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Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions C PI-Led Missions and Their Characteristics This appendix provides a tabular “database” of PI-led missions and programs addressed in the report. Although they do not provide a complete list of all PI-led missions, Tables C.1 through C5 include a sufficient set of examples to illustrate the issues discussed in the report. Included are a range of missions in various disciplines, not only Earth science, and a range of scope from instrument-focused PI projects to multisensor payload missions where the PI was responsible for the entire mission from conception to spacecraft and sensor integration and launch, operations, and data analysis through orbit decommissioning. Mission examples are provided in all stages of a mission life cycle, including the study phase (formulation), the design, development, operations, and data analysis phases (implementation), and some that are completed. The tables also include missions that were canceled or descoped, usually due to cost and schedule difficulties associated with technology development, and several that failed on orbit. Tables C.1 to C.5 list and describe the missions grouped by program: Discovery (Table C.1), MIDEX (Table C.2), SMEX (Table C.3), Earth System Science Pathfinder (Table C.4), and others (Table C.5). Each row of each table contains a brief summary of mission characteristics as follows: Column Heading—Content Mission—Name Objectives—Mission science goals Launch, S/C—Launch date and vehicle, spacecraft Instruments—Instruments included in the mission manifest Principal Team Institutions—Industrial or government agencies or laboratories, and universities participating in the mission Management—Principal investigator and institution Selection—Program solicitation under which the mission was selected Status—Whether the mission has been successfully completed, was launched and is in successful operation, is in development, was canceled, or has failed on orbit.
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Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions TABLE C.1 Discovery Missions and Characteristics Mission Objectives Launch, S/C Instruments Kepler Detecting extrasolar terrestrial planets Oct 2007 Launch – D2925-10 Delta II Single instrument:Photometer Dawn Asteroid flyby May 2006 Launch –Delta 7529H Orbital Spacecraft with xenon ion propulsion Framing Camera, Mapping Spectrometer, Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer, Laser Altimeter, Magnetometer Mercury Surface, Space Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) Mercury orbiter 2004 Launch – Delta II 7925H Mercury Dual Imaging System, Gamma Ray and Neutron Spectrometer, Magnetometer, Mercury Laser Altimeter, Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer, Energetic Particle and Plasma Spectrometer, X-Ray Spectrometer, Radio Science Deep Impact Comet impactor/flyby Dec 2004 Launch – Delta II High-Resolution Instrument, Medium-Resolution Instrument, Impactor Targeting Sensor Genesis Solar wind sample return to obtain precise measures of solar isotopic abundances Aug 2001 Launch Sample Collection Arrays Comet Nucleus Tour (CONTOUR) Multiple comet flyby (2) Jul 2002 Launch – Boeing Delta Neutral Gas and Ion Mass Spectrometer, Remote Imaging Spectrograph, Dust Analyzer, Forward Imager Stardust Comet flyby sample return Feb 1999 Launch – Delta II, 7425 Dust Flux Monitor, Cometary and Interstellar Dust Analyzer Lunar Prospector Moon orbiter/impactor Jan 1998 Launch – Athena II (Lockheed Martin) Gamma Ray Spectrometer, Neutron Spectrometer, Alpha Particle Spectrometer, Magnetometer, Electron Reflectrometer Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Asteroid orbiter 1996 Launch – Delta 2 Multi-Spectral Imager, NEAR Infrared Spectrometer, NEAR Laser Rangefinder, X-ray/Gamma Ray Spectrometer, Magnetometer
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Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions Principal Team Institutions Management Selection Status Ball Aerospace PI – Bill Borucki (NASA Ames) Discovery-4 (2002) Formulation phase JPL, Orbital PI – Chris Russell (UCLA) Discovery-4 (2002) Formulation phase JHU Applied Physics Laboratory, GenCorp Aerojet, Composite Optics, NASA GSFC, U.Colo., U.Mich. PI – Sean Solomon (Carnegie Institution of Washington) Discovery--3 Formulation phase U. Md., JPL, Ball Aerospace PI – Mike A’Hearn (U. Md.) Discovery-3 Critical design review, Jan 2002; now in 34-month implementation phase JPL, NASA JSC, Lockheed Martin, LANL PI – Don Burnett (Caltech) Discovery-2 Operating Rockwell Science, Cincinnati Elec.APL:incorporation of spacecraft maindeck and frame PI – Joe Veverka (Cornell U.) Discovery--2 Lost contact with spacecraft following orbital maneuver on August 15, 2002 JPL, Lockheed Martin, Max-Planck-Institut, NASA Ames, NASA JSC, U.Chicago PI – Donald Brownlee (U.Wash.); Deputy PI – P..Tsou (JPL) Discovery-1 Operating NASA Ames, Lockheed Martin, Lunar Research Institute PI – Alan Binder (Lunar Research Institute) Discovery--1 Mission completed JHU/APL, JPL, Cornell U., MIT, U.Md., U.Ariz., SW Research Inst., Malin Space Science Systems, Inc. Program Executive –Anthony Carro (NASA HQ) Discovery-0 (noncompetitive) Mission completed Feb 2001
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Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions TABLE C.2 MIDEX Missions and Characteristics Mission Objectives Launch, S/C Instruments Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer Observe gamma-ray bursts 2003 Launch– Delta 7320 Burst Alert Telescope, X-Ray Telescope, Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) Astrometry 2004 Launch –Delta 7425 Astrometric Telescope Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Map the temperature fluctuations of the CMB radiation 2001 Launch – Delta II-7425-10 High Electron Mobility Transistor Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) Image Earth ’s magnetosphere Mar 2000 Launch – Boeing Delta II 7326-9.5 Neutral Atom Imagers, Far-Ultraviolet Imaging System, Extreme Ultraviolet Imager, Radio Plasma Imager, Central Instrument Data Processor Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Make far-ultraviolet observations of hydrogen and deuterium Jun 1999 Launch – Delta 7320-10 Far-Ultraviolet Spectrograph TABLE C.3 SMEX Missions and Characteristics Mission Objectives Launch, S/C Instruments Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) Explore basic physics of particle acceleration and explosive energy release in solar flares Feb 2002 Launch –Orbital Sciences Corp. Pegasus XL, L1011 aircraft Feb 2002 Launch Imaging Telescope Assembly, Grid Tray and Grids, Spectrometer, Attenuators Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) Study star formation history of the universe Mar 2003 Launch –Pegasus XL Single Instrument with 2 UV Microchannel Plate Detectors Wide Field Infrared Explorer (WIRE) Obtain infrared astronomy Mar 1998 Launch –Pegasus XL Cryogenically Cooled 30-cm Ritchey-Chretien Telescope Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) Obtain high-resolution solar imagers Apr 1998 Launch –Pegasus XL TRACE Imaging Telescope Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) Detect chemical composition of interstellar gas clouds Dec 1998 Launch –Pegasus XL Submillimeter Telescope Fast Auroral Snapshot Explorer (FAST) Investigate plasma physics of auroral phenomena Aug 1996 Launch – Pegasus XL 16 Electrostatic Analyzers, 4 Langmuir Probes on 30-m Booms, 2 Langmuir Probes on 3-m Booms, Searchcoil and Fluxgate Magnetometers, Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer (SAMPEX) Measure elemental and isotopic composition of solar energy particles and cosmic rays Jul 1992 Launch –Scout High-Energy Particle Detectors
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Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions Principal Team Institutions Management Selection Status NASA GSFC, Penn.State U., Leicester U., Brera Observatory, Mullard Space Science Lab., Spectrum Astro, Inc. PI – Neal Gehrels (NASA GSFC) MIDEX 98 Implementation phase U.S.Naval Observatory, Lockheed Martin, Naval Research Laboratory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory PI – Ken Johnston (U.S.Naval Observatory) MIDEX 98 Rescoped in Phase B;; canceled in 2002 NRAO, Lockheed Martin, Litton, UCLA PI – Charles Bennett (NASA GSFC) MIDEX 95 Operating JHU, NASA GSFC, Canadian Space Agency, Centre National d’Etudes Spatiale, U.Colo., UC Berkeley PI – Warren Moos (JHU) Pre--MIDEX Operating Principal Team Institutions Management Selection Status UC Berkeley, Paul Scherrer Institute, NASA GSFC, Spectrum Astro, Inc. PI – Robert Lin (UC Berkeley) SMEX 97 Operating Caltech, JPL, Orbital Sciences PI – Chris Martin (Caltech) SMEX 97 Implementation phase Caltech Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Vanguard Research, Inc., JPL, NASA GSFC, Cornell U., Ball Aerospace PI – Perry Hacking (JPL) SMEX 94 Failed during on--orbit commission NASA GSFC, Lockheed Martin PI – Alan Title (Lockheed Martin) SMEX 94 Operating Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, NASA GSFC, Ball Aerospace PI – Gary Melnick (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) SMEX 89 Operating Lockheed Martin., UC Berkeley, U.N.H., LANL, NASA GSFC PI – Charles Carlson (UC Berkeley) SMEX 89 Operating U.Md., Caltech, NASA GSFC, Aerospace Corp., NASA LaRC, Max-Planck-Inst. for Extraterrestrial Research PI – Glenn Mason (U.Md.) SMEX 89 Operating
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Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions TABLE C.4 Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Missions and Characteristics Mission Objectives Launch, S/C Instruments Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Measure time variations of Earth gravity Mar 2002 Launch Microwave Ranging Sensors Vegetation Canopy Lidar (VCL) Provide first global inventory of vertical structure of forests Originally Spring 2000 Multi-Beam Laser Altimeter from NASA GSFC Chemistry and Circulation Occultation Spectroscopy Mission (CCOSM) Understand how atmospheric circulation controls the evolution of trace gases, aerosols, and pollutants N.A. Fourier Transform Spectrometer Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), formerly Pathfinder Instrument for Cloud and Aerosol Spaceborne Observation – Climatologie Etendue des Nuages et des Aerosols (PICASSO–CENA) Measure aerosol and cloud properties to improve climate predictions Mar 2005 Launch –Delta 7420-10C (co-manifested with CloudSat), PROTEUS spacecraft (Alcatel) Lidar (nadir-viewing, 2-wavelength, polarization sensitive), Visible Wide-Field Camera, Imaging Infrared Radiometer CloudSat Measure cloud profiles 2004 Launch –Delta 7420-10 launch vehicle, Ball RS2000 spacecraft bus 94-GHz Cloud Profiling Radar Volcanic Ash Mapper (VOLCAM) Monitor volcanic clouds and aerosols from geostationary orbit Piggyback on spacecraft and flight of opportunity Ultraviolet and Infrared Detectors Aquarius Globally map salt concentration on ocean surface Launch date TBD 3 Polarimetric Radiometers, 1 Polarimetric Scatterometer Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) Make global measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide Launch date TBD –Taurus 2110 launch vehicle, Orbital LEOStar 2 spacecraft 3 Grating Spectrometers Hydrosphere State Mission (HYDROS) Monitor soil moisture,land surface freeze/thaw conditions 2006 Launch –Taurus 2110 launch vehicle, Spectrum Astro SA-200HP Spacecraft L Band Radar/Radiometer
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Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions Principal Team Institutions Management Selection Status JPL, Space Systems/Loral, U.Tex., Eurockot PI – Byron Tapley (U.Tex.) ESSP--1 Operating Lab.Terrestrial Physics, U.Md., Omicron, Orbital, Raytheon, Swales, NASA GSFC PI – Ralph Dubayah (U.Md.) ESSP--1 Descoped to technology development program; canceled in 2003 Lockheed Martin, Spectrum Astro, Inc., JPL PI – Michael Prather (UC Irvine) ESSP--1 Alternate Not continued as alternate NASA LaRC, Ball Aerospace, Hampton U., Centre National d ’Etudes Spatiales, Institut Pierre Simon LaPlace PI – Dave Winker (NASA LaRC) ESSP--2 Implementation phase USAF, Colo.State U., JPL, Ball Aerospace PI – Graeme Stephens (Colo.State U.) ESSP--2 Implementation phase Ball Aerospace, Raytheon STX Corp., FAA, NOAA, USGS, Smithsonian Institution PI – Arlin Krueger (NASA GSFC) ESSP--2 Alternate Not continued as alternate NASA GSFC, Argentine space program; >17 university, corporate, and international partners PI – Chester Koblinsky (NASA GSFC) ESSP--3 Formulation phase JPL, Hamilton Sunstrand, Orbital Sciences; >19 university, corporate, and international partners PI – David Crisp (JPL) ESSP--3 Formulation phase MIT, JPL, NASA GSFC, Spectrum Astro, Inc. PI – Dara Entekhabi (MIT) ESSP--3 Alternate Formulation phase
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Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions TABLE C.5 Other Missions and Characteristics Mission Objectives Launch, S/C Instruments Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Measure solar irradiance 2002 Launch –Pegasus XL Total Irradiance Monitor, Solar Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment, Spectral Irradiance Monitor, and Extreme Ultraviolet Photometer System Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) Perform all-sky spectroscopy of diffuse UV background Jan 2003 Launch –Delta II secondary (with ICESat) Spectrograph Tomographic Experiment using Radiative Recombinative Ionospheric EUV and Radio Sources (TERRIERS) Model electron density and photo emissive components May 1996 Launch –Pegasus XL 5 Tomographic Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrographs, Gas Ionization Solar Spectral Monitor, 2 Photometers Student Nitric Oxide Explorer (SNOE ) Measure effects of energy from the Sun and from the magnetosphere on the density of nitric oxide Feb 1998 Launch –Pegasus XL UV Spectrometer,Auroral Photometer, Solar X-Ray Photometer High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE)-2 Analyze gamma-ray bursts Oct 2000 Launch –Standard Pegasus Gamma Ray Telescope, Wide-field X-ray Monitor, Soft X-ray Camera Triana Monitor Earth’s energy balance, diurnal changes, solar wind, space weather Launch date TBD –Space Shuttle, S/C Type – SMEX--Lite Scripps Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera, Advanced Radiometer Package, Plasma Magnetometer
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Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions Principal Team Institutions Management Selection Status U. Colo., Orbital, NASA GSFC PI – Gary Rottman (U. Colo. LASP) 1999 consolidation of two EOS PI missions: SOLSTICE and TSIM (SOLSTICE: AO-88-OSSA-1 selected 2/1989; TSIM: AO-97-MTPE-01 selected 2/1999) Implementation phase UC Berkeley, SpaceDev, Inc. PI – Mark Hurwitz (UC Berkeley) UNEX Operating Boston U., NRL, MIT, U. Ill., Aero Astro, Inc. PI – Daniel Cotton (Boston U.) STEDI 1995 Failed during on-orbit commission U.Colo.LASP, USRA, NASA, Ball Aerospace, Orbital, NCAR, NASA GSFC PI – Charles Barth (U.Colo.) STEDI 1995 Operating MIT, LANL, France ’s CNES and CESR, Japan ’s RIKEN PI – George Ricker (MIT) 1997 Operating Scripps Inst., NASA GSFC, Lockheed Martin, Ball Aerospace/NIST PI – Francisco P..J.Valero (Scripps Inst.of Oceanography) 1998 In storage awaiting opportunity for launch
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Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions REFERENCES Briefings to Committee on Earth Studies Jack Kaye, State of the Earth Science Enterprise, December 11, 2000 Peter Harvey, HESSI: The PI-Mode Experience, December 11, 2000 Michael Prather, Experiences as PI on ESSP AO-1 and AO-2, December 11, 2000 Richard Zurek, Some Thoughts on PI-Led Missions, December 11, 2000 Warren Wiscombe, Triana: Experiences and Lessons Learned, December 11, 2000 Bill Gibson, The IMAGE Mission PI Team Experience, December 12, 2000 Prasad Gogineni, ESSP Missions, December 12, 2000 Mark Saunders, A Perspective on PI-Mode Missions, December 12, 2000 William Gail, Perspectives on PI-Led AO Missions, April 25, 2001 Michael McGrath, Comments on PI Missions, April 25, 2001 Gary Rottman, The Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE), April 25, 2001 Nicholas Chrissotimos, Earth Explorers Program PI-Mode Mission Management, April 26, 2001 Charles A. Barth, SNOE and Lessons for PI-Led Missions, April 26, 2001 Dan N. Baker, Managing and Developing Small Scientific Spacecraft, April 26, 2001 Byron Tapley, GRACE and Lessons for PI-led Missions, April 26, 2001 Graeme Stephens, CloudSat and Lessons for PI-led Missions, April 26, 2001 Ben Clark, Discovery Missions, April 26, 2001 NASA Missions Discovery, Explorer, and Solar-Terrestrial Probes CONTOUR: http://www.contour2002.org/ Deep Impact: http://deepimpact.umd.edu/ GALEX: http://www.srl.caltech.edu/galex/ Genesis: http://genesismission.jpl.nasa.gov/ Kepler: http://www.kepler.arc.nasa.gov/ RHESSI: http://hesperia.gsfc.nasa.gov/hessi/ Mars Express: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/future/express.html MESSENGER: http://sd-www.jhuapl.edu/messenger/ IMAGE: http://pluto.space.swri.edu/image/ MAP: http://map.gsfc.nasa.gov/ SNOE: http://lasp.colorado.edu/snoe/ Stardust: http://stardust.jpl.nasa.gov/ TRACE: http://vestige.lmsal.com/trace/ Lunar Prospector: http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/ Mars Climate Orbiter: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/msp98/orbiter/ Mars Pathfinder: http://mpfwww.jpl.nasa.gov/default.html NEAR: http://near.jhuapl.edu/ Earth System Science Pathfinders Orbiting Carbon Observatory: http://essp.gsfc.nasa.gov/oco/index.html Aquarius: http://essp.gsfc.nasa.gov/aquarius/index.html HYDROS: http://essp.gsfc.nasa.gov/hydros/index.html CloudSat: http://essp.gsfc.nasa.gov/cloudsat/index.html
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Steps to Facilitate Principal-Investigator-Led Earth Science Missions GRACE: http://essp.gsfc.nasa.gov/grace/index.html Vegetation Canopy Lidar: http://essp.gsfc.nasa.gov/vcl/index.html Reports National Research Council, Space Studies Board, Assessment of Recent Changes in the Explorer Program, 1996, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. Kenneth Lang, MIDEX Lessons-Learned Workshop Final Report, Proceedings from the Medium-Class Explorer (MIDEX) Lessons-Learned Workshop, June 26-27, 1996, Hampton, Virginia, August 1996, available online at <http://explorer.larc.nasa.gov/explorer/MIDEX.html> Mars Program Independent Assessment Team, Summary Report, March 14, 2000, available online at <http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/marsreports/mpiat_summary.pdf> Mars Climate Orbiter Mishap Investigation Board, Report on Project Management at NASA, March 13, 2000 Announcement of Opportunity/Earth System Science Pathfinder NASA, ESSP-3 AO, AO-01-OES-01, May 2001, available online at <http://centauri.larc.nasa.gov/essp/selection.html> NASA, ESSP-2 AO, AO-98-OES-01, April 13, 1998 NASA, ESSP-1 AO, AO-96-OES-01, 1996
Representative terms from entire chapter: