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EXPLORING ~ VlS10h INTEGRATING KNOWLEDGE FOR FOOD AND HEALTH A WORKSHOP SUMMARY By Tina 1. Rouse and Debra P. Davis Planning Group for a Workshop on Exploring a Vision: Integrating Knowledge for Food and Health Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources Division on Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu

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NATIONALACADEMY PRESS 500 Fifth Street,NW Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this summary was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the summary were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This workshop was supported by the following Agreement Numbers between the National Academy of Sciences and the Kellogg Foundation (P0103344), the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (2003-38840-01600), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (229-01-2460), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (X3-83113101~. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authoress and do not necessarily reflect the views of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09057-1 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-52705-8 (PDF) Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, D.C. 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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TOE N~l0N~L ~:ADI~Il; AdVibe~ id the Pawn on Sierra EM eerily, and Mee The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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PLANNING GROUP FOR A WORKSHOP ON EXPLORING A VISION: INTEGRATING KNOWLEDGE FOR FOOD AND HEALTH W. R. GOMES (Chair), University of California, Oakland CHARLES J. ARNTZEN, Arizona State University, Tempe CORRIE BROWN, University of Georgia, Athens BARBARA SCHNEEMAN, University of California, Davis L. DENNIS SMITH, University of Nebraska, Lincoln Science Writer Debra Davis, Alexandria, Virginia STAFF Tina I. Rouse, Study Director Tanja Pilzak, Research Assistant Cindy Lochhead, Project Assistant (through 9/039 Sarah Rasmussen, Project Assistant Prom 10/039 Norman Grossblatt, Senior Editor v

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BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES MAY BERENBAUM, Chair University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign SANDRA BARTHOLMEY, Univesity of Illinois, Chicago DEBORAH BLUM, University of Wisconsin, Madison H. H. CHENG, University of Minnesota, St. Paul BARBARA P. GLENN, Biotechnology Industry Organization, Washington, DC LINDA F. GOLODNER, National Consumers League, Washington, DC W. R. (REG) GOMES, University of California, Oakland PERRY R. HAGENSTEIN, Institute for Forest Analysis, Planning, and Policy, Wayland, Massachusetts JANET C. KING, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Center, California DANIEL P. LOUCKS, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York WHITNEY MACMILLAN, Cargill, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota TERRY L. MEDLEY, DuPont Agriculture and Nutrition, Wilmington, Delaware OLE NIELSEN, Ontario Veterinary College, Canada ALICE N. PELL, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York BOBBY PHILLS, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee SHARRON S. QUISENBERRY, Virgnia Polytechnic Institute and State University SONYA B. SALAMON, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign G. EDWARD SCHUH, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, Minneapolis, Minnesota BRIAN J. STASKAWICZ, University of California, Berkeley JACK WARD THOMAS, University of Montana, Missoula JAMES H. TUMLINSON, Pennsylvania State University, University Park B. L. TURNER, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts STAFF Charlotte Kirk Baer, Director Karen L. Imhof, Administrative Assistant Prom 11/039 Donna Lee Jameison, Administrative Assistant (through 10/039 V1

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Preface On June 9, 2003, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources of the National Academies' Division on Earth and Life Studies held a workshop entitled "Exploring a Vision: Integrating Knowledge for Food and Health." The workshop's purpose was to provide a neutral forum for open communication among scientists, administrators, policy- makers, and others engaged in the agriculture and health systems. It was hoped this would foster discussion of imaginative approaches to more effectively address the public- health challenges that are changing the nature of the nation's agricultural system. The workshop was sponsored by the Kellogg Foundation, the National Association of State Universities and Land-Grant Colleges, the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A planning group assisted National Academies' staff in developing the workshop. It consisted of W. R. Gomes (chair), University of California; Corrie Brown, University of Georgia; L. Dennis Smith, University of Nebraska; Charles J. Arntzen, Arizona State University; and Barbara Schneeman, University of California, Davis. The planning group suggested topics and speakers and provided comments on the drafts of the workshop agenda; they did not participate in the preparation of this workshop summary. This summary has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council's Report Review Committee. The purpose of this . . V11

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. . . V111 PREFACE independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published summary as sound as possible and to ensure that the summary meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the workshop charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the process. We wish to thank the following for their review of this report: W. R. Gomes of the University of California; Arthur Liang of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Gilbert Leveille of Cargill, Inc.; Carla Carlson of the University of Minnesota; Clinton Bristow, Jr., of Alcorn State University; Judith S. Stern of the University of California, Davis; Diane Bellis of the United Soybean Board; and Leigh Sawyer of the National Institutes of Health. Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations offered by the speakers, nor did they see the final draft of the summary before its release. The review of this summary was overseen by Dr. Michael Doyle of the University of Georgia. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this summary was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this summary rests entirely with the authors and the institution.

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Contents INTRODUCTION 1 Structure of the Meeting ............................................................................................. Workshop Summary 10 GOVERNMENT INITIATIVES ON FOOD AND HEALTH Government Programs and the Hunger-Obesity Equation Integrated Research and Collaboration 18 HHS Food- and Health-Related Activities 21 INTEGRATIVE RESEARCH INFRASTRUCTURE FOR FOOD, AGRICULTURE, AND HEALTH 23 23 28 30 32 6 Model University Programs in Food-Health Integration.. Food-Health Integration in a Private Enterprise.......... A Model for Integrating Two Disciplines.................... Opportunities and Obstacles ............ 4 CHALLENGES FACED AND MET IN RESEARCH ON FOOD AND HEALTH 35 Research Endeavors Involving Food 35 Solutions to Food-Related Health Problems 43 5 BREAKOUT GROUP DISCUSSIONS 45 1X

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x EXPLORING A VISION Institutional Infrastructure 46 Incentives 47 Producer and Public Involvement 48 Examples 48 6 SUMMARY 55 APPENDICES A AGENDA................................................................................................................. B SPEAKER BIOGRAPHIES .59 63 BOARD ON AGRICULTURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES PUBLICATIONS 77 TEXT BOXES, FIGURES, AND TABLES Box 2-1. Cost of the Food Guide Pyramid 16 Box 2-2. Consumer Information: Clear or Confusing? 17 Box 2-3. Healthier US Initiative 22 Box 3-1. General Mills Healthy Eating Programs 29 Box 3-2. Biomedical Engineering Educational Summit - Whitaker Foundation 31 Box 4-1. Quality Protein Maize (QPM) 38 Figure 1-1. Daily calorie consumption in the United States, 1910-2000......................... Figure 1-2. Trends in diet and activity levels in the United States................................... Figure 2-1. Trends in U.S. Obesity Rates in U.S. Adults, 1985, 1990, 1995, and 2001.14 Figure 2-2. Recommended vs. actual American diets 19 Figure 3-1. The Cornell Model of Integration and Application 26 Figure 3-2. Overlapping and Interfacing Disciplines in Nutrition at Cornell University27 Table 1-1. Percentages of adults in the United States who are obese, by gender, age, race, education, and smoking status, based on Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data 4 Table 1-2. NRI Funding Allocations, FY 2001 7

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Statement of Task A steering committee will convene a one-day meeting to bring together leaders of relevant programs from a wide range of scientific disciplines, public and private organizations, and global perspectives to explore current education and research efforts regarding the food supply and its impact on public health. The meeting will provide a neutral forum for open communication among scientists, administrators, policy-makers, and others engaged in the agriculture and health systems, which have become inextricably linked. The goals of the meeting will be to illuminate issues not resolve them and to foster discussion of imaginative approaches to more effectively address the public health challenges that are changing the nature and impact of the nation's agricultural system. During the meeting, participants will identify areas of research and education gaps in the current system, explore areas of opportunity for collaboration, and discuss potential actions that can improve integration of agriculture and health sciences for societal benefit. The meeting participants will consider ways to enhance the efforts of relevant federal agencies within and outside the federal system, clarify areas where joint efforts can lead to greater advances, and discuss mechanisms to enhance investment of limited financial and human resources in programs of importance to the integration of the nation's food system with its health system. X1

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