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- ~ Fir Committee on Chemical Engineering Frontiers: Research Needs and Opportunities Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology . Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of ~- ~ A _ Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established In 197U by the National Academy or Sciences to secure one services or eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Samuel O. Thier is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the 'Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. Support for this project was provided by the American Chemical Society, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, the Council for Chemical Research, Inc., the U.S. Department of' energy under Grant No. DE-FG01-85FE60847, the National Bureau of Standards under Grant No. 50SBNBSC23, the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CBT-8419184, and the Whitaker Foundation. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Chemical Engineering Frontiers: Research Needs and Opportunities. Frontiers in chemical engineering: research needs and opportunities/Committee on Chemical Engineering Frontiers Research Needs and Opportunities, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources, National Research Council. p. cm. Bibliography: p. Includes index. ISBN 0-309-03793-X (paper); ISBN 0-309-03836-7 (cloth) 1. Chemical engineering Research United States. I. Title. TP171.N37 1988 620' .0072-dc 19 88-4120 CIP (Rev.) No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U.S. government. Printed in the United States of America

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Pane! on Energy en cl natural Resources Processing KEITH McHENRY (Chairman), Amoco Oil Company LESLIE BURRIS, Argonne National Laboratory ELTON J. CAIRNS, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory NOEL JARRETT, Alcoa Laboratories FREDERIC LEDER, Dowell Schlumberger JOHN SHINN, Chevron Research Company REUEL SHINNAR, City College of New York PAUL B. WEISZ, University of Pennsylvania Pane! on Er~nmental ProtecI;~n Safely, and Hazardous Materials ADEL SAROFIM (Chairman), Massachusetts Institute of Technology SIMON L. GOREN, University of California, Berkeley GREGORY J. MACRAE, Carnegie Mellon University THOMAS W. PETERSON, University of Arizona WILLIAM RODGERS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory GARY VEURINK, Dow Chemical Company RAY WITTER, Monsanto Corporation Pane! on Compeller Ass~si;ed Process en c! Con1tro! 3~ng~eer~ng ARTHUR W. WESTERBERG (Chairman), Carnegie Mellon University HENRY CHIEN, Monsanto Corporation JAMES M. DOUGLAS, University of Massachusetts BRUCE A. FINLAYSON, University of Washington ROLAND KEUNINGS, University of California, Berkeley ~' on ~a;~ a~d 4~$~'~i ALEXIS T. BELL (Chairman), University of California, Berkeley RICHARD C. ALKIRE, University of Illinois JOHN C. BERG, University of Washington L. LOUIS HEGEDUS, W. R. Grace and Company ROBERT JANSSON, Monsanto Corporation MANFRED MORARI, California Institute of Technology JEFFREY J. SIIROLA, Eastman Kodak Company WILLIAM SILLIMAN, Exxon Production Research Company ,?- ~ ~ ~ ,= ~= rim. ~ ~ ~ ~ 3, ~ j~ ~L ~ % ~ KLAVS F. JENSEN, University of Minnesota JAMES R. KATZER, Mobil Research and Development Company LEIGH E. NELSON, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company LANNY D. SCHMIDT, University of Minnesota ~ /

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40~-: ~ t~t I' ~ mu= ~ ma; ~ a' Alit If EDWARD A. MASON (~Co-Chairman), Amoco Corporation GEORGE M. WHITESIDES (Co-Chairman), Harvard University NEAL R. AMUNDSON, University of Houston JOHN I. BRAUMAN, Stanford University GARY FELSENFELD, National Institutes of Health WILLIAM A. GODDARD III, California Institute of Technology JEANETTE G. GRASSELLI, BP America MICHAEL L. GROSS, University of Nebraska RALPH HIRSCHMANN, University of Pennsylvania ROBERT L. LETSINGER, Northwestern University JAMES F. MATHIS, Exxon Chemical Company GEORGE C. PIMENTEL, University of California, Berkeley JOHN A. QUINN, University of Pennsylvania STUART A. RICE, University of Chicago FREDERIC M. RICHARDS, Yale University ROGER A. SCHMITZ, University of Notre Dame L. E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota DAVID P. SHEETZ, Dow Chemical USA LEO J. THOMAS, JR., Eastman Kodak Company NICHOLAS J. TURRO, Columbia University MARK S. WRIGHTON, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ROBERT M. SIMON, Staff Director WILLIAM SPINDEL, Special Staff Adviser PEGGY J. POSEY, Staff Associate LYNN E. DUFF, Financial Assistant

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i@ OH Skycap Eng~ee-~ing I: Reseal c~ Nachos a~d We NEAL R. AMUNDSON (Chairman), University of Houston EDWARD A. MASON (Vice-Chairman), Amoco Corporation JAMES WEI (Vice-Chairman), Massachusetts Institute of Technology MICHAEL L. BARRY, Vitelic Corporation ALEXIS T. BELL, University of California, Berkeley KENNETH B. BISCHOFF, University of Delaware HERBERT D. DOAN, Doan Associates ELISABETH M. DRAKE, Arthur D. Little, Inc. SERGE GRATCH, Ford Motor Company (retired) HUGH D. GUTHRIE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, DOE ARTHUR E. HUMPHREY, Lehigh University SHELDON E. ISAKOFF, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc. JAMES LAGO, Merck and Company (retired) KEITH W. MCHENRY, JR., Amoco Oil Company SEYMOUR L. MEISEL, Mobil Research and Development Company (retired) ARTHUR B. METZNER, University of Delaware ALAN S. MICHAELS, North Carolina State University JOHN P. MULRONEY, Rohm and Haas Company LEIGH E. NELSON, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., Inc. - JOHN A. QUINN, University of Pennsylvania KENNETH J. RICHARDS, Kerr-McGee Corporation JOHN P. SACHS, Horsehead Industries, Inc. ADEL F. SAROFIM, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ROBERT S. SCHECHTER, University of Texas, Austin WILLIAM R. SCHOWALTER, Princeton University L. E. SCRIVEN, University of Minnesota JOHN H. SEINFELD, California Institute of Technology JOHN H. SINFELT, Exxon Research and Engineering Company LARRY F. THOMPSON, AT&T Bell Laboratories KLAUS D. TIMMERHAUS, University of Colorado ALFRED E. WECHSLER, Arthur D. Little, Inc. ARTHUR W. WESTERBERG, Carnegie-Mellon University ROBERT M. SIMON, Project Director ROBERT M. JOYCE, Editorial Consultant NANCY WINCHESTER, Editor ROSEANNE PRICE, Editor LYNN E. DUFF, Financial Assistant MONALISA R. BRUCE, Administrative Secretary

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Panels of Ale Cornmit'ree Pane! on Biochemical and Biomedical Engineering ARTHUR E. HUMPHREY (Chairman), Lehigh University KENNETH B. BISCHOFF, University of Delaware CHARLES BOTTOMLEY, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Inc. STUART E. BUILDER, Genentech, Inc. ROBERT L. DEDRICK, National Institutes of Health MITCHELL LITT, University of Pennsylvania ALAN S. MICHAELS, North Carolina State University FRED PALENSKY, Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Co., Inc. Pane! on Elec1;~or~ic, Photonic, and! RCrOfdiOg Aha1;er~is and Devices LARRY F. THOMPSON (Chairman), AT&T Bell Laboratories LEE F. BLYLER, AT&T Bell Laboratories JAMES ECONOMY, IBM Almaden Research Center DENNIS W. HESS, University of California Berkeley RICHARD POLLARD, University of Houston T. W. RUSSELL FRASER, University of Delaware MICHAEL SHEPTAK, Ampex Corporation JPar~l=~ O= Aclvanc~c! Mi~Or~ al S ARTHUR B. METZNER (Chairman), University of Delaware FRANK BATES, AT&T Bell Laboratories C. F. CHANG, Union Carbide Corporation F. NEIL COGSWELL, Imperial Chemical Industries WILLIAM W. GRAESSLEY, Princeton University By FRANK KELLEY, University of Akron JOHN B. WACHTMAN, JR., Rutgers University IOANNIS V. YANNAS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

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Comm~ss~n Art Physical Sciences' mat~mat~cs' and Resources NORMAN HACKERMAN (~Chairman), Robert A. Welch Foundation GEORGE F. CARRIER, Harvard University DEAN E. EASTMAN, IBM Corporation MARYE ANN FOX, University of Texas, Austin GERHART FRIEDLANDER, Brookhaven National Laboratory LAWRENCE W. FUNKHOUSER, Chevron Corporation (retired) PHILLIP A. GRIFFITHS, Duke University J. ROSS MacDONALD, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill CHARLES J. MANKIN, The University of Oklahoma PERRY L. McCARTY, Stanford University JACK E. OLIVER, Cornell University JEREMIAH P. OSTRIKER, Princeton University Observatory WILLIAM D. PHILLIPS, Washington University DENIS J. PRAGER, MacArthur Foundation DAVID M. RAUP, University of Chicago RICHARD J. REED, University of Washington ROBERT E. SIEVERS, University of Colorado LARRY L. SMARR, University of Illinois EDWARD C. STONE, JR., California Institute of Technology KARL K. TUREKIAN, Yale University GEORGE W. WETHERILL, Carnegie Institution of Washington IRVING WLADAWSKY-BERGER, IBM Corporation RAPHAEL G. KASPER, Executive Director LAWRENCE E. McCRAY, Associate Executive Director

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