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. "Appendix A: Methods." Improving Medical Education: Enhancing the Behavioral and Social Science Content of Medical School Curricula. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2004.
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2.1.3 Dynamic psychology: unconscious conflict, ego defenses
2.1.4 Social–cognitive models: self-efficacy, coping models (Bandura)
2.1.5 Systems theory: family dynamics, functions of the sick member
2.1.6 Humanistic psychology: empathy, warmth, genuineness (Rogers)
2.1.7 Personality development and personality types (Shapiro, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual [DSM]-IV)
2.1.8 Normal development: birth through old age
2.2 The psychology of patients
2.2.1 Expectations, biases, and assumptions about the nature of illness and the roles of doctor and patient: mind–body dualism
2.2.2 The psychology of health risk behaviors: food, tobacco, alcohol and substance abuse, risky sex, risky driving, risky sports behaviors
2.2.3 Normal illness psychology: fear and anxiety, vulnerability, appropriate dependency, humiliation, anger, sadness, and loss
2.2.4 Abnormal illness psychology: denial, pathological dependency, depression, somatization, hypochondriasis
2.2.5 The psychology of somatoform disorders (e.g., lower back pain, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome)
2.2.6 The psychology of chronic pain
2.2.7 Psychological issues in chronic diseases and disabilities
2.2.8 Psychopathology—DSM-IV disorders
2.3 The psychology of doctors
2.3.1 Expectations, biases, and assumptions about the nature of illness and the roles of doctor and patient: mind–body dualism
2.3.2 Knowledge availability: memory structures, pattern recognition
2.3.3 The processes of clinical reasoning: reflective and analytic versus gestalt and associative reasoning (“knee-jerk reactions”); hypothetical deductive reasoning, etc.
2.3.4 Shared decision making (clinician–clinician and clinician–patient)