TABLE 2-1 EPA’s Review and Implementation Timetable for Particulate Matter Standards

Past Actions



EPA issues total suspended particles (TSP) NAAQS


Criteria and standards are reviewed



EPA issues PM10 NAAQS

Criteria and standards are reviewed


EPA issues PM2.5 and revised PM10 NAAQS


EPA designates areas unclassifiable, regarding attainment of NAAQS for PM2.5


PM2.5 monitors are placed nationwide


PM2.5 monitoring data collected nationwide

Planned Actions



EPA will complete 5-year scientific review of PM2.5standards, leading to possible revision


EPA will designate nonattainment areas for PM2.5


States will submit implementation plans for meetingPM2.5 standard.


States will have up to 10 years and two 1-year extensions to meet PM2.5 standards

aYear may be revised by EPA.

The approaches used to evaluate an association between exposure to an agent and the occurrence of particular diseases have been variable and are still evolving. Some of the earliest attention to developing formal criteria for making such evaluations was given to evidence on cancer.

  • 1964 Report of the Surgeon General on Smoking and Health: One of the earliest evaluations of this kind was the 1964 Report of the Surgeon General on Smoking and Health (USDHEW 1964). Although this evaluation and the associated report considered multiple diseases, the primary focus—and impact—related to its conclusions on the association between smoking and lung cancer. The criteria used to evaluate the association are shown in Box 2-1.

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): IARC initiated a program in 1971 to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans (IARC 1972). The IARC program utilizes international working

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