THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001
NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.
This study was supported by Contract No. 50-DGNA-1-90024 between the National Academy of Sciences and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The views expressed herein are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of NOAA or any of its subagencies.
International Standard Book Number 0-309-09168-3 (Book)
International Standard Book Number 0-309-53080-6 (PDF)
Additional copies of this report are available from the
National Academies Press,
500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu.
Cover: “Cirrus at Sunset” by G. Stephens, 2003. The original is an oil on canvas and measures 20 in × 24 in. This painting is part of the “Noble Clouds Under Variable Light” series.
Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America