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1 Introduction and Background To appreciate the scope of the study it is worthwhile to consider briefly the particular history of the National Zoo, its budget, the range of its operations, and its main missions. The National Zoo was created by an Act of Congress in 1889 for "the advancement of science and recreation of the people" (NZP History, 2003). In 1890 the zoo became part of the Smithsonian Institution (NZP History, 2003). It is one of 16 museums in the Smithsonian complex, from which it receives the majority of its budget. In fiscal year 2003 the federal appropriation to the National Zoo was approximately $23 million out of a total base budget of $43.5 million (see Table 1-1), which also includes business income, grants, gifts, and support from Friends of the National Zoo (FONZ) (NZP Budgets, September 24, 2003). In addition, the National Zoo received $18.75 million for capital improvement from the Congress in 2003, and it is slated for continued capital support through 2006. Unlike most other zoos receiving substantial public funding, the National Zoo does not charge admission for its estimated two million annual visitors. Despite its quasi-government status, the National Zoo is a complex business operation, which depends on private as well as federal support for its operations. Direct Federal support through the Congress, plus its location in the nation's capital and accessibility to the many visitors of Washington, D.C., endow the National Zoo with a special aura and prominence. Some would argue that the National Zoo is the nation's zoo, and that its well-being should be a matter of national and not just local concern. The operating and capital improvement budgets for the National Zoo come from a combination of sources: the Smithsonian Institution, the Smithsonian Institution Trust, and FONZ. From 1999 to 2003, the budget for salaries and expenses increased approximately 17 percent (see Table 1-1); funds for capital improvements increased from $4.4 million to $18.75 million (see Table 1-2). In fiscal year 2004 it is anticipated that the personnel budget will decrease because National Zoo facilities staff are being transferred to the Smithsonian Office of Facilities Engineering and Operations (NZP Budgets, September 24, 2003). A 1992 accreditation report by the American Aquarium and Zoo Association (AZA, 1992) noted that the National Zoo had sufficient financial support at the time to maintain the zoo, but the zoo needed a plan to support program development and capital improvements. The National Zoo consists of two campuses. The original site, on 166 acres of Rock Creek Park in northwest Washington, D.C., is open to the public 364 days of the year and houses most of the present collection of approximately 420 species and over 2,500 animals. The second site is the Conservation and Research Center (CRC) on 3,200 acres in Front Royal, Virginia, approximately 65 miles from Washington; the latter is open to the public only on special "open" days, when the CRC showcases its science. The CRC serves as a refuge for vanishing wildlife and as a laboratory for propagating a few rare species and for conservation biology. It is also 9

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10 ANIMAL CARE AND MANAGEMENT AT THE NATIONAL ZOO: INTERIM REPORT TABLE 1-1 National Zoological Park Operating Budget ($ millions) National Zoological Park Operating Budget 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 (est)a SI Federal Salaries and Expenses Facilities, staff and support 19.6 20.5 21.0 21.9 23.0 18.3 SI Trust Business income, gifts, grants 4.5 5.4 6.0 6.7 7.4 12.7 Subtotal 24.1 25.9 27.0 28.6 30.4 36.9 FONZ Support to NZP Programs 2.3 3.8 3.6 4.2 4.7 5.0 FONZ Operations 6.0 6.0 7.4 8.3 8.4 8.8 Total 32.4 35.7 38.0 41.1 43.5 50.7 aIn fiscal year 2004, facilities staff reprogrammed to Office of Facilities Engineering and Operations, including $5.9 million and 95 full- time equivalents. This is included in the fiscal year 2004 totals. SOURCE: NZP Budgets, September 24, 2003. TABLE 1-2 National Zoological Park Capital Budget from the Smithsonian Institution's Federal Appropriation ($ millions) National Zoological Park Capital Budget 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 (est.) Maintenance 3.60 5.20 2.80 4.20 3.95 3.94 Minor revitalization 0.80 3.50 0.40 Major revitalization 0.80 0.80 4.80 5.00 11.30 9.00 Construction (Children's Farm) 4.90 Total 4.40 6.00 12.50 10.00 18.75 13.34 SOURCE: NZP Budgets, September 24, 2003. a classroom for training wildlife biologists from the United States and abroad. These two campuses participate as partners in conducting the three major missions of first-class modern zoos: education, research, and conservation. The National Zoo, like all other zoos, must attract the public through its animal collection. As the American public has become more educated about wildlife, the destruction of habitat, and the accompanying threat to animal species over the last quarter century, it has also learned to be more sensitive to the treatment of animals in the wild and in captivity. Likewise, scrutiny of zoos by the media has become more intense. The public perception of zoos is therefore changing rapidly. No longer can a public zoo be viewed simply as a place of entertainment where exotic animals are viewed in cages. Modern expectation is that the wild animals of the collection be displayed in ecologically "natural" surroundings that are sensitive to their physical and psychological needs (Coe, 2003). The accreditation process for zoos, aquariums, and wildlife parks by the AZA reflects these changing expectations and sets standards for how a world-class zoo should operate. The National Zoo is one of 213 zoo and aquariums accredited by the AZA (AZA, 2003c). During its last AZA inspection, the National Zoo accreditation was extended for one year with a directive to address deficiencies within that timeframe. This accreditation is due to expire in March 2004. The CRC is one of sixteen certified related facilities (AZA, 2003c). The CRC was certified for five years during its last AZA inspection in March 2003. This CRC certification is due to expire in March 2008. PERSONNEL Day-to-day operations of the National Zoo involve employees and volunteers within the organization, professionals from other parts of the Smithsonian, advisory boards, and others outside the National Zoo, including contractors, who primarily work to maintain the National Zoo's animals and physical plant. The work of the National Zoo includes exhibition, education, research, and recreation. The National Zoo organizational structure (NZP, NZP Organizational Structure, November 20, 2003; see Figure 1-1) is characterized by a hierarchical distribution of management authority and responsibility. At the apex of the structure is the zoo

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INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 11 director, who interfaces with three advisory boards: (1) the Friends of the National Zoo, (2) the National Zoological Park Advisory Board, and (3) the CRC Foundation. The director is supported by one deputy director. The National Zoo has eight departments, which essentially operate independently. Departments are led by assistant directors who report to the deputy director and the director of the zoo. The Animal Programs Department (NZP, Animal Programs Organization Chart, November 20, 2003; see Figure 1-2) has primary responsibility over the day-to-day care and management of the animal collections at the Rock Creek Park facility. In the Animal Programs Department assistant curators report to associate curators (who in turn report to the general curator) and are generally individuals who have worked in the National Zoo for many years. The CRC (NZP, CRC Organizational Chart, November 20, 2003; see Figure 1-3) has primary responsibility over the day-to-day care and management of the animal collections at the facility in Front Royal, Virginia. The Animal Health Department includes veterinary and nutrition staff (see Figure 1-4). The Pathology Department has primary responsibility for examining animal deaths, and at the present time administers the pest management program (see Figure 1-5). The other four departments are Public Affairs and Communications, Administration and Technology, Exhibits and Outreach, and NZP Police. The National Zoo employs both federal staff and outside contractors. The total number of government full-time equivalents (FTEs) decreased from about 350 in 1993 to 290 in 2002 (NZP, National Zoo Work Years September 24, 2003). A decrease in the number of permanent staff has been partially offset by gains in temporary employees, although total FTEs have decreased overall during this time. Of note, in 1996 a large proportion of curator staff left the National Zoo during a federal employee buyout program. The percentage attrition in administrative staff was comparable or higher than among non-administrative staff. While the number of employees at the National Zoo has decreased significantly during the past decade, the number of animals under the care of these employees has also decreased significantly (detailed in the Animal Care and Management chapter). Overall loss of staff has been offset to some extent by recruitment of keeper staff, whose numbers increased by six during this 10-year timeframe (NZP, Staff Gains and Losses FY 1993-2000, September 24, 2003). NATIONAL ZOO GENERAL MEMORANDA AND BEST PRACTICES The National Zoo has an extensive set of General Memoranda (see Appendix A) that details standard operating procedures for employees. Most of the General Memoranda have been revised or are new since April 1, 2003. Additionally, in July 2003 the General Memoranda were summarized into Best Practices for most departments (NZP , Best Practices, 2003). These Best Practices were distributed to all staff, and will be distributed to FONZ employees and new zoo employees. Many departments and units at the National Zoo have written protocols (NZP Submission, September 24, 2003). The Animal Programs Department's Best Practice Manual serves as a guideline for keepers (NZP, Department of Animal Programs Best Practices, 2003). Each animal area also has its own protocols for animal care, and are maintained centrally by the general curator. Best Practices were developed by the National Zoological Park (NZP Submission, September 24, 2003) from their General Memoranda (NZP, General Memoranda, August 8, 2003) for 10 departments and units at the zoo. Each Best Practice manual contains summaries of the General Memoranda identified as core to the institution (General Memoranda #1-15). Additionally, other General Memoranda deemed necessary for successful operation were summarized for each department or unit individually; thus each of the 10 departments or units has unique Best Practices. Best Practices have been developed for the following departments or units at the National Zoo: Office of the Director Office of Communications and Public Affairs Department of Animal Programs Department of Conservation and Research Department of Administration and Technology Department of Exhibits and Outreach National Zoological Park Police Department of Animal Health Department of Pathology Office of Facilities Engineering and Operations

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12 ANIMAL CARE AND MANAGEMENT AT THE NATIONAL ZOO: INTERIM REPORT PORT t t r RE Dep tnemtr rrayuM Div Depy cefi fei DAH, Nutr DOP, Of Alberts pa ckettPi Ch Health o352043t neiVah 352030 IPM Dee ael 351030 Terrilynn bit Suzy Head lic 351040 ch celi Po TERIM ardoB no almi Suzan eadH Animal Cornet ogolhtaP Ta PoP Mi IN hsit An NZ ry OO:Z sovidAP Sm air LANOITAN NZ onhcnaFr Ch ing r Act treach Oudna kiclnoD rectoDi Division reu illahF Division 355010 Dolnick, 355020 Exec tsibi nn ateci icult Chuck Exhibits Lynn Manager Lawson sreyM Ly Hort Project m Asso OFEO oneZ Kelvin To Exh Acting EHT AT Slade ceiffO yog p NTE dna oni pteDy Division nosii Shoo imeBr 354010 inwurmeW 354020 Budget Sharlena Personnel Dan nolhcTefoIn Div Paul & GEM kr r kr Head ringot Head mi Bird er Head NAA r Palaic Directo Palaic ratstni oghnolceT Ad 354000 andexeAl Moniy ory ionitr . Cent M ectorDi, Nut ogol ty ogol Dallmeier,.F Assesment eenberg,rG Migrat edal,tfO.O Parkl DNA manle Sp RE H. cy ZolanoitaNnia Depu 350000 er, ogica nnaT R. ZolanoitaNnia R. Biodiversit 351000 Zooll Lu on on CA ions ons iths Mary oni iths Ballou vei ildtW & yg AL Sm Sm Collect Derrick Jon Dave 353010 353030 353040 Head Biolo Head and ion Nationa IM Conservat Reproduct Ecology Head,s ion eachrtuO & r t 's Animal Scott Biology AN ontiarves nte Science Ceh t Ballou, Educat iD Rudran, Robert oni 003).2 J. ainingrT t Behavior, Populat R. M. Science itut 20, arc 353000 Vacan onC se Inst Re Ai November V. s' ithsonian rartsi es ce Murphy Curator Curator Sm Offi Acting Beaver Curator Curator Curator iles the ooZl r egR 352010 Rico Birds Peters ebrat Bronikowski V. Davenport eceived(r n r Mandy Tomassoni A. Rept fortr onatiaNehtfosdnieFr redeor E. M. rams Associate Assistant P. Assistant vertnI rectoDi Chart Prog Xa Sch veti tionadnuoF Assistant Assistant dyaC t nte ratouC Amazonia/ Dep 352000 m chala M. onD imal llia Wi raleneG James Execugn CRC An ce Exhibitions& tiona Acti r Offisri Care 352041 s F. Organizational &sri nsiota n Directo Affacilb 351020 Organiz Animal Curator hel Curator lephantE Curator igersT Curator andasP Kids/ Curator NZP Affa Public nicummoC Pu 1-1 Grisham Reser es/ King 351020 Ope ateci J. Bart.T ahs/ B. evensSt Lions/ L. B. Associate Assistant Assistant Mammals. Asso Cheet Assistant Primat Assistant Sm. FIGURE SOURCE: 12

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O1INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 13 r ot ski ar w u o ki C n e o r at ar Br oci sti s g Ed s e A . i r r V r n ce R ot ot tr ot r o ar ffi u O ting coi rau rs ar est ot ass C s R eaver te u a npo ar s'r c 10 C e C e br u s m t rd v o n A 0 nt t B/ P t n n a C lei T a Bi ar ,y 2 a a n a etr t D l st nce st a e n u sti h 35 oni st v a ept g rp Vi z Al ael R ssi ssi a ssi nI st Pa h A A m A c ssi Re Mu A Mi A y d n Ma y o er n y r sr t e n estar tt ar lel els er adr bol B G mais Mi ts P a u ts eylla m u n er T o o n a e C e uir uir . o S M bet s ael c el ar el k c V o thi h e e e n m c b ht R M R am e a ar er ave m inetsir n ti erv S n u nI Ta Mi 2 P D K F 2 a 2003) s cr ndai mi h u e er B L K C S R ll en n a d 20, o e d n oop y r sr o er C o a cki nti tt moeli et e css anll p agll nyl G P o S a dl t c es el o nde m t o thi e H y H a p ai S e Ro ck H uir s ndo dr n e onst m ugl avr D r ka c ar e G n e rd ca D G Mi p al e erff w egi s en no S eslit a g November oni R Bi Je Sa G Ri R s ort bii ni yr l e e e az Re Be S Ro M 1 m e ant ar hx w naitsir el nits m a ani ar 00 X E A Ed Ch V Ju D oyl . Cu 41 g & 0 o 20 p A l ar er 2 (received Pr 35 em 35 ts l amill r s ui 85 ene Cal e r n w mai G zl nt s e Wi mai o u e tzi w olr sr cr e e s neli a y R V H off eill siv a b er a evt e . An d M thi o An hate M n Li D Chartla on B S n es m M F e Sa s s y s yrr A e zei al s ny ee e e e c e S Department. hlt nn gi ti di P M a M u iar he a a m ndi m M a K a h a enni a ng cir e n C W K S Cr J D M J ei ecr an aur ri coli soi R mra A E M n L B N Al 1 n o F a s r ograms y u es n a n mk sr n nr dsi Pr Organization g noi a as e e K o s w sl gei M k s lol ll nyl B d n n dl a nil Ma a s/l r thi t4 e F y F a a a n nta a na n w o orly a tzil T/s m nr gr m uir G u o els w imal e h ahr R T J o ahr eB no eir cey nne P ond u o s S c o ar a B h D or e e M M e a pe eir n S mmaa K B R An ni b a b Li Ma T J e e a as cc . e rt a partment ohn e sa s/eta e n d e El Ma Er D Se J D Li anil M. m ts mi b n n div b lb e o a e ougl m e e S S Da R M 1 fortr De yl t Pr M R Di Br D n a a n A t stis ff chala n s at e A Programs m S r r r ge ceiff st mr n a tiona veit r as r na O l ot ot ot 00 F ar a ar dn ot 20 u pha s rau e sr s n e e u a ar st M on, hetr ar el v dsi , 35 a C R C gei C P u K Animal nii E/ t et t ng C ae ann B t n n T/ n s/ Organiz m s S t s/l R C a hs a a te Ki n c ny Ad e a a NZP M sti at ndail sti on sa sti n o B. 1-2 T s s Li s mi sti att n r Be Li mma o ot ee s V ne a m ar As h As As Pr a C As Ma . n L u A shir Ce m S G at FIGURE SOURCE: k oci Jac s s A 1

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14 ANIMAL CARE AND MANAGEMENT AT THE NATIONAL ZOO: INTERIM REPORT noisiviD )ETF re 1( )tsol & cs onitartsnii nerk ffa mo FTE 1 aulFte St tsurT &( 1 mdA tdosop ate garra FTE tuc t)surT 3 M g) s,tned t) flu 20 )t iesro E;TF Trus 31 Trus no eg hceT visiiD noisiv ind fun sturev 7 (66 y t Di cat )ET FTE; oiB co (F 8 FTE; FTE oglo ffa t 86 t)surT St FTE usrT ygo ffa St FTE usrT 2 ) (1 (7 . o 1 Bi 2 3 2 3 see ete nolir lebat not ts 13 Dept d se 003).2 Hea )ETF Repr 13 ma G ndocE od th;sd Tru (FTE e 1;ETF encicS on & iti y en E fficeor 53 nc (4 20, evit andtsi 1(tdli (non-s ie 5 stip FT ducorpeR enticS. W iesro divaD posl ecto Biology Sc Sr t an ra monet categ no sti de es altoT Dir e Support evti November Asstce FTE 1 Fe Sof metirevo &l tionavre strativei ed ojrP = =t owt ciat FTE Trus esehT pidly asso ra ciatossA imanA produc min Cons Re Ad er.nteC eceiv(rt r nteeC Char Chart h ro no )ETF noisiv arche )ETF Res 3 onaltia 200t arceseR cteriD ) visiiD t Dihc 1( )tsol t st tn da da 2( and gus dna et FTE e Rober FTE acaV ,y ogol y noiitrtuN 1(lad ffa ffa He ffe St FTE usrT 1 3 eartu He St usrT 1 ganizational O O (1 val O enci seli 0 Or M Au ) Sc vationer Organiz ontia ciaos As )ETF ntereC .ni 1( Ec,roivah ogol Bi lost &( Cons CRC ervsnoC ch m the Ad erkla . Befo W noitalupoP da oullaB ffa 1 He St ustrT ETF 4 3 noisiv a Dept Di aurL ygooliB d )ETF anhtanoJ and noi )ETF 1( Hea 1( onisiviD at d fortr Researd an onitav ngitcA oullaB ducE Hea & dranuR re t chala er onJ ETF usrT anag tiona Cons M ot as nginairT yduR ffa St 1 eciff O/y detac adeH )reei Conservation ar alloer BA mlalD( Organiz etrceS M erih ytisrev tne )ETF NZP odiiBfo mssessA ret )ETF 1-3 da (1reie 1( Cen & sdriB g da bern ffa He y He eer St ETF 6 onisiviD ngirot mllaD or FIGURE SOURCE: cisco f oni M anrF af St FTE tsurT at gri M 2 4 GllessuR t en no )ETF mt no )ETF( f f noisiv )ETF( pareDt ro visiiD 1( ons sl afts Di d rosivr er FTE aftS e d or uppS & al cteriDtnatssisA )ETF( ffa FTE rota rosivr pe FTE FTE ffa Hea nc dgeel ETF onskcir yraniret hsuBlleh St 1 visiiDla mailli ETF 01 Cur W 1 Su 1 5 Hea St mi mmaa pe M eepK Su dr eeperK Ve tci An Bi naetnia Rut reciff 12 Dert M M Noah O y FTE ot nwoodLi 1 m Sc upplS Ani 2

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INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 15 Department of Animal Health Suzan Murray, DVM Head Veterinary Medical Officer 1 FTE Hospital Administration Staff Division of Animal Nutrition Patti Young, Administrator Terilynn Cornetto, Nutritionist (T) Lidya Montes, Mgt. Support Assistant David Polete, Commissary Mgr. Matthew Young 2 FTE Ralph Graham Tyrone Savoy Sherry Hargrave (Military Leave) Zachary Jones (T) 7 FTE Animal Medical Care Veterinarians Biological Science Techs Sharon Deem Hospital Animal Keepers Jennifer Kodak Laura Elder Stephen Schulze Carlos Sanchez (T -Robinson Fellow) Monika Holland 2 FTE Ellen Bronson (T-Resident) Hillary Thornton (T) Heidi Zurawka (T) 3 FTE 2 FTE 2 FONZ FTE = Federal Position FONZ = Funded by FONZ T = Temporary Appointment FIGURE 1-4 Organizational chart for the Department of Animal Health. SOURCE: NZP Animal Health Department Organizational Chart (received February 11, 2004).

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16 ANIMAL CARE AND MANAGEMENT AT THE NATIONAL ZOO: INTERIM REPORT Department of Pathology 7 FTE Tabitha Viner, DVM Acting Supervisor Pathology Administration Staff Integrated Pest Management Office Claire Burridge, Administrative Asst. (T) Suzy Alberts Angelic Jemerson, Financial Administrator 1 FTE 2 FTE Veterinary Pathology Staff IPM Support Staff Prince Seabron 1 FTE Clinical Pathology Laboratory Pathology Resident Ann Bratthauer Kitty Enqvist (T) One Vacancy FTE = Federal Position FONZ = Funded by FONZ 1 FONZ 2 FTE T = Temporary Appointment FIGURE 1-5 Organizational chart for the Department of Pathology. SOURCE: NZP Pathology Department Organizational Chart (received February 11, 2004). THE ANIMAL COLLECTION The National Zoo's animal collection currently consists of approximately 2,600 animals representing just over 400 species (NZP, Status of the Collection Report, 2002). The collection has undergone dramatic changes in the past 10 years. From 1993 to 2002 the size of the animal collection has decreased 54 percent (see Figure 1-6). This decrease is due to several factors, including a decrease in the number of animals acquired by the zoo annually, as well as an increase in removal of animals from the collection. As shown in Figure 1-7, the number of animals acquired annually by the zoo was fairly stable from 1993 through 1999, but starting in 2000, there was decrease in the number of animals acquired by the zoo annually, with a 67 percent decrease in annual acquisitions from 1999 to 2002. Even though annual acquisitions of animals remained relatively stable throughout the 1990s, the size of the animal collection continued to decline. This decline occurred because the number of animals that were being removed from the collection, either through death or relocation to other institutions (see Figure 1-8), was greater than the number of animals being acquired each year (animals born at the National Zoo or acquired from other institutions). In particular a large number of animals were removed from the collection during 1995-1997. This was partly because of a deliberate reduction in the number of mammals held at the CRC, but it was also because of a large number of animal deaths in those years (due to an increase in the number of fish, amphibian, and invertebrate animal deaths). The CRC deliberately reduced the number of mammalian species in its inventory by about 40 percent during this timeframe through relocation of their animals to other institutions. This decision to concentrate on only approximately 10 species with a high research return provided greater focus to the CRC's research effort.

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INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 17 Size of the National Zoo Animal Collection 7000 6000 5000 sla mi 4000 An ofr 3000 umbeN 2000 1000 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year FIGURE 1-6 Annual status of the National Zoo animal collection. The annual counts for each year are a tabulation of individually counted animals, as well as estimates for groups of animals (such as fish, bats, and frogs), that are not counted individually. SOURCE: Tabulated from NZP, Status of the Collection Reports, 1993-2002. Animal Acquisitions by the National Zoo 1993-2002 1200 Born/hatched 1000 Other acquisition als 800 imnAfore 600 mb Nu 400 200 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year FIGURE 1-7 Annual animal acquisitions by the National Zoo. Acquisitions include animals born at the National Zoo or acquired from other institutions. SOURCE: Tabulated from NZP, Status of the Collection Reports, 1993-2002.

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18 ANIMAL CARE AND MANAGEMENT AT THE NATIONAL ZOO: INTERIM REPORT Animals Removed from the National Zoo Collection 1993-2002 1600 1400 Died Other disposition 1200 sl imanA 1000 ofreb 800 m Nu 600 400 200 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year FIGURE 1-8. Number of animals removed from the National Zoo collection annually. Animals are removed from the collection either by death or relocation of the animal to another institution. SOURCE: Tabulated from NZP, Status of the Collection Reports, 1993-2002. Annual Mortality at the National Zoo 19933-2002002 2 - ((bby species)group) 16 Fish, Amphib , Invert Mammals 14 Birds ) Reptiles %( e 12 Rat rtalityo 10 M nualnA 8 6 4 2 0 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 Year FIGURE 1-9. Annual mortality rate at the National Zoo, by animal group. The annual mortality rate is calculated as a percentage of the animal collection that dies each calendar year. Mortality rates were calculated for fish, amphibians, and invertebrates (fish, amphib, invert) as a group; mammals; birds; and reptiles. SOURCE: Tabulated from NZP, Status of the Collection Reports, 1993-2002.

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INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 19 Annual mortality rates are one method of assessing fluctuation in a zoo collection. This rate is determined by calculating the percentage of the total collection that dies each year, usually using the data from an annual animal inventory. To evaluate the National Zoo's annual mortality rate (see Figure 1-9) in the context of the larger zoo community, the committee sought to data from other zoos in the United States. The committee has obtained mortality data from two zoos at this time. The collection size of these two zoos currently range from just under 2,000 specimens to just over 3,700, representing approximately 240 and 750 species, respectively. Both zoo's mortality rates have remained relatively stable or declined over the past 10 years, averaging 6.8 percent (ranging from 4.7 to 9.8 percent) and 10.6 percent (ranging from 8 to 12 percent ) (Denver Zoological Gardens, 2003; North Carolina Zoological Park, 2004) annually. The National Zoo's mortality rate during the same period averaged 10.5 percent (ranging from 6.3 to 15.9 percent). The fluctuation in the National Zoo's mortality rate is in part due to biological variation, changing nature of the animal collection (species represented and animal numbers within individual species), and aging of the animal collection. Readers should be aware that the mortality rates at a zoo, whose collection is usually made up of animals with life spans much shorter than those of humans, depend greatly upon the length of lifespan and robustness of the species, the ratio of short-lived to long-lived animals in a collection, as well as the age and health of individual animals. The committee has requested data from numerous institutions and anticipates having additional data for analysis of annual mortality rates in the final report. THE NATIONAL ZOO AS PART OF THE LARGER ZOOLOGICAL COMMUNITY To review the National Zoo as part of the larger zoo community, data from AZA-accredited zoos (AZA, 2003b) were analyzed for vertebrate animal collection size, total staff number, and annual budget. For data consistency, institutions were excluded from the committee's analysis when the institution was an aquarium or had greater than 70 percent of its vertebrate collection as fish or when no staff or budget data was available. This yielded 156 AZA-accredited institutions, including the National Zoo, for comparison. For the data from 156 institutions reviewed, budgets ranged from approximately $60,000 to $89 million annually, with an average of $6.6 million (AZA, 2003b). The National Zoo reported a budget of $34 million (AZA, 2003b), somewhat lower than the operating budget (excluding FONZ operations) provided to the committee by the National Zoo (see Table 1-1). The National Zoo's budget is larger than 96 percent of the AZA-accredited zoos (see Figure 1-10). Staff size ranged from 6 to 1,390 (average of 108) for the 156 institutions (AZA, 2003b). The National Zoo staff is larger than 94 percent of the AZA-accredited zoos (Figure 1-11). The vertebrate animal collection size of the 156 AZA-accredited institutions ranged from 20 animals (6 species) to 12,907 animals (824 species) (AZA, 2003b). The National Zoo vertebrate animal collection size is larger than 89 percent of the other institutions with 2278 specimens (see Figure 1-12). Including invertebrates, the National Zoo collection is approximately 2,500 animals (similar to that discussed earlier). The National Zoo had a vertebrate-animal-to-staff-number ratio of 7.8:1 in its collection (see Figure 1-13), less animals per staff member than 72 percent of the AZA-accredited institutions. This ratio includes all staff (animal care, animal health, research, administrative, service, etc,) reported by each institution; approximately 50 percent of the National Zoo staff is involved directly in animal care and management (Animal Programs, Animal Health, and Pathology departments, and the Animal and Support Department at CRC). Table 1-3 presents 10 AZA-accredited zoos with 2,000 to 3,000 vertebrate animals in their collection, including the National Zoo. Table 1-4 presents 10 AZA-accredited zoos with $20 to $46 million annual budgets, including the National Zoo. Guidelines and Standard Practices for Zoos Animal care and management at zoos has changed dramatically in the past several decades, guided by scientific peer-reviewed literature and other literature (regulatory, accreditation, and professional standards and data available in proceedings). Specific regulatory standards have been established by the Animal Welfare Act (enforced by the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service) and the Public Health Service Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Standards have been developed and are obligatory for accreditation by the American Zoo and Aquarium Association. National Research Council reports serve as the scientific basis for policy and regulations pertaining to animal nutrition (Animal Nutrition Series) and to the care and use of animals used in research (Institute for Laboratory Animal Welfare publications) as well as standards utilized in industry, research, and academe. Additional standards and guidelines have been developed by such professional organizations as the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians, Zoological Registrars Association, American Veterinary Medical Association, and the Nutrition Advisory Group of the AZA. Many of these same organizations have annual

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20 ANIMAL CARE AND MANAGEMENT AT THE NATIONAL ZOO: INTERIM REPORT proceedings that contain new and revised opinions on animal care and management. Some data on zoo animal care and management are available in the scientific peer-reviewed literature. The committee has reviewed much grey and scientific literature and has judiciously used these various sources to formulate its findings. 40 National Zoo $34,000,000 30 ) (# onsit 20 tuit nsI 10 0 0. 5 0 0 0 0 32 5 -1. -2 -4. -8. -16. .0 .0 0 0 0 -32 0 .0 M illio n s ($) FIGURE 1-10 Annual budget for AZA- accredited institutions reported in 2003. SOURCE: Tabulated from the 2004 AZA Membership Directory (AZA, 2003b). 40 30 ) National Zoo (# 292 s onit 20 tuit nsI 10 0 9 -16 512 32 -64 -128 -256 -512 T o talS taff(#) FIGURE 1-11 Total number of staff for AZA-accredited institutions reported in 2003. SOURCE: Tabulated from the 2004 AZA Membership Directory (AZA, 2003b).

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INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND 21 40 National Zoo 2,278 30 ) (# snoit 20 ituts In 10 0 < 101 101 201 401 801 1601 3201 > 640 -200 -400 -800 -160 - - 0 0 3200 6400 Collection Inventory (#) FIGURE 1-12 Vertebrate collection inventory for AZA- accredited institutions reported in 2003. SOURCE: Tabulated from The 2004 AZA Membership Directory (AZA, 2003b). 40 National Zoo 7.8 30 ) (#snoit 20 ituts In 10 0 < 12- 16- 25- 4 4-6 6-8 8-12 16 25 40 >40 Vertebrate Collection Per Staff (#) FIGURE 1-13 Number of vertebrate animals per staff for AZA- accredited institutions reported in 2003. SOURCE: Tabulated from the 2004 AZA Membership Directory (AZA, 2003b).

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22 ANIMAL CARE AND MANAGEMENT AT THE NATIONAL ZOO: INTERIM REPORT TABLE 1-3 Annual Budget and Staff Number for 10AZA-accredited Zoos with 2,000 to 3,000 Vertebrate Animals in their Collection (Including the National Zoo). Vertebrate Invertebrate Total Annual Zoo Location Collection Collection Staff Budget ($) Milwaukee County Zoological Gardens Milwaukee, WI 2,024 90 294 19,053,680 Baltimore Zoo Baltimore, MD 2,037 52 283 11,600,000 Minnesota Zoological Garden Apple Valley, MN 2,060 1,053 240 15,782,351 Louisville Zoological Garden Louisville, KY 2,202 62 152 9,336,400 Smithsonian National Zoological Park Washington, DC 2,278 214 292 34,000,000 Sedgwick County Zoo Wichita, KS 2,279 384 130 6,600,000 Detroit Zoological Park Royal Oak, MI 2,320 996 245 20,525,680 Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden Cincinnati, OH 2,324 45 230 19,385,000 Brookfield Zoo Brookfield, IL 2,412 2,862 470 35,100,000 Wildlife World Zoo Litchfield Park, AZ 2,627 100 35 3,500,000 SOURCE: The 2004 AZA Membership Directory (AZA, 2003b). TABLE 1-4 Animal Collection Size and Staff Number for Ten AZA-accredited Zoos with $20 Million to $46 Million Annual Budget (Including the National Zoo). Vertebrate Invertebrate Total Annual Zoo Location Collection Collection Staff Budget ($) Woodland Park Zoological Gardens Seattle, WA 1,005 51 223 20,235,258 Detroit Zoological Park Royal Oak, MI 2,320 996 245 20,525,680 The Calgary Zoo Calgary, Alberta 870 6 199 20,976,000 The Philadelphia Zoo Philadelphia, PA 1,530 57 250 22,801,000 Museum of Science Boston, MA 234 4 289 30,732,000 Smithsonian National Zoological Park Washington, DC 2,278 214 292 34,000,000 Brookfield Zoo Brookfield, IL 2,412 2,862 470 35,100,000 Saint Louis Zoological Garden Saint Louis, MO 3,009 3,217 401 39,288,372 San Diego Wild Animal Park Escondido, CA 3,382 0 650 40,253,000 Bronx Zoo Bronx, NY 4,370 179 578 45,168,506 SOURCE: The 2004 AZA Membership Directory (AZA, 2003b).