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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Committee on National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Ocean Studies Board Mapping Science Committee Division of Earth and Life Studies NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS Washington, D.C. www.nap.edu
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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20001 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This study was supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce, under Contract No. 56-DGNA-1-90024 TO#7; by the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior, under Cooperative Agreement No. O1HQAGO217; and by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under Grant No. X-82951601. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the agencies that provided support for the project. Cover: Images courtesy Center for Coastal and Ocean Mapping, University of New Hampshire. Background image is USGS multibeam data from San Francisco Bay combined with USGS topographic data; inset image is three-dimensional model of seamless offshore-onshore dataset produced by Tampa Bay Bathy/Topo/Shoreline Demonstration Project, with high sea level superimposed. Cover designed by Michael D. Dudzik. International Standard Book Number 0-309-09176-4 (Book) International Standard Book Number 0-309-53110-1 (PDF) Library of Congress Control Number 2004106115 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, N.W., Lockbox 285, Washington, DC 20055; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area); Internet, http://www.nap.edu Copyright 2004 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America
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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES Advisers to the Nation on Science, Engineering, and Medicine The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Wm. A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Wm. A. Wulf are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. www.national-academies.org
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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL NEEDS FOR COASTAL MAPPING AND CHARTING LARRY A. MAYER (Chair), University of New Hampshire, Durham KENNETH E. BARBOR, International Hydrographic Bureau, Monaco PAUL R. BOUDREAU, Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia THOMAS S. CHANCE, C&C Technologies, Lafayette, Louisiana CHARLES H. FLETCHER, University of Hawaii, Honolulu HOLLY GREENING, Tampa Bay Estuary Program, Saint Petersburg, Florida RONGXING LI, The Ohio State University, Columbus CURT MASON, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (ret.), West Virginia SUSAN SNOW-COTTER, Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management, Boston DAWN J. WRIGHT, Oregon State University, Corvallis Ocean Studies Board Liaison RALPH S. LEWIS, Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey (ret.), Hartford National Research Council Staff DAVID A. FEARY, Study Director (from October 2003) TERRY SCHAEFER, Study Director (until October 2003) YVONNE FORSBERGH, Research Assistant BYRON MASON, Senior Project Assistant (from October 2002) ALISON SCHRUM, Project Assistant (until September 2002)
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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting OCEAN STUDIES BOARD NANCY RABALAIS (Chair), Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium, Chauvin LEE G. ANDERSON, University of Delaware, Newark WHITLOW AU, University of Hawaii at Manoa ARTHUR BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge RICHARD B. DERISO, Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission, La Jolla, California ROBERT B. DITTON, Texas A&M University, College Station EARL DOYLE, Shell Oil (ret.), Sugar Land, Texas ROBERT DUCE, Texas A&M University, College Station PAUL G. GAFFNEY II, Monmouth University, Long Branch, New Jersey WAYNE R. GEYER, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts STANLEY R. HART, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Massachusetts RALPH S. LEWIS, Connecticut Geological and Natural History Survey (ret.), Hartford WILLIAM F. MARCUSON III, U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (ret.), Vicksburg, Mississippi JULIAN P. MCCREARY, JR., University of Hawaii, Honolulu JACQUELINE MICHEL, Research Planning, Inc., Columbia, South Carolina JOAN OLTMAN-SHAY, Northwest Research Associates, Inc., Bellevue, Washington ROBERT T. PAINE, University of Washington, Seattle SHIRLEY A. POMPONI, Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution, Fort Pierce, Florida FRED N. SPIESS, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, California DANIEL SUMAN, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Florida National Research Council Staff SUSAN ROBERTS, Director DAN WALKER, Senior Program Officer JENNIFER MERRILL, Senior Program Officer JOANNE BINTZ, Program Officer TERRY SCHAEFER, Program Officer (until October 2003) ROBIN MORRIS, Financial Officer SHIREL SMITH, Administrative Associate JODI BACHIM, Senior Project Assistant NANCY CAPUTO, Senior Project Assistant BYRON MASON, Senior Project Assistant SARAH CAPOTE, Project Assistant
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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting MAPPING SCIENCE COMMITTEE A standing committee of the BOARD ON EARTH SCIENCES AND RESOURCES DAVID J. COWEN, (Chair), University of South Carolina, Columbia KATHRINE CARGO, New Orleans Geographic Information Systems, Louisiana KEITH C. CLARKE, University of California, Santa Barbara WILLIAM J. CRAIG, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis ISABEL F. CRUZ, University of Illinois, Chicago ROBERT P. DENARO, NAVTEQ Corporation, Chicago, Illinois SHOREH ELHAMI, Delaware County Auditor’s Office, Ohio DAVID R. FLETCHER, Geographic Paradigm Computing, Albuquerque, New Mexico Hon. JAMES GERINGER, Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., Wheatland, Wyoming DAVID R. MAIDMENT, University of Texas, Austin MARK MONMONIER, Syracuse University, New York JOEL MORRISON, The Ohio State University (emeritus), Columbus SHASHI SHEKHAR, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis NANCY TOSTA, Ross & Associates Environmental Consulting, Ltd., Seattle, Washington National Research Council Staff PAUL M. CUTLER, Senior Program Officer RADHIKA S. CHARI, Senior Project Assistant
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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Preface While the academic community will long debate the relative roles of science and technology in fostering an understanding of the world around us, there can be little doubt that every so often there are concomitant technical developments that set the stage for a major leap in scientific understanding. This is indeed the case with respect to remote sensing, mapping, and data-handling technologies, where remarkable advances in the development of satellite-positioning systems, terrestrial and marine mapping sensors, and the digital manipulation of mapping data using geographic information systems have revolutionized our ability to collect, distribute, analyze, and visualize geospatial data. Along with these technological developments has come an evolution in our understanding of the fundamental importance of the coastal zone to the social, economic, and environmental well-being of the nation. With this increased understanding has also come a new appreciation for the complexity, sensitivity, and interconnectedness of the coastal zone system. This convergence of technology and scientific awareness heralds a new era of geospatial data handling and products that, for the first time, may allow us to address some of the key challenges faced by those charged with understanding and managing the coastal zone. Recognizing these technological advances, the critical importance of the coastal zone to the well-being of the nation, and the fundamental role that mapping and charting plays in understanding and managing the coastal zone, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency asked the National
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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Academies to provide an independent assessment of national coastal zone mapping and charting activities and needs. With at least 15 federal agencies, almost all coastal states, and innumerable local agencies, academic institutions, and private companies involved in coastal mapping and charting, this assessment has been a very large and difficult task. Through a series of information-gathering exercises and meetings, we attempted to understand the short- and long-term mapping needs of the coastal zone community and to determine how well current activities are meeting these needs. We explored roadblocks to generating the information needed in appropriate forms, and sought approaches for maximizing the efficiency of data collection and the value of data products. While we cannot be assured that we covered every need and activity, we are confident that we have addressed the major issues and hope that the recommendations we make will help establish an infrastructure for U.S. coastal zone mapping activities that will allow us to efficiently and effectively manage and preserve our wonderful coastal environments. Larry Mayer Chair
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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Acknowledgments This report was greatly enhanced by the participants at the four public committee meetings held as part of this study. The committee would first like to acknowledge the efforts of those who gave presentations at the meetings: Robert Ader, RADL Chris Andreasen, Rebecca Beavers, Doug Bellomo, Jim Bennett, Randall E. Billy, Nancy J. Blyler, James Brokaw, Darrell Brown, Stephen K. Brown, William S. Burgess, Margaret A. Davidson, Janet Freedman, Jason Freihage, John W. Haines, Tony LaVoi, W. Jeff Lillycrop, Daniel T. Mates, Bruce McKenzie, Anne Hale Miglarese, Mark E. Monaco, Bruce Parker, Derrick R. Peyton, Abby Sallenger, George F. Sharman, Kathy A. Shield, Karen Siderelis, Robert W. Smith, Joseph Stinus, E. Robert Thieler, Leland F. Thormahlen, and Charles Trees. These talks helped set the stage for fruitful discussions in the sessions that followed. The committee is also grateful to a number of people who provided important information, commentary, and material for this report: Anne Ball, Jerry Bailes, Lenny Coats, Kim Cohen, Greg Colianni, Cindy Fowler, Norman Frommer, Keith Good, Walter R. Johnson, Jim Kendall, Charles Kovach, Pat Leahy, Michael Plastino, Barbara S. Poore, Nancy Rabalais, Steve Raber, Kevin Schexnayder, Miki Schmidt, Gregg Serenbetz, Greg Snyder, Richard W. Spinrad, David Stein, Megan Treml, Bill Walker, Erika Washburn, Pace Wilber, and James Woodley. The committee would also like to thank the National Research Council (NRC) staff: David Feary, Yvonne Forsbergh, Morgan Gopnik, Kristen Krapf, Byron Mason, Alison Schrum, Terry Schaefer, and Winfield Swanson
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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting for helping us wend our way through the often complex maze of NRC reports. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: John D. Bossler, Center for Mapping, The Ohio State University, Columbus David J. Cowen, Department of Geography, University of South Carolina, Columbia Joseph J. Cox, Chamber of Shipping of America, Washington, D.C. David A. Hart, University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute, Madison Nancy Musgrove, Management of Environmental Resources, Inc., Seattle, Washington Richard Pickrill, Marine Environmental Geoscience, Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia Walter Schmidt, Florida State Geological Survey, Tallahasee Karen L. Steinmaus, Pacific Northwest Center for Global Security, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Raymond A. Price, Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering (emeritus), Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Appointed by the National Research Council, he was responsible for ensuring that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting Contents EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 1 INTRODUCTION 11 Coastal Zone Geospatial Data—Mapping and Charting, 13 Committee Charge and Scope of the Study, 15 2 COASTAL MAPPING NEEDS AND ACTIVITIES 18 Coastal Geospatial Data, Technology, and Products, 20 Coastal Issues Requiring Geospatial Data and Products, 25 Mapping Needs Beyond the Coastal Zone, 59 Summary, 60 3 A COMMON COASTAL ZONE REFERENCE FRAME: THE SEAMLESS COASTAL MAP AND CONSISTENT SHORELINE 62 The Need for a Common Framework, 64 Strategies for Developing a Common Framework, 66 Implementation of a Common National Framework, 69 Where and What is the Shoreline—Is a National Shoreline Needed? 71 4 IMPROVING THE QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF COASTAL REFERENCE FRAME DATA 74 Shallow Bathymetry—The Most Critical Gap, 75 Strategies for Providing Shallow Bathymetry, 78 Terrestrial Satellite Imaging, 83
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A Geospatial Framework for the Coastal Zone: National Needs for Coastal Mapping and Charting 5 ACCESS TO COASTAL GEOSPATIAL DATA 85 National Standards and Protocols, 86 More than Just a Web Portal, 93 6 INCREASING COASTAL MAPPING AND CHARTING EFFICIENCY 94 Data Collection Overlap and Redundancy—Topography and Bathymetry, 96 Data Collection Overlap and Redundancy—Habitat Mapping, 101 Strategies for Addressing Redundancy and Overlap, 102 7 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 110 Common Needs, 110 A Vision for the Future, 113 Recommendations, 114 REFERENCES 123 APPENDIXES A Agency Needs and Activities 129 B Committee and Staff Biographies 142 C Acronyms 147