Ingredient

Class of Ingredient

Function

Reference

Histaminase

Enzyme

Degrades histamine

Hanson et al.,1988

Immunoglobulin G

Immunoglobin

Immune protection

Howell et al., 1986; IOM, 1991

Interleukin-1-beta

Cytokine

Activates T-cells

Mestecky et al., 1990

Interleukin-6

Cytokine

Enhances immunoglobulin A and C-reactive protein production

Mestecky et al., 1990

Interleukin-8

Cytokine

Chemotaxis

Maheshwari et al., 2002

Interleukin-10

Cytokine

Decreases inflammatory cytokine synthesis

Goldman et al., 1996

Lactadherin

Protein

Prevents rotavirus binding

Peterson et al., 2001

Lactoferrin

Carrier

Anti-infective; may prevent iron from being bioavailable to microbes

Howell et al., 1986; IOM, 1991

Leukocytes

Live cell

Cytokine production by T-cells; direct in vivo roles of B-cells, macrophages, and neutrophils

IOM, 1991; Mestecky et al., 1990

Lipases

Enzyme

Releases bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal free fatty acids

Howell et al., 1986; IOM, 1991

Lysozyme

Enzyme

Bactericidal

Howell et al., 1986; IOM, 1991

Macrophage colony stimulating factor

Cytokine

Macrophage proliferation

Goldman et al., 1986

Mucin

Protein

Inhibits E. coli binding to gut epithelium

Peterson et al., 2001

Oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, gangliosides

Carbohydrates, glycoconjugates

Receptor analogs block binding of enteric bacteria; growth promoters for Lactobacillus

Coppa et al., 1999; IOM, 1991; Rivero-Urgell and Santamaria-Orleans, 2001

Peroxidases

Enzyme

Bactericidal

Howell et al., 1986; IOM, 1991

Platelet activating acetyl hydrolase factor

Enzyme

Catabolizes platelet activator factor

Furukawa et al., 1993

Prostaglandin E2, F2-alpha

Prostaglandin

Intestinal cytoprotection

Howell et al., 1986

Ribonuclease

Enzyme

Prevents viral replication

Nevinsky and Buneva, 2002

Secretory immunoglobulin A

Immunoglobulin

Immune protection (broad spectrum antiviral, antibacterial, antiparasitic)

Howell et al., 1986; IOM, 1991

Soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1

Cytokine

Alters adhesion of viral or other molecules to intestinal epithelium

Xyni et al., 2000

Transforming growth factor-beta

Cytokine

Produces immunoglobulin A and activates B-cells

Bottcher et al., 2000

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha

Cytokine

Mobilizes amino acids

Mestecky et al., 1990

Uric acid

Small molecular-weight nitrogenous compound

Antioxidant

Van Zoeren-Grobben et al., 1994



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