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References Achilles, C. (1999). Let's put kids first, finally: Getting class size right. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. American Educational Research Association. (2003). Special interest groups of AERA, 2003- 2004 directory. Available: [December 23, 2004]. (Special Interest Groups focusing on urban and minority children include the SIG "Research Focus on Black Education," "Urban Learning, Teaching, and Research," and "Education and Student Development in Cities.") Baum, E.B. (1991). When the witch doctors agree: The Family Support Act and social sci- ence research. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 10(4), 603-615. Berliner, D. (2002). Educational research: The hardest science of all. Educational Researcher, 31(8), 18-20. Bohrnstedt, G.W., and Stecher, B.M. (1999). Class size reduction in California 1996-1998: Early findings signal promise and concerns. Palo Alto, CA: CSR Research Consortium, American Institutes for Research. Boruch, R., de Moya, D., and Snyder, B. (2002). The importance of randomized field trials in education and related areas. In R. Boruch and F. Mosteller (Eds.), Evidence matters: Randomized trials in education research. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. Boyd, R., Lambert, S., Cooley-Quille, M., and Ialongo, N. (2003). First grade risk behaviors for community violence exposure in middle school. Journal of Community Psychology, 31(3), 1-18. Bruner, J. (1996). The culture of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Bryk, A.S., and Raudenbush, S.W. (1992). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Campbell, D.H. (1957). Factors relevant to the validity of experiments in social settings. Psychological Bulletin, 54, 297-312. 34

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36 IMPLEMENTING RANDOMIZED FIELD TRIALS IN EDUCATION Reverby, S.M. (1998). History of an apology: From Tuskegee to the White House. Research Nurse, 3(4). Available: [Octo- ber 21, 2003]. Ross, S.M., Smith, L.J., and Casey, J.P. (1997). Preventing early school failure: Impact of Success for All on standardized test outcomes, minority group performance, and school effectiveness. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 2(1). Available: http:// [March 4, 2004]. Slavin, R. (2002). Evidence-based educational policies: Transforming educational practice and research. Educational Researcher, 31(7), 15-21. U.S. Department of Education. (2002). Strategic plan 2002-2007. Washington, DC: Author. Available: [November 24, 2003]. What Works Clearinghouse. (2003). Introduction to the What Works Clearinghouse evidence report process and the role of scientific standards. Rockville, MD: Author. Available: http:/ / [November 25, 2003]. Willinsky, J. (2001). The strategic education research program and the public value of re- search. Educational Researcher, 30(1), 5-14.