urban growth Mexico City, 13 Miami characteristics, 37, 39, 44-45, 62-63 energy consumption, 37, 63 health care services, 45, 63 new housing units, 138 public schools, 39, 62 snowflake diagrams, 44-45 Migration city decline through, 114 city growth and development through, 75, 115 toward continental borders, 159 infrastructure demand and, 114-115, 283 real estate prices and, 115 telematics and, 283 transportation innovations and, 109, 110, 114-115 water supply and, 264 see also Immigration Milan, historical urbanization, 83 Milwaukee, new housing units, 134-135 Mining, settlement growth around, 79, 100, 110, 111 Missouri River, 269 Models/modeling agglomeration economies, 90-92, 93-94 air transport dynamics, 152-159 of city interactions, 71-75 competition, one-to-one, 150-151 computer-to-computer communications. 240, 245 economic, 98-107 Fisher-Pry transforms, 150, 152, 173- 174, 212, 215-216 of industry locational patterns, 87-91 INDEX logistic growth function, 151, 175- 180, 185-188, 195-199, 210-218 Malthusian population, 149- 150, 160, 162, 172-173 management control strategies, 308-309 Polya process in, 88-89 substitution of technologies, 150, 152, 173-174, 212-218 transportation system development, 147, 152-159, 176-180, 199, 210-218 of urban growth, 72-75, 98-107 Monitoring and sensing technologies, 302, 304 Motels, see Hotels and motels N Naples, historical urbanization, 77 National Airspace Plan, 223 National Environmental Policy Act, 269 Natural gas consumption, 200-201 earliest commercial use, 205 extraction, 170 market share, 16, 169, 202-203, 205 oil-refining applications, 168 pipelines, 16, 159, 160, 169-170, 205- 206 product life cycle, 169 resources, 170 saturation levels, 206 transport of, 159, 160, 169-170, 204- 207, 209 see also Methane Netherlands motorway construction, 165 see also Amsterdam Network systems, 82-83 barriers to exchange in, 74 competition between, 73 core-periphery logic in, 73 financial resources, 83 governance patterns, 82 growth dynamics, 77, 79 hierarchy in, 73, 82 industrial urbanization and, 79 medieval, 77 spatial distributions, 73-74 trade linkages in, 72-75, 77 New Orleans, new housing units, 140

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INDEX New York City characteristics, 35, 37, 44-45, 64-65 colonial, 109 economic independence during colonial period, 109 energy consumption, 35, 65 expenditures (public), 37, 45, 64 freeway miles, 37, 65 hotel rooms, 35, 64 households and housing units, 64, 115 117 housing values and rent levels, 124, 125-128 population density, 35, 37, 64 rent levels, 125-128 revenue per capita, 37, 64 snowflake diagrams, 44-45 tall buildings, 35, 45, 64 telecommunications infrastructure, 45 theaters, 35, 65 transportation infrastructure, 45, 65, 109, 163 urban growth, 109, 110, 111- 112 water and sewer lines, 37, 65, 295 water perimeter, 37, 64 water supply, 268 worker use of public transportation, 37 Newark, new central city housing units, 132 Nippon Telephone and Telegraph, 246 Noise, airport, 229 North Dakota, water diversion project, 269 Nuclear energy demand, 168 fuel costs, 314, 316 growth of, 162, 170, 201 impediments to, 10 innovations, 162, 170 market share, 203 saturation, 159, 161, 170 substitution, 203 Nuclear power plants efficiency, 316 lifetime, 327, 328 oldest, 314 reactor design, 13, 314, 327, 328 siting, 162, 316-317 waste disposal, 262 worldwide, 161 Nuclear-hydrogen energy system, 162 351 o Ogallala aquifer, 262, 267 Oil city growth around, 111 consumption, 168, 200-201 demand, 168-169 gasoline distributors, locational patterns, 95 growth pulses, 206 infrastructure, 168 market share, 167-169, 202-206 pipelines, 204-208, 209 product life cycle, 152, 167 resources, 168 saturation levels, 205, 206 transport of, 155, 168, 203-207; see also Pipelines Oklahoma, water supply, 268, 269 Ontario, California, new housing units, 143 Open systems interconnection (OSI), 240, 245 p Palermo, population growth, 80 Paris air traffic, 158 historical urbanization, 77, 80 public expenditures for improvements, 83 Parking problems, 10 Parks and recreation areas in a circular city, 38 Pennsylvania bridge management system, 310 bridges in need of repair, 295 Petroleum, see Oil Philadelphia colonial, 109 economic independence during colonial period, 109 households and housing units, 115- 117 water supply system, 2 urban growth, 109, 110 Pipelines coal slurry, 270 construction innovations, 305-306 first, 205 growth, 205-206, 208 hydrogen, 170 market shares of transport, 204

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352 mileage of, 160, 204, 206-207 natural gas, 16, 159, 160, 169-170, 205-207, 209 oil, 204-208, 209 saturation levels in growth, 206 Pittsburgh new housing units, 133 urban growth, 111 Political centralization and urbanization, 77, 79-80, 82-83 Political issues airport congestion, 223 bypass facilities for telecommunications, 245-246 water supply, 261-262, 263-265, 268- 270 Pollution, see Water pollution Polya process, 88-89 Population density of a circular city, 37 cities compared, 35 in city evolution studies, 24 Population growth European, 75-78 Malthusian model applied to, 149 rural relative to urban in von Thunen economy, 101-102 and sewerage system planning, 283 and urban development, 75-77, 99 Population movement indicators of, 34 infrastructure for, 146- 174 modeling of, 149-152, 172-174 speed, 147 see also Migration; Transportation systems Populations Ports size and building achievements, relationship, 2 transient, indicators of, 34 Atlantic coastal, 74, 109- 110 cost of refurbishing, 295 inland, 110, 295 Postal systems as empire size determinants, 146 Power plants, see Electric power plants Predictions, see Forecasting; Models/ modeling Prior appropriation doctrine, 272 INDEX Prisons and jails, cost of refurbishing, 295 Private sector control of infrastructure, 3 demand for infrastructure, 98 funding source for local infrastructure, 108 Productivity in construction industry, 297- 298 Proportions-to-probabilities function, 93-94 Protocols for data communication, 238-240 Public sector control of infrastructure, 3 cost of public works facilities, 295 demand for infrastructure, 98 funding for construction, 296 funding for local infrastructure, 108 funding for service infrastructure, 114 R Race/ethnicity and geographical variation in housing, 118-119 Railroad tracks, new uses, 6 Railroads/railways Baltimore and Ohio, 190 Boston and Worcester, 190 challenge from automobiles, 184 Charleston and Hamburg, 190 competition for canals, 190, 195 decline, 190, 191, 199, 208 early, 110, 164, 190 energy sources, 192, 202 growth pulses, 190-191, 193 and industrial urbanization, 79, 110 innovation in, 109, 191- 193 links with other transport systems, 190 market share, 196, 199 migration stimulation by, 110 mileage of track, 190-191, 204, 206, 208 parallels to automobile development, 193 passenger cars, 193 projected growth, 162- 163 Providence and Worcester, 190 recreational uses, 191 saturation in growth of, 190-191 substitution of energy sources for, 192- 194 track gauge, 13 and urban growth, 79, 110

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INDEX see also Mass transit; Trains Real estate capital gains on, 114, 115, 129 suburban, 114 value, see Housing value Recycling of water, 259, 267 Red River, 269 Rent control laws, 128, 129 Rent levels central city compared to suburban, 119- 120, 129 in Chicago, 120- 122, 124 inflation and, 128 in Los Angeles, 123- 125 in New York City, 125-128 Research and development on infrastructure experimentation, 10 materials, 11 needs, 10, 20, 328 operations, 10-11 on wastewater management, 10, 285- 286 Reservoirs Oahe, 270 state control of, 270 Tenkiller Ferry, 268 Restaurant density as indicators of service orientation of a city, 27-29 Returns to scale, see Economies of scale Riverside, California, new housing units, 143 Road transport deficiencies, 10 traffic congestion, 10 Roads automobile fleet expansion relative to growth of, 187 in a circular domed city, 38 cost of refurbishing, 295 history of, 323-326 longevity of, 4, 323-325, 328 maintenance, 323 mileage of, 159, 187-189, 199 motorways, 163-164, 165 pavement, 163- 164, 301, 305 quality of, 325 refurbishing, costs of, 295 Roman, 323 rural, 187 353 saturation in growth of, 159, 163-164, 187-188, 197 substitution for unsurfaced roads, 187- 189 surfaced, 163-164, 187-189, 193, 196, 199, 208, 305, 325 turnpikes, 194-195, 200 Roanoke, Virginia, time studies, 45 Robotics in construction, 306-308 Rotterdam, port development, 75 Ruhr, urban growth, 79 S Sacramento, new housing units, 142 Sailing vessels, and infrastructure development, 109 San Antonio, restaurant density, 28-29 San Bernardino, new housing units, 143 Santa Ana, new housing units, 142 Santa Clara County, California, see Silicon Valley Scandinavia, historical urbanization, 77 Seattle airports, 39, 67 characteristics, 37, 39, 66-67 employment, 39, 66 radio stations, 39, 67 snowflake diagrams, 44-45 water perimeter, 37, 66 water supply system, 309-310 Service industries in Austin, 29-30 decentralization of, 82 employment and urbanization, 79, 111 exploitative activities, 114 financing of, 113-114 forces driving, 114 substitution for production industries, 103 see also Information services Settlements central place concept, 72 hierarchy of, 72 linkages between, 72-73 see also Cities; Towns Sewage systems, see Wastewater and sewage systems Silicon Valley locational determinants, 12, 80, 86, 91 Siting of infrastructure

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354 airports, 5, 9, 158 considerations in, 5, 331 of dams, 319 determinant forces in, 86, 90-91 of electric power plants, 316-317, 329 330 of hazardous and nuclear waste disposal, 262 historical change in, 85-89, 91-95, 99 of industry, 79, 85-96; see also Agglomeration economies of nuclear power plants, 162, 316-317 selectional advantage in, 91 waste disposal facilities, 262 Snowflake diagrams, 42-46 Social issues access to information services/ technologies, 251-252 housing and social status, 117-120 in telematics, 242-244, 246 Solar energy, 203, 314 South Dakota, water sales, 270 Spain dams, 317-318 historical urbanization, 77, 83 St. Louis new housing units, 136-137 urban growth, 110, 111 Steamboats, 110-111, 202 Steelmaking locational determinants, 95 and rail network growth, 110 urbanization and, 79 Suburbs growth, 114, 117, 119 new housing construction, 130, 131 real estate values, 114, 119, 128-129 Subways, see Mass transit Sweden, water recycling, 259 System Network Architecture (IBM), 239 T Tax collection, medieval gate taxes, 2 Technological innovation, see Innovation Telecommunications infrastructure data switching facilities, 236-237, 239, 244-245 data transmission facilities, 235-236, 240, 245 INDEX deregulation, 251 digital transmission hierarchy, 235-236 distributive effects on human settlements and organizations, 17, 251-255 in Germany, 253 innovation, 17, 249, 251, 256 interconnection standards and protocols for, 238-240, 244-245 in Japan, 17, 252-253, 254 longevity, 6, 17, 244, 246, 256 maintenance and repair, 244, 251 manufacturing applications, 254-255 market-driven competition, 17, 249-251, 256 modems, 235 substitutions in, 255 telephone, 235-237, 239, 241, 245, 250-251 Third World technology gap, 252 value-added services, 249, 250 voice signal transmission, 235-236, 239 volume of services, 17, 255 Telegraph system, growth of, 15, 149, 151 Telematics applications, 16, 233-234 central control of interoffice switching, 245, 247 cost of components, 244-245 data switching, 236-237, 239, 244-245 data transmission, 235-236, 240, 245 decentralizing effects on population, 283 distributed processing, 235, 238 facilities, 235-237, 239-240, 245-246 foreign development of, 246 improvements needed in, 234, 239 infrastructure components, 11, 234-240, 244-246 innovation in, 17, 243-244, 245-246 integrated services digital network, 247 interaction of computing and communications in, 234 interconnection standards and protocols for, 239-240, 244 local area networks, 239, 241-242 satellite communications, 245 social issues raised by, 17, 234, 243- 244, 246 System Network Architecture, 239 systems arrangements, 240-242 terminals, 237-238, 245

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INDEX Trains topologies and data flows, 240-242 TELENET, 242 Tennessee Valley Authority, 319-320 Towns boom, 110 castle, 76 central place concept, 72, 75 growth and decline, 76-77 market, 75-76 medieval, 76-77 Mediterranean, 76 see also Cities; Settlements Trade linkages between settlements, 72-73 urban growth and, 75 diesel locomotives, 192 electric locomotives, 192 high-speed, 176 innovations affecting urban infrastructure, United Kingdom 109 long-haul, 109 Maglev, 15, 148, 157, 159, 170 steam locomotives, 192- 193, 202 see also Mass transit; Railroads/railways Tramways, 190 Transport systems, 176- 199 in a circular domed city, 37 communication association with, 14, 146-147 comparisons of, 194, 196-199 competition/dependency mix in, 9, 13 14, 195 Darwinian behavior applied to, 149-154, 157, 172-174 demand for, 16, 155 energy source development and, 162 evolution of, 15-16, 176-199 forecasting of, 15-16, 148-152, 157, 159-164 growth pulses, 149- 150, 184, 195, 197, 208 importance in network systems, 75 innovations in, 9, 109, 162-163, 175 intercity passenger traffic competition, 156-157, 198-199 intermodal connections, 16 life cycles, 183, 197 logistic growth function, 151, 175-180, 185-188, 195-199, 210-218 355 mass, see Mass transit modeling of, 152-159, 176-180, 199, 210-218 performance measures, 198 saturation levels, 16, 150, 153-154, 177, 178, 180-183, 186, 195, 197-198 stability, 171 substitution of different modes' 14, 150- 151, 156-157, 184-189, 192, 197- 199, 202, 208-209 time constants, 196- 197 underground, 162- 163 urban growth classified by, 13-14, 22, 109-111 worker use of, 37 see also specific types of transportation Turnpikes, 194- 195 U motorway construction, 165 see also England; London Urban development/growth on agricultural land, 268 auto-air-amenity epoch, 13, 111, 112 characterization by transportation modes, 13, 22, 109-111 city evolution, 24-35, 42, 45, 46, 71-83 distributive effects of, 76-77 economic forces in, 13, 98- 103 European, 75-80 historical patterns, 75-80, 111 - 113 human problems arising from, 22 industrial production and, 77-78 information role in, 80 iron horse epoch, 13, 110, 112 market demand and, 100 modeling, 13, 72-75, 98-107 patterns, 22, 71 population growth and, 101-102 rates, 22, 76 sail-wagon epoch, 13, 109 steel-rail epoch, 13, 110- 111, 112 trade and, 75 water supply and, 261, 264-265, 268, 271, 272 see also Central place systems; Network systems; von Thunen system Urban hierarchy, 72, 73, 77, 81, 99, 100, 110, 111, 147-148, 252

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356 Urban planning compact city approach, 22-23, 37-38 between epochs, 14 for metropolitan areas, 14, 112-113 problems of scale Al, 23 for wastewater and sewage systems, 280-281, 282-283 Urban regions, North American major, identification of, 35-36; see also Meg alopoli se s population distribution, 37 Urban systems, see Central place systems; Cities; Network systems V Venice as a network system, 73, 82 population growth, 80 Volterra-Lotka equations, 172- 174 von Thunen system, 101-107 W Washington, D.C. new housing units, 138-139 political basis for growth, 98 water supply, 261, 266 Waste disposal/management experimentation in, 10 industrial wastes, pretreatment, 288-289 innovations, 9 planning needs, 18, 290-292 see also Hazardous waste Wastewater/sewage systems and treatment strategies biological treatment, 284-285, 286, 290 cesspools, 279, 280 characterization of industrial wastes, 289 Chicago Tunnel and Reservoir Plan, 18, 282, 291 collection system, 279-283 combined sewer, 280-282 components, 278-279 computerization, 304 construction of facilities, 297 costs, 281 efficiency of, 292 federal funding for, 284-285 functions of, 278 INDEX improvements needed in, 291-292 industrial wastewater pretreatment, 288 289 land acquisition for, 282 overflows, 280, 281, 283, 290, 291 physical and chemical processes, 285 286 planning needs, 18, 290-292 policy, 280 pollution from, 281, 287 pretreatment of industrial wastewaters, 288-289 quality standards, 8, 284, 286-288, 290 receiving water body, 283-290 research and development, 10, 285-286 service charges, 284-285 size determinants, 280, 282, 292 sludge management, 289-290 storage tanks for overflows, 18, 281 282, 291 technology available for, 286 Water distribution infrastructure ancient, 1-2, 18 costs of refurbishing, 295 data base on, 309 deterioration, 18, 258, 259, 265 efficiency, 271 improvement and replacement, 258, 259- 260, 265-267 management changes needed, 265-267, 270-275 pricing of water, 259-261, 265-266, 270, 271, 295 Water pollution control planning, 279, 282, 290-291 cost of control, 295 groundwater, 258, 262-265 implications for water infrastructure, 18, 263 nonpoint sources, 283, 290 risk assessments for, 287-288 from sewer overflow, 280, 281, 283, 290, 291 Streeter-Phelps dissolved oxygen level, 288 urban hygiene program, 282 Water Pollution Control Act, 262, 284, 286, 289, 290 Water Resources Council, 275 Water supply and distribution

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INDEX aquifer mining, 258, 262, 271 climate change impacts on, 18, 260-265, 268 commercial value, 269-270 conservation of, 10, 259, 266-268, 271- 272 contamination, see Water pollution control of, 269-270 environmental concerns, 259, 269 equity issues, 18, 271, 292 forecasts, 18 Garrison diversion project, 269 interbasin transfers, 10, 258, 261-262, 264, 268-270, 275 irrigation, 261, 263, 267-268, 275 legal protection of, 272-275 markets, 270-269 as motivation for infrastructure development, 2 policy, 265, 270-275 political considerations, 10, 263-264, 274-275 357 prices, 265-266, 271 prior appropriation doctrine, 272-273 public trust doctrine and, 273-274 quality standards, 7-8, 262, 263, 284, 286-288, 290 rationing, 266 recycling for agricultural or industrial use, 259, 267 rights, 268, 270-271, 272-273 riparian system, 272-273 river basin sources, 261 saltwater contamination of, 258, 261, 262-263 solutions to problems, 259 urban development and, 261, 264-265, 268, 271, 272 Weather, and airport operations, 226-227 Wood, 192, 202; see also Fuelwood X Xerox, Ethernet standard, 239