Index

A

AAMC, see Association of American Medical Colleges

Accidents and injuries, 65

see also Violence

Accreditation, 7, 20, 133

curricular database, 7

Curriculum Management and Information Tool (CurrMIT), 26

Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), 7, 20, 26, 27-31, 50, 121

Aging population, ix, 3-4, 17

AIDS, see HIV infections

Alcohol use and abuse, 2, 59, 64, 77, 78

Alternative medicine, see Complementary and alternative medicine

American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, 7, 50

Assessment methodologies

see also Tests and testing;

U.S. Medical Licensing Examination

committee study at hand, methodology, x, 1, 5, 9, 27-28

Curriculum Management and Information Tool (CurrMIT), 6, 7, 26-31, 51

databases covering, 1, 7, 21, 26-27, 31-32, 51

faculty development, 93

faculty qualifications, 12, 13, 20, 92

formal curriculum change process

evaluation, 95-96

needs assessment, 94

for integrated course content, 22

medical students’ understanding of behavioral/social science, 11, 97-98

specific university curricula, 37

Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), 6, 7, 9, 55, 121

database of curricula, 26, 31, 50-51

Attitudes and beliefs

see also Depression and anxiety;

Stress, psychosocial

culture-based, 62-63, 69

faculty, 49, 89, 93

patients, 125

physicians, 8, 10, 16, 23-24, 53, 66-67, 69-70 , 125-126

cultural bias, 62-63, 69

financial incentives, 85-86

health policy and economics, 84

toward pain, 60-61

“soft” behavioral/social sciences, 89

student satisfaction with curricula content, 30, 32, 95

Awards

career development awards programs, 12, 87-88, 91-94

curriculum development awards, 2, 12, 91, 96-97



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Improving Medical Education: Enhancing the Behavioral and Social Science Content of Medical School Curricula Index A AAMC, see Association of American Medical Colleges Accidents and injuries, 65 see also Violence Accreditation, 7, 20, 133 curricular database, 7 Curriculum Management and Information Tool (CurrMIT), 26 Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), 7, 20, 26, 27-31, 50, 121 Aging population, ix, 3-4, 17 AIDS, see HIV infections Alcohol use and abuse, 2, 59, 64, 77, 78 Alternative medicine, see Complementary and alternative medicine American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine, 7, 50 Assessment methodologies see also Tests and testing; U.S. Medical Licensing Examination committee study at hand, methodology, x, 1, 5, 9, 27-28 Curriculum Management and Information Tool (CurrMIT), 6, 7, 26-31, 51 databases covering, 1, 7, 21, 26-27, 31-32, 51 faculty development, 93 faculty qualifications, 12, 13, 20, 92 formal curriculum change process evaluation, 95-96 needs assessment, 94 for integrated course content, 22 medical students’ understanding of behavioral/social science, 11, 97-98 specific university curricula, 37 Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), 6, 7, 9, 55, 121 database of curricula, 26, 31, 50-51 Attitudes and beliefs see also Depression and anxiety; Stress, psychosocial culture-based, 62-63, 69 faculty, 49, 89, 93 patients, 125 physicians, 8, 10, 16, 23-24, 53, 66-67, 69-70 , 125-126 cultural bias, 62-63, 69 financial incentives, 85-86 health policy and economics, 84 toward pain, 60-61 “soft” behavioral/social sciences, 89 student satisfaction with curricula content, 30, 32, 95 Awards career development awards programs, 12, 87-88, 91-94 curriculum development awards, 2, 12, 91, 96-97

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Improving Medical Education: Enhancing the Behavioral and Social Science Content of Medical School Curricula B Barriers to curricular change, see Policy issues, barriers to curricular change Behavioral risk factors, 2, 3, 4, 8, 15-16, 23, 53, 59-60, 63-67, 124-125, 128-129 see also Nutrition; Stress, psychosocial accidents and injuries, 65 alcohol use and abuse, 2, 59, 64, 77, 78 biopsychosocial model omits, 17, 23 diet, 28 economic incentives affecting, 85 elderly persons, ix, 3-4, 17 sexual behavior, 48, 59-60, 64-65 smoking, 2, 15, 50, 63, 77 as topic to be included in curricula, 1, 10, 11, 55, 56, 58, 63-67 violence, general, 65 C CAM, see Complementary and alternative medicine Canada, 26 Career development programs, 2, 12, 87-94, 133 Carnegie Foundation, 21 Chronic conditions, 2, 4, 10, 15, 56, 58, 59, 63, 64, 65, 67, 73 pain, 61 Communication skills, 4, 8, 23, 24, 29, 53, 128 see also Physician–patient interactions collegial communications, 77 committee curricular recommendations, 56, 74-76, 130 counseling, 8, 23, 42, 54, 76, 77 cultural competence, 56, 80-81, 126 decision making and, 8, 53, 76, 78 LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29-31 role modeling, 25-26, 27 mentoring, 91, 93 specific university curricula, 34, 38, 42, 46 Community health, 127 committee curricular recommendations, 56, 73-74, 130 LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29, 30 specific university curricula, 34, 38-40, 42, 44, 46 Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), 10, 56, 79, 81-82 Continuing medical education, 8, 41, 53, 126 see also Faculty development graduate medical education, x, 8, 53 Cost and cost-effectiveness, 3 as topic to be included in curricula, 10, 83, 85-86 Counseling by physicians, 8, 23, 42, 54, 76, 77 Cultural factors, see Sociocultural factors Curriculum development awards, 2, 12, 91, 96-97 Curriculum Management and Information Tool (CurrMIT), 6, 7, 26-31, 51 D Databases assessment methodologies, 1, 7, 21, 26-27, 31-32, 51 committee recommendations, 50-51 curricular content, 1, 6, 7, 20-21, 26, 31, 50-51 Curriculum Management and Information Tool (CurrMIT), 6, 7, 26-31, 51 standards for, 6-7, 26, 50 Decision making clinical epidemiology, 28-29 informed consent, 31 patient-centered care, 16, 35, 41, 53, 76, 78 patient–physician communication and, 8, 53, 76, 78 Demographic factors, 3-4, 17 see also Sociocultural factors aging population, ix, 3-4, 17 diversity of U.S. population, ix, 4, 10, 11, 17-18, 126 committee curricular recommendations, 10, 11, 56, 57, 58, 68, 69, 72, 79-82, 130 LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29, 30 specific university curricula, 34, 36-37, 38, 43, 46 Demonstration projects, 13 Depression and anxiety, 25-26, 59, 60, 61, 62, 67, 71, 76 Diseases and disorders, 60 see also Behavioral risk factors; End-of-life care; Pain management; Palliative care; Stress, psychosocial chronic, 2, 4, 10, 15, 56, 59, 64, 65, 73 chronic stress, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63 Drug abuse, see Substance abuse

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Improving Medical Education: Enhancing the Behavioral and Social Science Content of Medical School Curricula E Economic factors, 1 see also Awards; Cost and cost-effectiveness; Health policy and economics biopsychosocial model omits, 17 funding changes, impacts on curricula, 13 funding for curriculum development, 12-13, 87, 88, 89, 90 curriculum demonstration projects, 13, 97 curriculum development awards, 2, 12, 91, 96-97 faculty, career development awards programs, 12, 87-88, 91-94 faculty development, general 93, 96 formal curriculum change process, 95, 96 funding for teaching and assessment skills, 88 health insurance, lack of, 84, 128-129 inequalities, impact on care, 56, 79-80, 86, 126-127, 129 as topic to be included in curricula, 1 committee recommendations, 10, 11-13, 56, 57, 83-86, 130, 131 LCME Hot Topic, 28, 29 specific university curricula, 35, 39, 43, 47 Elderly persons, ix, 3-4, 17 End-of-life care see also Palliative care committee curricular recommendations, 77, 130 LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29, 30 specific university curricula, 35, 38, 43, 46 Epidemiology, 130 LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29, 30 specific university curricula, 35, 38, 43, 46, 47 Ethics committee curricular recommendations, 4, 10, 24-25, 56, 68-69 financial incentives, response to, 85-86 informed consent, 31 LCME Hot Topic, 28, 29-31 specific university curricula, 34, 43, 44 Ethnic groups, see Minority groups Exercise, see Physical activity/inactivity F Faculty cooperation/resistance, x, 12, 49, 50, 54, 87, 89 attitudes toward behavioral/social sciences, 89 Faculty development, 49, 87-94, 132 assessment techniques, 93 career development programs, 2, 12, 87-88, 91-94 continuing medical education, 92-94 leadership, 5, 12, 87-88, 89, 90, 91-92, 94-95, 132 career development awards programs, 2, 12, 87-88, 91-94 mentoring, 91, 93 teaching and assessment skills, funding, 88, 89-90 Faculty qualifications, 12, 13, 20, 22, 89, 92 Family medicine, 62-63 committee curricular recommendations, 58, 130 domestic violence, 35, 38, 43, 47, 127, 130 specific university curricula, 35, 38-40, 42, 43, 47, 48 Foreign countries, see International perspectives Funding changes, impacts on curricula, 13 curriculum development, 12-13, 87, 88, 89, 90 awards, 2, 12, 91, 96-97 career development awards programs, 12, 87-88, 91-94 demonstration projects, 13, 97 faculty development, general, 93, 96 formal curriculum change process, 95, 96 teaching and assessment skills, 88 G Genetics, 23, 58, 60, 67, 124 Graduate medical education, x, 8, 53 H Health insurance, lack of, 84, 128-129

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Improving Medical Education: Enhancing the Behavioral and Social Science Content of Medical School Curricula Health policy and economics, 128-129 see also Cost and cost-effectiveness; Economic factors; Funding biopsychosocial model omits, 17 committee study, charge, ix-x, 5, 19-20 committee study methodology, x, 131 health insurance, 84, 128, 129 inequalities, 56, 79-80, 86, 126-127, 129 as topic to be included in curricula, 1 committee recommendations, 10, 11-13, 56, 57, 83-86, 130, 131 LCME Hot Topic, 28, 29 specific university curricula, 35, 39, 43, 47 Health Resources and Services Administration, 96 Historical perspectives, 20, 21-22, 24 aging population, ix, 3 behavioral risk factors, 15 integrated curriculum, 20, 21-22, 33 life-cycle theories, 60 variations in care, 86 HIV infections, 59-60 Human development/life cycle, 60, 124-125, 131 see also End-of-life care LCME Hot Topic, 28, 29, 39 specific university curricula, 35, 43, 47 I Injuries, see Accidents and injuries Insurance, see Health insurance, lack of International perspectives, 5 Canada, 26 United Kingdom, 86 L Leadership, 5, 12, 87-88, 89, 90, 91-92, 94-95, 132 career development awards programs, 2, 12, 87-88, 91-94 mentoring, 91, 93 role modeling, 25-26, 27 Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME), 7, 20, 28, 50, 121 Hot Topics, 27-31 standards for curricula integration, 26 M Mentoring, 91, 93 role modeling, 25-26, 27 Mind–body interactions, 2, 3, 16, 124, 125 see also Stress, psychosocial somatization, 10, 23, 24, 56, 58, 61-62, 120 as topic to be included in curricula, x, 1, 5, 10, 11, 55, 56, 57, 58 Minority groups diversity of U.S. population, ix, 4, 10, 11, 17-18, 126 committee curricular recommendations, 10, 11, 56, 57, 58, 68, 69, 72, 79-82, 130 LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29, 30 specific university curricula, 34, 36-37, 38, 43, 46 pain, perceptions of, 61 Models and modeling behavioral change, 65-66 biomedical, 17 biopsychosocial, 6, 12, 16-17, 23, 41 career development awards program, 2, 12, 87-88 chronic care, 73 combined biomedical/biopsychosocial, 12, 16, 17 formal curriculum change process, 94-96 life-cycle theories, 60 pain, 60-61 N National Board of Medical Examiners (NMBE), 2, 88, 97, 98 faculty development, 93 U.S. Medical Licensing Examination, 1, 13, 88 National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, 96 National Institutes of Health career development awards programs, 2, 12, 92 curriculum development awards programs, 96-97 database covering behavioral/social science curricula, 7, 51 demonstration projects, 13 Nutrition, 59 LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29, 30 specific university curricula, 44

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Improving Medical Education: Enhancing the Behavioral and Social Science Content of Medical School Curricula O Ohio State University, 34-35, 94-95 Organizational factors see also Health policy and economics; Time factors; terms beginning “Faculty...” collegial communications, 77 committee curricular recommendations, 72-73 , 83 formal curriculum change process, 94-96 leadership, 5, 12, 87-88, 89, 90, 91-92, 94-95 , 132 career development awards programs, 2, 12, 87-88, 91-94 mentoring, 91, 93 P Pain management, 3-4, 10, 17, 60-61, 125 see also End-of-life care committee curricular recommendations, 58, 131 LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29, 30 specific university curricula, 35, 39, 44, 47 Palliative care, 131 see also End-of-life care LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29, 30 specific university curricula, 35, 40, 44, 47 Patient behavior, 63-67 see also Behavioral risk factors as topic to be included in curricula, 1, 10, 11, 55, 56, 57 Patient health education LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29 specific university curricula, 35, 40, 44, 47 Physical activity/inactivity, 59, 64 Physician–patient interactions, 1, 7, 8, 53-54 see also Communication skills; Counseling by physicians attitudes of physician, 8, 10, 16, 23-24, 53, 66-67, 69-70, 125-126 cultural bias, 62-63, 69 toward pain, 60-61 cultural competence, 56, 80-81, 126 decision making, 8, 53, 76, 78 patient-centered care, 16, 35, 41, 53, 76, 78 problematic patients, 77, 78-79, 128 somatization, 61-62 as topic to be included in curricula, x, 1, 10, 11, 56, 57, 74-79 Physician role and behavior, 127, 128 attitudes, 8, 10, 16, 23-24, 53, 66-67, 69-70, 125-126 financial incentives, 85-86 health policy and economics, 84 collegial communications, 77 financial incentives, responses to, 85-86 medical ethics, 4, 10, 29 as topic to be included in curricula, x, 1, 5, 10, 11, 56, 57, 68-74, 77 well-being, 10, 11, 23, 56, 70-71 Policy issues, barriers to curricular change, 87-98 see also Strategies for curriculum change committee recommendations, 11-13, 50-51, 54 committee study, charge, ix-x, 5, 19-20 committee study methodology, x complexity of integrated curricula, 24-25 databases inadequate, 1, 20, 25-28, 31-32, 50-51, 90 faculty cooperation/resistance, x, 12, 49, 50, 54, 87 attitudes toward behavioral/social sciences, 89 standardization lacking, 6-7, 26, 50, 88 Policy issues, general, ix, 1 see also Economic factors; Health policy and economics; Leadership; Strategies for curriculum change as topic to be included in curricula, x, 1, 5, 10, 11 Population-based medicine, 132 LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29, 30 specific university curricula, 35, 40, 44, 48 Postgraduate education, see Graduate medical education Pre-med education, see Undergraduate education Preventive medicine and health maintenance, 132 see also Behavioral risk factors LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29, 30 specific university curricula, 35, 40, 42, 44, 48 Problem-based learning, 35, 38-49, 89-90, 130-132

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Improving Medical Education: Enhancing the Behavioral and Social Science Content of Medical School Curricula Q Qualifications, faculty, 12, 13, 20, 92 Quality of care, 130 inequalities, 56, 79-80, 86, 126-127, 129 LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29, 30 specific university curricula, 35, 39, 43, 47 Quality of life, 3-4, 17, 85 end-of-life care pain management palliative care R Research methodology see also Databases; Models and modeling behavioral and social sciences defined, 5 committee study at hand, charge, ix-x, 1, 4-5 , 18, 20, 52, 87 committee study at hand, methodology, x, 1, 5, 9, 27-33, 54-55, 88-89, 119-133 modified Delphi process, 9, 55, 119, 121-123 Curriculum Management and Information Tool (CurrMIT), 6, 7, 26-31, 51 Role modeling, 25-26, 27 mentoring, 91, 93 S Sexuality and sexual behavior, 59-60, 64-65 specific university curricula, 48 Small-group teaching methods, 21, 24, 27, 38-49 (passim), 89-90, 95, 130-132 Smoking, 2, 15, 50, 63, 77 Sociocultural factors, x, 1, 16, 62-63, 126-127, 133 accountability and responsibility, 10, 56, 68, 72 alternative medicine, 10 attitudes of physicians, 23-24 as cause of disease, 2, 15-16 complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), 10, 56, 79, 81-82 cultural competence, 56, 80-81, 126 current curricular situation, 29 diversity of U.S. population, ix, 4, 10, 11, 17-18, 126 committee curricular recommendations, 10, 11, 56, 57, 58, 68, 69, 72, 79-82, 130 LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29, 30 specific university curricula, 34, 36-37, 38, 43, 46 inequalities, 56, 79-80, 126-127, 129 pain, 61 substance abuse as curricular topic, 23, 77, 78, 132 Somatization, 10, 23, 24, 56, 58, 61-62, 120 Standardization curricular databases, 6-7, 26, 50 teaching methods, 26 U.S. Medical Licensing Examination, 1, 13, 88 Strategies for curriculum change, 87-98 see also Awards; Faculty development; Leadership; Organizational factors; Standardization committee recommendations, 11-13, 50, 87 committee study, charge, ix-x, 5, 19-20 Stress, psychosocial, 2-3, 56, 58-59, 60, 61, 66-67 see also Pain management; Violence chronic, 58, 59, 60, 61, 63 depression and anxiety, 25-26, 59, 60, 61, 62, 67, 71, 76 immune system effects, 58-59 on patients, ix, 23 physician well-being, ix, 10, 11, 23, 56, 70-71 somatization, 10, 23, 24, 56, 58, 61-62, 120 Substance abuse, 34 see also Alcohol use and abuse biopsychosocial models, 23 committee curricular recommendations, 23, 77, 78, 132 LCME Hot Topics, 28, 29, 30 specific university curricula, 23, 35, 40, 44, 48 T Teaching methods career development programs, 91-92, 93 communication skills, 24, 25 databases covering, 7, 21, 27, 51 existing information inadequate, 1, 20, 25-26 faculty development, 89, 94 faculty qualifications, 12, 13, 20, 22, 89, 92 formal curriculum change process, 94, 96 historical perspectives, 21

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Improving Medical Education: Enhancing the Behavioral and Social Science Content of Medical School Curricula integration of behavior and social sciences into curricula, 33, 36-37 problem-based learning, 35, 38-49, 89-90, 130-132 role modeling, 25-26, 27 mentoring, 91, 93 small-group, 21, 24, 27, 38-49 (passim), 89-90 , 95, 130-132 specific university curricula, 34-49 Tests and testing see also Assessment methodologies; U.S. Medical Licensing Examination faculty development, 93 formal curriculum change process, 95 medical students’ understanding of behavioral/social science, 11, 97-98 Theoretical models, see Models and modeling Time factors behavioral/social sciences curricula hours taught, 5-6, 26, 28, 29, 31, 32, 34, 50 timing of integration, 8-9, 11, 29, 31, 32, 34-49 (passim), 130-132 formal curriculum change process, 95-96 other disciplinary curricula, hours taught, 9 Tobacco use, see Smoking U Undergraduate education, x, 7-8, 53, 123 United Kingdom, 86 University of California, San Francisco, 32, 36-40 , 93 University of North Carolina, 23, 45-49, 98 University of Rochester, 24-24, 32, 41-45 U.S. Medical Licensing Examination, 1, 13, 88, 97-98 V Violence, 65 domestic, 35, 38, 43, 47, 127, 130

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