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A Adhesives manufacturing problems, 69-70 research needs on, 166 U.S. competitiveness in, 71 uses, 69, 76 Adipic acid from microbial fermentation of glucose, 26 Agriculture biologically derived pesticides, 23 opportunities for chemical engineers in, 17, 22-23 pollution from, 108 product markets, 18 veterinary pharmaceuticals, 23 Air pollution indoor, 126 modeling, 14, 125, 126, 142 monitoring, 125-126 reduction strategies, 113-117 Aircraft ceramic applications in, 65-66 composites applications, 62, 64, 71, 76 American Chemical Society, recommended role of, 184 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Center for Chemical Process Safety, 175, 178 continuing education program, 77 promotion of cross-disciplinary cooperation, 34 recommended role of, 183-184 Antibiotics, penicillin, 10, 11-12 Antibodies, 20, 22, 27 Antigens, 19, 22 Antihemophilic factors, 22 Artificial organs, tissues, and fluids aqueous and vitreous humors, 20 chemical engineering contributions to development of, 10, 19-20 future targets, 19-20 heart program, 10 hybridization, 19 kidney program, 19 pancreas, 20, 169 performance forecasts, 31 skin for burn patients, 20 "smart membrane" device, 20 surface and interracial phenomena in, 155 synovial fluids ~n joints, 20 see also Prostheses Ash from combustion processes, 98, 115, 116-117, 156 Automobiles composites applications, 64, 71 electric vehicle technology, 95 emissions, 108 polymer applications, 14 Biochemical processes in humans, measurement of, 31 Biochemical synthesis opportunities for chemical engineers in, 23-24 see also Cell/tissue culture Bioengineering curricula, 32 faculty needs, 33 funding for research, 26, 32-33, 180 instrumentation and facility needs, 33-34 manpower needs, 34 surface and interracial phenomena in, 2, 17, 27-28, 155 Biological systems, complex engineering analysis of, 2, 30-31 interactions, modeling, 2, 17, 26-27 Biomedicine clinical implants and biomedical devices, 27, 31 contributions of chemical engineers to, 19-20 diagnostics, 18-20, 169 educational/training needs for engineers, 32-33, 176 international competition in, 17, 25-26 membrane technology applications, 20, 168-169 opportunities for chemical engineers in, 2, 17, 18-31 product market, 18 research recommendations, 27, 30-31 therapeutics, 19, 21-23, 30-31, 154, 163 see also Artificial organs, tissues, and fluids; Prostheses Bioprocessing batch, 20, 28-29 continuous, 2, 29 high-fructose corn syrup, 24-25 monitoring and control, 2, 29; see also Sensors of monoclonal antibodies, 20 205

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proteins, 29-31 research recommendations, 2, 17, 26-31 scale-up, 29, 31 separation technologies, 2, 29-31 see also Cell/tissue culture; Fermentation processes Bioreactors analytical instrumentation, developmental processes, 30 animal cell growth in, 27, 28 for biomass energy production, 97 contamination prevention, 28 design, 2, 14, 21, 27, 28 feedback control systems, 14 hollow-fiber, 20 for manufacturing processes, 28-29 for pharmaceutical production, 21 properties measured by sensors in, 30 for waste treatment, 123 see also Cell/tissue culture Biotechnology benefits of research, 18 foreign accomplishments in, 25-26 funding for research, 18, 33, 181-183, 188, 193, 194 international competition in, 17, 25-26 markets for products, 18, 24 opportunities for chemical engineers in, 17, 18-25 research recommendations, 26-31 see also Clones/cloning; Recombinant DNA technology Bureau of Mines funding from, 104, 196 recommended role, 183 Butanol from microbial fermentation of glucose, 26 Catalysis/catalysts activity and specificity, 157 automobile exhaust emission control, 157 biological, 123 characterization of structure, 158-159, 171 enzyme role in, 24 fuel production, 154 modeling microstructure and surface characteristics, 158 nonnoble metals, 158 olefin polymerization, 157 particle surface as, 124 performance determinants, 154, 156 petroleum cracking, 157-159 photosensitive, 102 platinum-based reforming, 157 potential, 157-158 removal problems, 157 research opportunities, 157-160 scale of research, 14 shape-selective, 158-159 silica-alumina, 158 solar energy applications, 102 surface chemistry, 159-160 three-dimensional structures, 160 ~' zeolites, 89, 156, 157-159, 171 Ziegler-Natta, 157 Cell/tissue culture animal, 27, 28 bioreactors, 2, 29-30 constraints on, 23-24, 30 facility costs, 33 interferon production, 29 plant, 23, 28 recovery of products from, 30 research recommendations, 2, 29-30 surface and interracial phenomena in, 155 tissue plasminogen activator, 21 Cellular processes, modeling of, 26-27 Cement and concrete, 156, 167 Ceramics, advanced applications, 65-66, 71, 166 chemical additives in processing, 67-68 chemical synthesis and processing, 2, 56, 74, 165, 166 colloidal phenomena in processing, 163 composites, 68-69, 71 conventional ceramics contrasted with, 65 crack initiation and propagation in, 65, 68, 166 cutting tools, 65 economic impacts, 65 functions, 66 interconnection substrates from, 48 international competition in, 71 market forecasts, 65 materials for, 74 membrane applications, 168 microstructural control, 65-66, 166 nonoxide, 73 opportunities for chemical engineers in, 66-69 potential importance, 71 powder processing, 74 properties, 66, 166 research needs on, 74 sol-gel processing, 49, 56, 66-67, 163 superconducting properties, 49, 56 transformation toughening, 68 zirconia, 68 Chemical effluents ambient monitoring, 128-129 aquatic and soil behavior, 126-128 atmospheric behavior, 125-126 multimedia approach to managing, 129 see also Hazardous wastes Chemical engineering history contributions to technological needs, 1, 10, 11-12, 19- 20 emerging and enduring characteristics, 13 engineering science movement, 12 first university program, 11 future directions, 12-15 paradigms, traditional, 11-12 Chemical engineering opportunities agriculture, 17, 22-23 biochemical synthesis, 23-24 biomedicine, 19-22

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- - 44~: biotechnology, 2, 17, 18-31 catalysis, 157-160 ceramics, 56, 65-69, 166-167 colloidal science, 163 composites, 64-65, 68-70 deposition processes, 56-57 electrochemistry, 160-161 environmental protection, 13, 24-25, 59 fluid interfaces, 163 health, 17, 19-22 liquids, complex, 69-70 membrane technology, 167-168 natural resource recovery, 25 polymer science, 55-56, 63-65 process interactions, 52-53 purification processes, 54 reactor engineering and design, 53-54 surfactants, 163-164 thin films, 56-57 Chemical engineering research biological interactions, 26-27 biological surfaces and interfaces, 27-28 bioprocessing, 28-30 complex biological systems, 30-31 core areas, 1 federal role, 178-183 fire hazards, 118 high-priority areas, 1-7 industry role, 177-178 industry/university collaboration, 34, 59, 174, 177 instrumentation and facilities, 33-34, 77, 173-174, 177 interdisciplinary cooperation, 4, 14-15, 22, 31, 32-33, 34, 38, 64, 76, 77, 100, 103-104, 118, 156, 179-180 macroscale, 14 mesoscale, 14 microscale, 14 natural resource recovery, 80-81, 99, 100 needs, 1-6, 31-34, 59 small-group, 179 U.S. competitiveness in, 38 Chemical industry accidents, 13, 107, 108-109, 113, 126, 131 cooperative research within, 178 costs of accidents, 108 expenditures for safety, 109 fires and explosions, 118-119, 131 new areas of application, 175 process safety research, 178 regulation costs, 109 safety record, 108-109 Chemical manufacturing processes batch, 20, 28-29, 149 challenges in, 52-59 computer-assisted, 135-152 contamination prevention in, 54 continuous, 2, 29, 45, 54, 147 control, see Process control current, 38-49 deposition of thin films, see Deposition processes for thin films '\ a. ~ 4~.... design, 75-76, 112-113, 144-146 engineering science movement, 12 environmental protection, 59, 112-113 information management, 151 for integrated circuits, 14 integration of, see Process integration for interconnection materials and devices, 46-48 for light wave media and devices, 42-45 for microcircuits, 40-42 for monoclonal antibodies, 20 for packaging materials for electronic devices, 39, 46- 48 for photovoltaics, 49 for polymeric materials, 55-56, 74-75 reactor engineering and design, 53-54; see also Bioreactors for recording media, 45-47 retrofitting, 145 safety in, 59 sensors, 149-151 for superconductors, 49 types of operations, 11 ultrapurification, 54 unit operations concept, 11-12, 14, 46, 51 see also Bioprocessing; Materials synthesis and processing Chemical processing industries diversity, 176 employment, 10-11, 13 share of total manufacturing, 10 shipment values, 10 standard industrial classification codes, 201-204 U.S. competitiveness, 3-4, 11, 13, 177 value added by manufacture, 10-11 Chemicals acceptable risks, 107-108 binding properties, 131 commodity, 13, 18, 26 environmental impacts of, 5, 106, 107-111, 142 hazards associated with, 130 life cycle in environment, 106 markets for, 18 microbial fermentation routes to, 26 public opinion on hazards from, 107 regulation of, 108 specialty, 13, 18, 149 toxicity measurements, 130-131 see also Chemical effluents; Petrochemicals Citric acid from microbial fermentation of glucose, 26 Clones/cloning from microbial cells, 28 from plant or animal cells, 28 of plants, 23 protein production by, 30 tissue plasminogen activator, 21 Coal acetic anhydride from, 86, 90-91 combustion, 116-118 consumption, 116 co-processing with heavy crude oil, 89

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2~)8 environmental constraints on use, 116 liquefaction, 88, 89, 99 mineral content, 116 power generation, 109 pyrolysis, in situ, 87-88 reserves, 86, 116 solids handling, 99 Coal gasification environmental impacts, 87 in situ, 87 integrated gasification combined cycle, 88, 90 processes, 25, 86-88, 99 research needs, 99 see also Synfuels Coatings corrosion-resistant, 154 hermetic, 50, 57 magnetic tape, 46-47, 57, 156 optical, for window glass, 154 optical fiber, 45, 50, 55, 57 polymer resist, 41-44 research needs on, 166 solution, 39 ultrapure glass fiber, 39 see also Thin films Colloids/colloidal phenomena in ceramics processing, 163 microscopic examination of, 169-170 spectroscopic examination of, 171 Combustion ash formation, 98, 115, 116-117, 156 coal, 116-118 complexity of, 113 dioxin formation, 121 efficiencies, improvement in, 161 environmental impacts of, 109-110, 113-119 fires and explosions, 118-119, 142 fluidized-bed, 117, 118 free-radical concentrations, 121-122 offuels, 109-110, 115 hazardous waste incineration, 120-122, 126, 129, 142 of hydrocarbons, 113-114, 121 in situ, for oil recovery, 83, 85-86 interracial phenomena in, 156 mathematical modeling of, 14, 142 of methane, 113 monitoring of hazardous effluents, 121 of municipal wastes, 91-92 nitrogen oxide formation from, 114 pollution control strategies, 116 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation, 115, 121, 125, 126 pyrolysis, 120 recovery of metals from fly ash, 98 soot formation, 113, 114-116, 121, 156 staged, 115 sulfur oxide formation, 117 Competition, see International competition; U.S. competitiveness Composites adhesion between fiber and matrix, 68, 72 INDEX aircraft applications, 62, 64, 71, 76 anisotropic, 64 aramid fibers in, 65 attachment to other materials, 3, 76 automotive applications, 64. 71 bicontinuous, 71-72 carbon fiber, 70 ceramic, 68-69, 71 crack inhibition in, 68 curing, 75, 76 design problems, 76 fiberglass, 64 flaw detection and repair, 76 interfaces, role in synthesis, 72 international competition in, 70-71 isotropic, 64 laminates, 64, 156 liquids, 69-74; see also Liquids, complex lubricants, 69, 74 manufacturing methods, 68-69 mechanical strength, 64, 72 molecular design concepts, 71-72 opportunities for chemical engineers in, 64-65, 68-70 poly(ethylene terephthalate) fibers, 70 polymeric, 62, 64-65, 70-72, 75, 156 properties, 68, 69 silicon carbide whiskers, 68-69 third-generation fibers in, 70 three-dimensional, 71-72 trussworks, 64, 71 two-dimensional reinforcement, 64 see also Coatings Computer-aided design and manufacturing availability, 137-138 development of, 76 education and training, 136, 140 hydrodynamic systems, 140 for new processes, 143-146 petroleum production, 141-142 polymer processing, 140-141 in process operations and control, 146-149 programs, 143 recommended research, 5-6 for retrofitting of processes, 145 see also Models/modeling; Supercomputers Council for Chemical Research, recommended role of, 184 Cytomegalovirus, ELISA test for, 20 D Department of Defense funding from, 194-195 recommended research role, 183 Department of Energy funding from, 192-193 recommended research role, 181, 182 Deposition processes for thin films chemical vapor, 39, 43-45, 49, 50, 52, 74, 162 in magnetic media production, 52 in microcircuit manufacture, 2, 39, 41

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INDEX monitoring, 162-163 in optical fiber manufacturing, 43-45 in photovoltaics manufacturing, 39, 54 physical vapor, 39 plasma vapor, 39, 44, 162 thermal, 162 undesirable phenomena, 57 U.S. competitiveness, 50 vertical axial, 43 Drugs, see Pharmaceuticals Education/training E access to computers, 152 bioengineering, 32-33, 176 in computer applications, 136, 138, 140, 152 curriculum, core, 12, 15, 77, 175 electronics, 176 environmental concerns in process design, 132-133 faculty needs, 33, 176-177 flexibility in science electives, 176 graduate, 32-33, 77 industry role, 176 joint appointments with biological and medical faculties, 33 life sciences, 18, 20, 31-32 materials phenomena and processing, 77, 176 process design and safety, 175 recommendations, 6, 132-133, 175-177 sabbaticals for industrial researchers, 77 separations courses, 175 size and composition of academic departments, 6, 176- 177 surface and interracial phenomena, 176 undergraduate, 32, 175 workshops, 77 Electrochemical processes characteristics, 160 charge transfer, 160 electrode performance determinants, 154, 156 energy conversion and storage, 95, 102 microstructure influences, 161 modeling of, 161 molecular dynamics, 160-161 research challenges, 95 Electron-beam processing lithography, 50 silicon-on-insulator structures, 50 Electronic materials and devices chemical engineering aspects of, 39, 40 commercial life cycle, 38 energy to manufacture, 38 fabrication, 162 integration of manufacturing processes, 2 transistor, 38, 40 value, 38 see also Integrated circuits; Microcircuits; Semiconductors Electronics industry 209 chemical engineers' role in, 37, 59 employment of chemical engineers in, 59 evolution, 38, 40 small-firm role in generating new processes/equipment, 59 Electrorefining recovery of spent nuclear fuel, 93 research needs, 93-94 Employment of chemical engineers biochemical and biomedical engineers, demand for, 34 electronics industry, 59 oil industry, 10, 11 statistics, by industry, 10 Energy crisis, 11, 80 Energy industries chemical engineering contributions to, 80 importance, 3-4, 80 research needs, 4, 13 shipment values, 80 Energy research nuclear energy, 95 trends, 80 Energy resources processing separations processes, 100 solids, 99-100 technical problems, 80 see also specific energy resources Energy sources batteries, 95, 102 electrochemical energy conversion and storage, 95, 102, 161 electrolysis cells, 95 foreign, U.S. dependence on, 80-81 fuel cells, 95, 161 geothermal, 96 municipal solid wastes, 91-92 plant biomass, 96-97 solar, 95-96, 102 technologies for exploiting, 81-97 see also Coal; Fuels; Nuclear energy; Oil Environmental impacts and issues acid rain, 5, 107, 110, 125, 129 accidents at chemical plants, 13, 107, 108-109 automotive emissions, 108, 109 bioaccumulation of chemicals, 107 coal conversion to liquid and gaseous fuels, 87-88 chlorofluorocarbons, 108 combustion processes, 14, 109-110, 113-119, 156 energy utilization, 107, 108 greenhouse effect, 108 human activities, 107 mathematical modeling of, 142 ore recovery processes, 100 pesticides, 108 polymer processing, 63 semiconductor industry wastes, 59 see also Hazardous wastes Environmental protection cost considerations, 112 in electronics industry, 59 engineering employment needs, 34

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~ ant/ .~/ opportunities for chemical engineers in, 13, 24-25, 59, 105, 106, 132-133 recommended research, 4-5 regulations and statutes, 108-110, 123, 125 see also Pollution control technologies Environmental Protection Agency, recommended role, 183 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 20 Enzymes artificial, 165 in high-fructose corn syrup production, 24-25 isomerase, 24-25 lifetime determinants, 25 mercuric reductase, 123 protease, 29 separation from complex mixtures, 25 tissue plasminogen activator, 21 uses in synthetic chemistry, 24 waste treatment applications, 24 Epitaxy molecular beam, 43, 50 in optoelectronics manufacturing, 43 solid-phase, 50 vapor-phase, 43 Etching anisotropic, 163 of microcircuits, 39, 41, 57 of optoelectronics, 43 in photolithography, 44 of photovoltaics, 39 plasma, 39, 55, 58, 162 process monitoring, 162-163 rates, 58 reactive ion, 43 selectivity, 58 of semiconductors, 163 of silicon, 58 wet chemical, 39 Ethanol from microbial fermentation of glucose, 26 Europe biotechnology research in, 25-26 composites technology, 71 see also specific countries ~ . Federal Republic of Germany biotechnology institutes, 25 separation process applications, 25 Fermentation processes batch, 29 beer, 29 continuous, very large, 26 enzyme culturing, 21, 24 glucose, commodity chemicals from, 26 immobilized-cell, 26 penicillin recovery, 12 problems, 24 Films Langmuir-Blodgett, 163, 164 see also Thin films Fires and explosions, 118-119, 142 Fluid flow and dynamics in artificial organs, 19 of complex liquids, 69-70, 73-74, 140 in electrophoretic image displays, 164-165 in enhanced oil recovery, 83 of film coatings, 57 at interfaces, 163-166 modeling, 31, 141-142 optical techniques for study of, 166, 172 in pollutant transport, 126-127 in porous media, 141-142 in reactor engineering and design, 54 Freeze drying to stabilize penicillin solutions, 12 Fuel cells for transportation, 95, 161 Fuels combustion, environmental impacts of, 109-110 conversion of methanol to gasoline, 89-90, 93, 158-159; see also Synfuels ethanol as a gasoline substitute, 96 gaseous and liquid, coal conversion to, 86-88 nuclear, chemical process steps, 93-94, 100-101 opportunities for chemical engineers in, 4 plant biomass sources, 96-97 reactor materials, 4, 102 U.S. supplies, 80 Funding by academic-industrial consortia, 104, 179, 181 biochemical engineering research, 26, 32-33, 180 biotechnology/biomedicine research, 18, 33, 181-183, 188, 193, 194 Bureau of Mines, 104, 196-197 computer-assisted process and control engineering, 182, 191, 193 cross-disciplinary partnership awards, 33, 177, 179, 180, 182, 183 cross-disciplinary pioneer awards, 180, 182 current patterns, 185-186 Department of Defense, 194-195 Department of Energy, 104, 133, 192-193 electronic, photonic, and recording materials and devices, 182 energy/natural resources processing, 104, 182, 183, 191, 192 Environmental Protection Agency, 133, 195-196 environmental research, 133, 182, 183, 191 equipment and facilities, 177, 179-181, 182 foreign, 26 hazardous waste management, 182, 191 IBM Fellows award, 180 from large research centers, 181 liquid fuels, 193 materials research, 182, 183, 188-191, 194-195 mechanisms, federal, 178-181 microstructure research, 174, 193 National Bureau of Standards, 196 National Institutes of Health, 133, 193-194

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~L[~X National Science Foundation, 104, 133, 187-191 nuclear energy research, 95 process design, 182 process safety, 133, 182, 191 recommendations, 7, 104, 133, 178-181, 185-197 research excellence awards, 180, 182, 192 single investigator awards, 179 surface and interracial engineering, 182, 191-192, 193 tenure-track faculty positions, 180 Gamma globulin, 22 Genetic engineering, see Biotechnology; Clones/cloning Germany, see Federal Republic of Germany Glasses halide and chalcogenide, 57 in optical fibers, 57 stress corrosion crack growth inhibitors, 57 Glycerol from microbial fermentation of glucose, 26 Hazardous wastes amount generated annually, 110 biodegradation, 122-123, 125 burial methods, 110-111 chemical engineering opportunities, 4-5, 105 containment problems, 111 detoxification, 120-124 from electronics industry, 59, 111 groundwater contamination, 111, 126-129, 142 heavy metal ions, 122-123, 124 improper disposal, 107, 111, 128-129 incineration of, 110, 120-122, 124, 126, 129, 142 land disposal, 5, 110, 111, 128-129, 142 management of, 48, 59, 110-111, 119-125 monitoring of sites, 125, 128-129 multimedia approach to, 129 National Priority List of toxic waste dumps, 111 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 115, 121, 125, 126 separation processes, 123-126, 156 site remediation, 124-125 spent nuclear fuel management and disposal, 93 from substrate formation for interconnection devices, 48 thermal destruction, 110, 120-122, 124 wet oxidation, 124 see also Waste management Health contributions of chemical engineers to, 19 opportunities for chemical engineers in, 17, 19-22 see also Artificial organs, tissues, and fluids; Biomedicine; Pharmaceuticals; Prostheses Heat transfer in design of packaging, 39 in fermentation processes, 24 271 instruments for studying, 170 modeling, 39 in ocean thermal energy conversion, 95 in retorting of shale oil, 85-86, 87 in semiconductor materials preparation, 41-42 Hemodialysis and hemofiltration, 10, 19, 26 lIigh-fructose corn syrup, bioprocesses, 24-25 Hormones, human growth, action, 22 lIuman serum albumin, 22 Hydrocarbons, combustion of, 113-114 Hydrodynamic systems, mathematical modeling of, 140 Imaging devices, electrophoretic, 164-165 Implantation processes, U.S. competitiveness on, 50 In situ processing coal, 87-88 combustion, 83, 85-87 environmental impacts, 98, 99 metals and minerals, 25, 97 oil shale, 99 petroleum, 83, 85-87, 98-99 problems, 98-99 research needs, 98 Information management for process engineering, 137, 151 Information technologies hazardous wastes generated by, 59 international competition, 38 materials and devices, 37, 38, 40 product obsolescence, 52 world markets for storage and handling devices, 38 Injection molding, equipment design, 14 Instruments cost and availability, 173 direct force measurement apparatus, 172 laser-doppler motion probes, 172 microelectrode probes, 172 for microstructure studies, 169-173 see also Microscopy; Microtomography; Spectroscopic methods Insulin, 19 Integrated circuits complexity and capability, 40 etching processes, 58 manufacturing methods, 38, 58 materials, 41 microstructure characterization, 162 monolithic, 40 packaging, 58 plastic packaging, 48 scale of research, 14 thin films in, 2 very large scale, 155 see also Microcircuits Interactions, see Biological systems, complex Interconnection/packaging materials and devices board composition, 47, 48, 52

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212 chemical manufacturing processes, 38, 39, 46-48, 57 IBM multilayer ceramic interconnection package, 48 international competition in, 52 for high-frequency data transmission, 57 materials, 39, 47, 48, 56 modeling applications in design of, 39, 58 plastics, 48 polymers in, 48, 55, 56 process design challenges, 48 substrate formation, 48, 56 thin film deposition on, 57 transfer molding process, 48, 56 ultrahigh-speed modules, 48 U.S. competitiveness in, 48 world market, 38 Interfaces, see Surface and interracial engineering Interferons action, 22 production, 31 International competition access to prototypes and, 50 biotechnology and biomedicine, 17, 25-26 ceramics, 71 composite materials, 70-71 fermentation processes, 26 interconnection and packaging, 52 light wave media and devices, 50 microcircuits, 49-50 photovoltaics, 50 polymers, 63, 70-71 product quality and performance factors, 13 recording media, 50-52 separations technology, 26 superconductors, 52 see also U.S. competitiveness Ion microbeam technologies Japanese competitiveness in, 50 in optoelectronics manufacturing, 43 Isomerization, xylene, 159 Japan biotechnology research, 25 carbon fiber technology, 70 ceramics technology, 71 composites technology, 71 deposition and processing technologies for thin films, 50, 52 fermentation processes, 26 interconnection technologies, 52 kidney dialyzers, 26 laser applications, 50 lithography equipment, 50 magnetic media manufacturing, 50-52 microcircuit processing technology, 50 optical fiber manufacturing, 50 polymer research and development, 63, 70 separation research and development, 25-26 silicon-on-insulator structures, 50 superconductors, 52 technology transfer from U.S. to, 70 Kidneys artificial, 19 function, 19 Korea magnetic tape market, 50 polymer processing, 63 L Landau-Lifshitz theory, 165 Light wave media and devices applications, 42-43 chemical manufacturing processes for, 39, 42-45, 156 commercial life cycle, 38, 42-43 energy to manufacture, 38 future of, 43 international competition in, 50 local area networks, 55 microstructure control in, 156 packaging, 39 polymer applications in, 55 value, 38 world market, 38 see also Optical devices; Optical fibers Liquid crystals, 71, 72 Liquids, complex applications, 74 biocompatible polymer solutions, 20 composites, 69-74 design of, 70 interracial properties, 156 microstructured fluids, 14 modeling of, 74 molecular behavior, 14, 70, 72-73 ordered, fluid mechanics of, 74 particles or micelles in, 74 polymeric, 74 processing, 73-74 rheology, 74 scale of research, 14 suspensions, 14 Lithography electron beam, 50 equipment, 50 high-resolution, 50 x-ray, 50 Little, Arthur, D., 11 Lubricants components and performance characteristics, 69 dewaxing of, 158 interaction with surfaces, 156 U.S. competitiveness in, 71 Lymphokines, 22

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~x Manufacturing processes, see Chemical manufacturing processes Mass spectrometry microstructure characterization, 159 monitoring deposition/etching processes, 163 secondary ion, 159, 172 Mass transfer in artificial organs, 19 in fermentation processes, 24 instruments for studying, 170 of plant cells from bioreactors, 28 reactor engineering and design considerations, 54 in semiconductor materials preparation, 41-42 Massachusetts Institute of Technology Biotechnology Process Center, 25 chemical engineering program, 11 development of freeze drying process, 12 Materials, advanced aircraft applications, 62 for membranes, 167-168 nondestructive testing of, 76 for platelet storage, 19 process-related, needs, 102 see also Ceramics, advanced; Composites; Polymeric materials/polymers Materials research chemical engineering frontiers in, 71-76 instrumentation and facility needs, 77 microscale structures and processes, 71-73 Materials synthesis and processing combining, 3 complex liquids, 73-75 monitoring of, 75 powders, 74 Materials systems chemical processing in fabrication, 3, 76 design, 75-76 detection and repair of flaws in, 76 Membranes applications, 20, 167-169 cellular, 26-27 ceramics in, 168 design of, 168-169 energy and natural resource processing applications, 100 hollow-fiber, 123, 168-169 laminated polymer, 168 liquid-liquid extraction, 123 materials and research needs, 167-168 mimetic chemistry, 165 Monsanto's Prisms, 169 organic polymer, 100 separation processes, 19, 20, 25-26, 100, 123, 167 "smart," 20, 168-169 surfactant applications in processing of, 164 synthetic, 27 transport dynamics, 27, 31 Metals and minerals 2~3 depletion, 4, 24-25, 80, 98 reserves, 4, 80 U.S. dependence on foreign sources, 80, 97 Metals and minerals, recovery and processing biological systems, 25 and construction costs, 103 from fly ash from power plant combustors, 98 high-concentration ore deposits, 97 hydrothermal deposits, 103 in situ processing, 4, 25, 97, 103 industrial waste streams, 25, 98, 123, 124 low-concentration ore deposits, 97-98, 100, 102 research needs, 97 solids handling, 99-100 solvent extraction, 97, 103 steel making, 97, 103 sulfide deposits, 101 technologies, 25, 97-98 Methyl ethyl ketone from microbial fermentation of glucose, 26 Micelles, 124, 163, 164 Microcircuits chemical engineering contributions to, 39 chemical manufacturing processes, 39, 40-42, 50, 53, 56-57, 155, 162 component density, 40-41, 162 gallium arsenide, 41, 55 heat dissipation, 47 international competition in, 49-50 photolithographic processes, 41, 56 polymers in, 55, 74 process integration, 50 research frontiers, 162 silicon, 41-42 size limits, 54, 56, 57, 155 substrates, 40 theoretical research needs, 173-174 three-dimensional, 41-42 uses, 40, 149, 154 see also Integrated circuits; Semiconductors Microscopy scanning electron, 162, 170 scanning tunneling, 170, 172 transmission electron, 170 video-enhanced interference phase-contrast, 169-170 Microstructures/microstructured materials characterization, 124, 162, 168-173; see also Microscopy; Microtomography; Spectroscopic methods control in electronic, photonic, and recording materials and devices, 155-156 microscopic examination, 169-170 microtomographic examination, 170-171 nature of, 154-155 organizational forms, 154 probes, 172-173 research needs and opportunities, 2-3, 156-174 scattering methods for examining, 171 supramolecular, 161

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2~4$ technological impacts of, 155-156 ultimate products from, 154 see also Ceramics, advanced; Composites; Polymeric materials/polymers Microtomography multinuclear magnetic resonance, 170-171 x-ray, 170 Models/modeling accuracy in, 146-147 adsorption/reaction/particle-removal separation process, 124 air pollutant transport and chemical reactivity, 14, 125, 126, 142 biological interactions, 2, 26-27 catalyst microstructure and surface structure, 158 cellular, 26-27 chemical dynamics in electronic device manufacture, 2, 57-58 combustion systems, 14, 142 complex liquid structure-property relationships, 74 electrochemical processes, 161 environmental systems, 142 Escherichia coli, 27 fluid flow in porous media, 141-142 heat transfer in design of packaging, 39 hydrodynamic systems, 140 magnetic media manufacturing processes, 58 mathematical, of fundamental phenomena, 138-142 membrane transport phenomena, 168 microelectronics processing, 163 of molecular events in unit operations, 12 Navier-Stokes equations, 140 petroleum production, 14, 141-142 plasma processing, 58 polymer processing, 140-141 with supercomputers, 136, 173-174 thin film processing, 58 underground pollutant transport, 126-127 viscous fluid flows, 58 Monitoring air pollution, 125-126 bioprocesses, 29 chemical spills/releases, 126 incinerator effluents, 121 instrumentation needs, 128-129 nondestructive probes, 128-129 personal exposure, 129, 132 remote sensing technology, 128 of toxic waste sites, 125 see also Spectroscopic methods Monolayers, 164 National Bureau of Standards funding from, 196 recommended role, 183 National Institutes of Health funding from, 193-194 recommended role, 183 ~A) ~\ National Science Foundation Engineering Research Centers, 181 funding from, 104, 187-191 Materials Research Laboratories, 77 recommended role, 181-182 Natural resource recovery/processing cost determinants, 80, 97 design and scale-up, 102-103 energy resources, 81-97 environmental constraints, 97 high-concentration raw materials, 97 in situ processing, 4, 25, 98-99 interracial phenomena in, 156 low-concentration raw materials, 97-98 media microstructure and surface properties, 156 metal/mineral resources, 25, 97-98 opportunities for chemical engineers in, 4, 24-25, 103 primary processes, 81 research frontiers, 98-104 secondary processes, 81 separation processes, 100-102 solids processing, 99-100 solvent extraction, 97 technical problems, 80 technologies for exploiting, 91-98 see also Energy sources; Metals and minerals; Oil; Petroleum refineries/refining Nitrogen oxides from combustion processes, 114 Nondestructive testing of advanced materials, 76 Nuclear energy development efforts, 93 fast breeder reactors, 92, 93 fission, 92-94 fusion, 92, 94-95 Integral Fast Reactor, 93 light water reactors, 92 Nuclear fuel cycle, 93, 100-101 Oil consumption, 116 co-processing of coal with, 89 problem constituents in, 89, 158 reserves, 4, 82, 84-86, 116 reservoir simulation, 140-141 shales, 84-86, 87, 89, 99, 100, 103, 156 synthetic base, 69 ultraheavy crudes, 82, 102 see also Lubricants; Petroleum refineries/refining Oil industry, employment of chemical engineers in, 11 Oil recovery processes chemical flooding, 83 enhanced, 4, 14, 81-84, 86, 125, 154, 156 hydrogen reaction, 102 in situ combustion, 4, 83, 85-87, 100 miscible flooding, 83 modeling, 141-142 primary, 81 secondary, 81-82

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7,>~:,,;/ from shales, 99, 100, 103 steam injection, 83, 84 supercritical extraction, 125 thermal, 82-85 see also Petroleum refineries/refining Optical devices flat-panel image displays, 164-165 see also Light wave media and devices Optical fibers characteristics, 43 coatings, 45, 50, 55, 57 connectors and splice hardware, S5 costs of manufacturing, 45, 55 data transmitting capacity, 42, 44 drawing processes, 57 glass, 44-45, 57 hermetic coatings, 50 high-strength, 50 international competition in, 50 manufacturing methods, 38, 40, 43-45, 57 low-cost components, 55-56 polarization-maintaining, 55 polymers in, 56, 57 Rayleigh scattering in, 44 sensor applications, 43, 55 thin film deposition on, 2, 57 ultrapurification of materials, 54-55 Organs, see Artificial organs, tissues, and fluids Packaging materials for electronic devices, see Interconnection/packaging materials and devices Peptides neuroactive, 22 regulatory, 22, 23 Pesticides biologically derived, 23 Petrochemicals biological routes to, 25 see also Oil Petroleum refineries/refining catalytic cracking, 156-159 design, 11, 103 flexicoking, 91 fluid-bed coking, 89 hydrocarbon separations, 100 hydrotreating processes, 89, 92 mathematical modeling of, 141-142 new raw materials for, 88-91 research challenges, 91, 103 scale-up, 103 Pharmaceuticals bioprocessing techniques, 21 drug delivery modes, 21-23, 154, 155, 163, 167 markets for, 18 therapeutic targets of opportunity, 22 surface and interracial phenomena in, 155 veterinary, 23 Photolithographic processes i. ,., ~ _ ~ chemical steps in, 44 Photonics chemical engineering aspects of, 39 fabrication, 162 integration of manufacturing processes, 2 see also Light wave media and devices Photovoltaics chemical engineering contributions to, 39 chemical manufacturing processes, 38, 49, 53, 54 costs of manufacturing, 49 focus of research, 49, 53 gallium arsenide cells, 49 hydrogen clustering in, 171 international competition in, 2, 38, 52 polycrystalline module efficiency and reliability, 49 world markets, 38 Platelet storage, 19 Pollution control technologies calcium sorbent addition, 117 in coal-fired generating plants, 109 electrostatic precipitators, 116, 124 emission reduction strategies for combustion products, 113-117 for fly ash, 116 incinerators, 120-122, 124 ~0 through plant and process design, 112-113 separation of power plant emissions, 100 for soot, 116 for sulfur oxides, 117 see also Separation technologies/processes Polymeric materials/polymers acrylate, 55 aramid, 63, 65 automotive applications, 14 biocompatible, for human fluid replacements, 20 chemical engineering contributions to, 63 chemical synthesis and processing, 2, 55-56, 74-75, 156 composites, 64-65, 70, 69-71, 72, 74, 140, 156 in drug delivery systems, 22, 23 elastomeric, 57 electrically active, 39 epoxy-Novolac prepolymers, 56 fibers, high-strength, 63 glassy, 57, 74 high-strength/high-modulus, 70 in information storage and handling devices, 55 interaction with monolayers and micelles, 164 interconnection substrate applications, 48, 58 international competition in, 70-71 Kevlar At, 63 low-molecular-weight, 69 in membranes, 100, 168 methacrylate, 55 microstructure, surfaces, and interfaces, 156 multicomponent blends, 75 molecular design, 75 opportunities for chemical engineers in, 63-65, 75 optoelectronic applications, 43, 45, 55, 56, 156 photoresists, 41-43, 55, 58, 74-75, 162 polybenzothiazole, 63

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216 polyethylene, 63 polyimides, 56 polypropylene, 63 pour point depressants, 69 property determinants, 140-141 recording applications, 55, 56 redox, layered structures of, 169 research needs on, 55 resource recovery applications, 83 rod- and coil-type, 156 solids dispersants, 69 spinning fibers from anisotropic phases, 63 thermally stable, 56 thermosetting epoxy, 64 toxic emissions from burning of, 118 viscosity modifiers, 69, 83, 156 Polymerization processes batch, 149 emulsion, 165 fluid flow during extrusion, 140 free radical influences on, 72 mathematical modeling of, 75, 140-141 polyethylene, 63 processing of complex liquids during, 73 reactive extrusion, 73 reactive injection molding, 73 solvent-polymer interactions, 74 for thin films and membranes, 164 UNIPOL method, 63 Powders, processing of, 74 Power generation coal-fired, 109-110 from combustion of solid wastes, 92 environmental impacts of fuel combustion for, 109-110 geothermal, 96 see also Energy sources; Nuclear energy Process control adaptive, 148-149 batch process engineering, 149 bioprocessing operations, 29 computer-assisted, 137, 146-149 in high-fructose corn syrup production, 25 integration of process design with, 147-148 internal model control, 148 interpretation of information, 146-147 materials manufacturing, 75 measurements for, 146 monitoring of, 2, 29, 75 non-steady-state, 113, 147 problem-solving strategies, 148-149 process transients, management of, 113 robust, 148-149 scale of research on, 14 sensors for, 149-151 Process design blurring of product design and, 14 computer-assisted, 131, 136-139, 143-145, 147-148 contamination prevention, 54 education, 175 environmental protection and safety considerations, 2, 112-113, 131-132, 137 goals, 142 integration with process control, 147-148 materials manufacturing, 75 research opportunities, 145-146 research recommendations, 5, 54, 75, 112 retrofitting, 145 scale-up, 29, 31, 102-103, 139 stages, 143-144, 145 tree graphs, 112-113, 131 twenty-first century, 138-139 Process integration importance, 52-53 in magnetic tape manufacturing, 50-51 for microcircuit manufacture, 50, 53 research needs, 2, 52-53 for semiconductor manufacturing, 53 Process safety cost considerations, 112 education, 175 in electronics industry, 59 fire prevention, 118 reactor materials and, 54 research challenges and recommendations, 5, 105, 132- 133, 178 Professional societies cooperation and communications among, 34 recommended role of, 183-184 Prostheses electrochemical signal transduction systems for, 20 see also Artificial organs, tissues, and fluids Proteins bioprocessing of, 29-31 interferon production, 29 Purification processes for antibiotic preparation, 11-12 in high-fructose corn syrup production, 25 for optical fiber grade SiCl4, 55 for pharmaceutical production, 21 for proteins, 30-31 see also Ultrapurification Reactor design and engineering for electronic, photonic, and recording materials and devices, 53-54, 57-58 for pharmaceutical production, 21 see also Bioreactors Recombinant DNA technology pharmaceutical production through, 21 waste management applications, 122-123 see also Clones/cloning Recording and storage media chemical engineering aspects of, 38~0, 45-46 coating processes, 57, 156 commercial life cycle, 38 compact disks, 45, 52

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INDEX E-beam, 39 energy to manufacture, 38 ferrite cores, 40 formats, 45 integration of manufacturing processes, 2 international competition in, 50-51, 57 magnetic, 39, 40, 46-47, 50-52, 54, 58, 156, 162 manufacturing methods, 38-40, 45-47, 50-51, 57, 58 materials, 45, 51 mathematical modeling of manufacturing processes, 58 microstructure characterization, 162 microstructure control in, 156 optical, 39, 40, 45-46, 52, 156 polymers in, 55, 56, 58, 156 read-only optical disks, 45, 52 read-wr~te optical disks, 46, 52 recording density dete~-~inants, 46, 162 surface and interracial phenomena in fabrication of, 162 ultrapurification, 54 value, 38 world market, 38 see also Thin films Risk assessment construction materials, 118 exposure assessment, 129, 132 hazard identification and assessment, 129, 130-132 standard for, 107-108 Risk management, 132 Rubber, synthetic, 11 Safety, chemical industry, 108-109 Selective ion transport across membranes, 27 Self-assembling structures, 164 Semiconductors amorphous, 171 chemical manufacturing processes, 40, 41, 57, 59 Group III-V compound, 43 hazardous wastes from, 59 integrated processing, 53 in optoelectronic devices, 43 ultrapurification of materials, 54 world market, 38 Sensors arrays, 150, 151 biological, 150, 155, 167, 168 computerized, 136 future developments, 136, 149-151 membranes in, 167 noninvasive on-line, for bioprocessing, 2, 29-30, 154 optical fiber, 43, 55, 150 process, 2, 14, 29-30, 136, 137, 149-151 protein-specific, 154 research recommendations, 151 solid-state, 149-150 Separation technologies/processes adsorption/reaction/particle removal sequence, 123-124 bioproducts, 2, 29-31 ~7 chromatographic, 29 cyclone separators, 117 distillation of azeotropic mixtures, 168 economics, 100, 101 education/training on, 175 energy consumption by, 100, 102 energy/natural resources, 100-102 enzymes and amino acids from complex mixtures, 25 equipment improvement, 14 examples according to property differences, 101 fixed-bed adsorption, 100 foreign accomplishments, 25-26 hazardous wastes, 123-126, 156 hemodialysis/hemofiltration, 19 heterogeneous feeds, 100 high-temperature, 100-101 homogeneous mixtures, 100, 102 ion-exchange, 100 laser spectroscopy cell sorter, 173 liquid-liquid extractions, 100 membrane, 19, 20, 25-26, 100, 123, 156, 167-168 pollution control, 100, 156 reactor materials, needs, 4, 102 research needs, 2, 30, 98, 100-102 selectivity improvement, 54, 100, 156 steam from brine, 96 steam stripping, 124-125 supercritical extraction, 124-125 thermal Resorption, 124-125 zeolite applications, 100 see also Purification processes; Ultrapurification Shell Development Company contribution to penicillin production, 11-12 polypropylene manufacturing process, 63 Silicon -on-insulator structures, 50 polycrystalline, chemical production steps, 43 ultrapure single-crystal, 39, 41 Solar power advantages and disadvantages, 95 conversion costs, 95 materials problems, 102 photovoltaics efficiency, 49, 95 research challenges, 95-96 storage systems, 102 thermal energy conversion, 95, 102 Sol-gel processing ceramic powder preparation by, 49, 66-67, 73 chemical steps in, 45, 67 double-alkaloid systems, 73 optical fiber manufacturing, 45, 57 preform manufacture, 67 problems in, 67 research needs on, 73 single-alkaloid systems, 73 Solids processing costs, 99 crushing, grinding, and milling, 99 efficiency, 99

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i' ~ '.k - - ~ equipment design and scale-up, 4, 99, 100, 143 interdisciplinary cooperation, 100 research needs, 99-100, 103 scale-up factors, 103 Soot from combustion processes, 114-116 Soviet Union, fission research, 95 Spectroscopic methods Auger electron, 158, 162, 172 carbon-13 NMR, 168 catalyst characterization, 158, 159, 171 electron energy loss, 159, 171 electron spin resonance, 163 emission, 163 extended x-ray absorption fine structure, 159, 171 infrared, 159, 171 laser-induced fluorescence, 163 laser spectroscopy cell sorter, 173 low-energy electron diffraction, 158, 159, 171-172 for micelle studies, 164 for microstructure characterization, 158-159, 162, 171- 172 for monitoring deposition/etching processes, 163 neutron spin-echo, 164 nuclear magnetic resonance, 159, 171 photon correlation, 164 Raman, 159, 171 small-angle neutron scattering, 124, 164 solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, 159 structure-permeability probes, 168 ultraviolet photoelectron, 158, 172 x-ray photoelectron, 124, 158, 162, 168, 171, 172 Storage media, see Recording and storage media Sulfur oxides from combustion processes, 117 Supercomputers applications, 139-140, 143 artificial intelligence, 136-139 availability, 137-138, 152 Cray I class, 137 expert systems, 136, 137 hypercube architecture, 140-141 need for, 173-174 speed and capabilities, 136-138, 152 Superconductors ceramics in, 49, 56 chemical manufacturing processes for, 49 cooling, 49 high-temperature, 2, 49, 52 international competition in, 52 materials, 49, 56 metal oxide, 56 uses, 49 see also Semiconductors Surface and interracial engineering biological, 2, 17, 27-28, 155 in catalytic and electrode reactions, 155, 159-160 in ceramics, 166-167 characterization techniques, 158-159 in colloidal systems, 163-164 in composites, 64, 72, 156 at, . _ .. - , ~ 1'i~i~f~ in concrete and cement, 167 in film deposition, 58 fluid, 163, 166 in fuel cell technology, 161 importance, 154-156 lubricant interaction with, 156 in microcircuit processing, 162 multiple, structuring of, 155 in natural resources recovery, 156 properties and processes, 155 research needs and opportunities, 6, 72, 156-174 role in materials chemistry, 72 solvent/polymer, 55 in surfactants, 163 tissue-implant, 27 Surfactants in cement and concrete, 167 detail and tri-tail, 164 in enhanced oil recovery, 154, 163 monolayer-forming, 164 multifunctional, 164 property control measures, 165 research opportunities, 163-164 resource recovery applications, 83-84 superplasticizers, 167 Synfuels catalytic conversion to liquid fuels, 87 Fischer-Tropsch process, 87 methanol to gasoline, 89-90, 93, 158-159 natural gas to gasoline, 90 production process, 86-88, 90-91 uses, 25 Thin films controlled permeability, 154 deposition processes, 2, 41, 50, 54, 56-58 on interconnection devices, 2, 57 low-temperature methods, 56 mathematical modeling of processes, 58 on optical fibers, 2, 57, 156 pharmaceutical applications, 154 on recording/storage media, 2, 46, 57, 70 organic, 41 property determinants, 58, 156 research needs on, 58 silicon dioxide, 41 surfactant applications in processing of, 164 U.S.-Japanese competition, 50 Tissue culture, see Cell/tissue culture Tissue plasminogen activator, 21, 22 Tissues, see Artificial organs, tissues, and fluids; Prostheses Training, see Education/training Transmission electron microscopy, 159 Transportation, environmental impacts of fuel combustion for, 109-110

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L i4~/ of_ Ultrapurification for cell culture processes, 21 for electronic, photonic, and recording materials and devices, 2, 41, 54 of silicon for semiconductors, 41 Union Carbide, UNIPOL process, 63 United Kingdom biotechnology institutes, 25 Unocal Corporation, 96 U.S. competitiveness adhesives, 71 biotechnology, 25 ceramics, 71 chemical processing industries, 11, 13, 38, 50 composite manufacturing and processing technology, 71 interconnection and packaging, 52 liquid crystals, 71 lubricants, 71 microelectronics, 2, 48, 50 optical technologies, 2, 45, 50 photovoltaics, 2 polymers, 70-71 recording media, 2, 50-52 superconductors, 52 Uranium-235 scale-up of manufacturing process, 11 Vaccines, see Pharmaceuticals Vesicles, 163 Waste management biological treatment, 17, 24, 122-123, 125 multimedia approach, 5, 129 nuclear waste repositories, 94 regulation of, 110, 123 site remediation, 124-125 soil decontamination, 124-125 Superfund Program, 111 see also Hazardous wastes Wastes metal/mineral recovery from, 98 municipal solid, as an energy source, 91-92 Zeolites, 156