APPENDIXES



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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting APPENDIXES

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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Appendix A Agency Needs and Activities Summary of the unfulfilled needs and activities identified by those agencies and entities charged with assessment and mapping of coastal areas, and/or the production of coastal mapping data and products. Agency or Entity Identified Unfulfilled Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Activities Related to Coastal Mapping Data and Products Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS) NESDIS Nationally consistent shoreline definition Data from environmental buoys Wetland characterization Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) Observing System Satellite-based environmental remote sensing systems for environmental data Coastal Relief Model Bathymetric and geophysical datasets Real-time meteorological data Oceanographic data Tsunami data

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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Agency or Entity Identified Unfulfilled Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Activities Related to Coastal Mapping Data and Products NESDIS National Coastal Data Development Center Access to restricted data and widely distributed coastal data sources Adequate metadata Consistent boundary definitions Consistent data and mapping standards Development of data transformation tools to facilitate generation of value-added products Provides archive of, and access to, long-term coastal datasets Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NOAA Fisheries (formerly National Marine Fisheries Service) NOAA Fisheries Definition of habitat classifications Species use of habitat Habitat maps for managing Essential Fish Habitat (e.g., coral reefs, hard bottom, Submerged Aquatic Vegetation [SAV]) Collection of multibeam bathymetric data Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Ocean and Atmospheric Research (OAR) OAR Ocean Exploration Program Maps of the nation’s entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ), encompassing physical, biological, chemical, archeological, and geological characteristics Maps of more than 3,200 square miles of largely offshore areas of the EEZ using high-resolution multibeam technology OAR National Undersea Research Program Continuous-coverage seafloor topographic and backscatter map products at regional and local spatial scales Multibeam and sidescan sonar mosaic capabilities for small spatial scale (e.g., 1-km × 1-km) mapping to assess dynamics of seafloor features A standard hierarchical descriptive matrix for classification of sedimentological and biological attributes of seafloor habitats A geo-referenced database of underwater imagery for seafloor characterization Time-series observations of seafloor attributes at sites with ocean-observing system installations

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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Agency or Entity Identified Unfulfilled Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Activities Related to Coastal Mapping Data and Products Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Ocean Service (NOS) NOS Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services Improved VDatum transformation tools and use of kinematic global positioning systems (GPSs) in all operations Expanded network of tidal stations Collects and distributes tide and water-level predictions, observations, reference datums, and tidal zoning to support nautical charting and shoreline mapping NOS Coastal Services Center (CSC) Shorelines and elevations that are nationally consistent Uniform standards for coastal mapping Access to restricted data Timely data delivery in readily accessible formats Consistent metadata and standards for coastal information and maps Seamless bathy/topo coverage Environmental Sensitivity Index mapping nationwide Essential Fish Habitat mapping Coastal remote sensing Coastal change analysis Land-cover mapping HAB forecasting Geospatial data and application development Environmental characterizations Watershed modeling Fish and vulnerability assessments of coastal hazards High-accuracy coastal topography Digital shoreline Geospatial training courses Coastal metadata tools and training Data and information access tools NOS Enterprise GIS Initiative NOS National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science Data available on Internet Consistent standards and data interchange Access to non-federal databases Consistent horizontal datums Consistent collection and display standards and protocols for land-sea data Ship time in remote areas Shallow-water benthic habitat mapping Estimating bathymetry in clear shallow water using satellite imagery Coral reef habitat maps Models of habitat/species associations

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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Agency or Entity Identified Unfulfilled Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Activities Related to Coastal Mapping Data and Products NOS National Geodetic Survey Web-based shoreline data dissemination Improved data exchange between federal/state/local agencies Updated shorelines for 1,200 nautical charts New technologies for shoreline mapping Improved hydrodynamic models and tidal zoning National Spatial Reference System Seamless digital database of the national shoreline Tidal datums Aerial photographs Geodetic Tool Kit NOS National Marine Sanctuary Program Detailed high-resolution bathymetry in marine sanctuaries Biogeographic information for key areas Adequate jurisdictional boundary definitions Seamless bathy/topo integration Ensure that each National Marine Sanctuary is accurately characterized (benthic habitat, bathymetry, shoreline, etc.) Publication of a shipwreck database Accurate delineation of sanctuary and adjacent park boundaries NOS Office of Coast Survey Nationally consistent shoreline definition Efficient techniques for shallow-water bathymetry Seamless vertical datum Nautical charts Water depth, bottom characteristics, historical data of bathymetry and shoreline Blended bathymetry/ topography, including digital elevation models and consistent “shorelines” for coastal managers NOS Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management Standardized blended high-resolution bathymetrictopographic digital elevation models and maps Within New England Estuarine Research Society single-habitat classification scheme for coastal zone Administers National Estuarine Research Reserves and state Coastal Zone Management Programs Hydrodynamic analyses, shoreline erosion, nearshore habitat characterization maps Risk analyses for sea level rise NOS Office of Response and Restoration Reconnaissance aerial photography Bathymetry TopoLIDAR Environmental Sensitivity Maps Identification and inventory of abandoned and submerged vessels and their environmental consequences Assist resource managers in understanding the extent and nature of the threats posed by abandoned vessels

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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Agency or Entity Identified Unfulfilled Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Activities Related to Coastal Mapping Data and Products NOS Special Products Office Nationally consistent standards for metadata, data content, and models National synoptic coastal mapping capability Datasets for a foundation (bathymetry, topography) and core socioeconomic information (demographics, land use) for national and regional-scale assessments of coastal change NOS Mapfinder Web site NOAA Enterprise GIS Inventory of marine managed areas Coastal Assessment Framework Digital Atlas of West Coast Living Marine Resources Department of Defense U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) USACE Nationally consistent shoreline definition Better access to time-sensitive data Lower cost for data acquisition Standard formats for GIS Consistent standards for content, metadata, transfer, collection, accuracy, improved data use, models, and tools Blended bathymetric/ topographic maps Engineering products from remotely sensed data Topographic Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and multispectral imagers LIDAR bathymetric systems—SHOALS National Shoreline Management Study to determine extent and causes of shoreline change Regional sediment management GIS Wave and surge modeling Harbor and waterways projects, including hydrographic surveys and dredging

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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Agency or Entity Identified Unfulfilled Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Activities Related to Coastal Mapping Data and Products Department of Defense National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) (formerly National Imagery and Mapping Agency) NGA Legal resolution to allow distribution of worldwide Digital Nautical Chart Free exchange of coastal geospatial information International standards Consistent boundary definitions Global real-time tidal observations Hydrodynamic models Vertical datum and transformations Long-term and seasonal changes in shoreline More accurate data on tides and tidal currents Accurate definition of coastal geoid Charts non-U.S. waters, including Digital Nautical Charts Department of Defense Oceanographer of the Navy Oceanographer of the Navy Locational definition of the EEZ Surveys of ports Charts for the coastal Artic Ocean observations Integrated bathy/topo data Consistent international standards Outside U.S. waters, collects bathymetry from acoustic and LIDAR, ocean temperature, color, currents, tide heights Maps of integrated hydrographic and oceanographic parameters Department of Defense Office of Naval Research (ONR) ONR Consistent international standards in data management Ocean observations Improvements in data collection, processing, and display Improvements in understanding of coastal processes (tides, waves, sedimentation, water properties)

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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Agency or Entity Identified Unfulfilled Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Activities Related to Coastal Mapping Data and Products Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management (BLM) BLM Nationally consistent shoreline definition Resurvey using modern equipment Primarily onshore databases Waterfowl, shorebirds, and fisheries management Department of the Interior U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) FWS Habitat maps for coastal ecosystems Maps of Coastal Barrier Resources System Species Information System Department of the Interior Minerals Management Service (MMS) MMS Nationally consistent interpretation of shoreline Consistent baseline for states Nationally consistent mapping products Consistent standards and formats Offshore cadastral maps Marine boundary maps OCS leasing maps primarily in oil and gas leasing areas

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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Agency or Entity Identified Unfulfilled Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Activities Related to Coastal Mapping Data and Products Department of the Interior National Park Service (NPS) NPS Nationally consistent shoreline definition Benthic habitat characterization (coral reefs, SAV) Shoreline change rates Threats to natural and cultural resources Estuaries/wetlands mapping Anthropogenic alterations Seamless topo/bathy maps Sediment pathways and transport Shoreline change rates Island mapping and geologic framework Forecast and hindcast shoreline configuration Anthropogenic alterations Climate change impacts Vulnerability indices Base mapping (bathymetry, backscatter) Subsidence modeling (e.g., USS Arizona settling) Critical mapping units identified for submerged, anthropogenic, coastalriverine, intertidal, subtidal Baseline geologic data for parks Submerged resources center for archeological projects Shoreline change monitoring Vulnerability maps for parks Survey, identification, inventory, evaluation, protection, and preservation of cultural resources Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) USGS Biology Discipline Better benthic habitat characterization of natural and artificial reefs Mapping of risks to resources in hazard-prone areas Coral reef maps Benthic habitat maps Physical habitat maps Nursery and coastal foraging habitat of fishes, birds, and mammals Coastal erosion GIS Storm, coastal erosion, and sea level rise impacts on living resources Modeling of ecosystem response to coastal disturbance

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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Agency or Entity Identified Unfulfilled Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Activities Related to Coastal Mapping Data and Products USGS Geology Discipline Nationally consistent shoreline definition Nationwide compilation of reliable shoreline data Standardized methods for tracking shoreline position over time Consistent vertical datum Consistent GIS data standards Nearshore and terrestrial geologic maps National Assessment of Shoreline Change Bathymetric and coastal hydrodynamics maps Surficial geology/benthic habitat maps SHOALS LIDAR mapping Coral reef mapping Surficial and sub-bottom geologic mapping for hazards and resource assessments National and regional coastal hazards vulnerability assessments USGS Geography Discipline Higher resolution of basic geographic information Consistent scales, update cycles, data classifications, data models, data formats, metadata Online access to geospatial data and products “The National Map,” including surface elevation data, bathymetry, hydrology, land cover Coastal erosion GIS USGS Water Discipline Accessible archive of remote sensing data and products Time-sensitive storm surges and floods data Bathymetry of estuaries Submerged aquatic vegetation Remotely sensed water quality data Real-time and retrospective coastal flooding data and flood hazard assessment, including flood modeling Department of State Office of Ocean Affairs Boundary definition of continental shelf Continental shelf bathymetry and sediment data, especially in the Arctic Consistent shoreline definition Limits of the Seas series, reporting on national ocean claims

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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Agency or Entity Identified Unfulfilled Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Activities Related to Coastal Mapping Data and Products Department of Homeland Security Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) FEMA Nationally consistent shoreline definition Blended bathymetric/ topographic maps Wave and flood models Comprehensive climate and storm data Storm surge models, including bathymetry, topography Environmentally sensitive areas Coastal erosion maps Earthquake, flood, and wind hazard maps Coastal community vulnerability assessments Department of Homeland Security U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) USCG High-resolution imagery and bathymetry to support homeland security Coastal circulation models Positions of Aids to Navigation Updates of navigation charts Aids to Navigation Information System U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) EPA Office of Water, Office of Research and Development, Office of Air and Radiation Location accuracy of data points from various sources Timely access to data sources (water quality, sediment chemistry) from other agencies or academic sources Compatibility between data formats (scale, projections) Adequate storage and hardware National consistency for airshed and watershed maps Monitoring and assessment activities to support water quality, safe drinking water, marine debris, watershed modeling, HAB mapping Environmapper for Water National Environmental Information Exchange Network National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA Long-term geodetically controlled tide gauge system Ability to separate different components of sea level change Coral reef mapping Geodetic imaging, digital data online Global maps of water quality parameters Technology development for coastal hazards development

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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Agency or Entity Identified Unfulfilled Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Activities Related to Coastal Mapping Data and Products National Science Foundation (NSF) NSF Centralized online metadata catalog Quality control of data User-friendly Web-based tools for searching and accessing data Standard digital forms for reporting data Marine environmental data collected by principal investigators must be deposited in a designated national data center no later than 2 years after being collected Office of Management and Budget Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) FGDC Improved interagency coordination Improved collaboration and minimization of duplication between agencies Increased progress on FGDC Framework Increased acceptance of FGDC standards and protocols Quicker approval of spatial data collection and mapping standards Increased private-sector involvement Improved data access Development of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI) Support and publicize Geospatial One-Stop Promulgation of standards Support for NSDI Communications Toolkit States, Tribes, and Territories Resource Managers, as identified by response to CSC (1999) Enhanced ability to interpret and apply spatial data and imagery for decision making Access to information from other entities Enhanced interagency coordination Habitat and human-use maps and data Nearshore and estuary bathymetry Fish distribution Wetland function Land-use change maps Varies widely by entity

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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Agency or Entity Identified Unfulfilled Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Activities Related to Coastal Mapping Data and Products Coastal Resource Management Departments Consistent scale and format for coastal and marine data Consistent shoreline definition Consistent protocols for data collection, mapping, storage, and reporting More detailed bathymetry, elevation, hydrography Better information about land-sea interface (0 to 50 ft depth) More detailed need for improved spatial data to address hazards Elevation, hydrography seismic profiling, sidescan sonar, coring, diver surveys, paleo reconstructions, etc. Varies widely by entity Environmental Protection Departments Data and mapping to support water quality permitting, construction/dredging permits Groundwater issues (such as saltwater intrusion) Habitat restoration, urbanization issues Varies widely by entity Natural Resource Departments Data and mapping to support assessments of coastal hazards, coastal erosion, fisheries management, rare and endangered species Varies widely by entity Emergency Management Departments Data and mapping to support assessment of flooding and other hazards Varies widely by entity Geological/ Biological Surveys Data and mapping to support assessment of living and non-living resources, rare and endangered species, biodiversity, basemaps, coastal change Varies widely by entity

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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Agency or Entity Identified Unfulfilled Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Activities Related to Coastal Mapping Data and Products Archeology/ Cultural Heritage Data and information in support of locating and documenting cultural/ archeological resources Varies widely by entity SOURCES: Communications and presentations by agency personnel and other interested individuals, Appendix A in NRC (2003a), and NOAA-CSC Coastal Resource Management Customer Surveys (CSC, 1999; 2002).