. "2 Committee's Approach to Evaluation of Research Progress." Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter: IV. Continuing Research Progress. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 2004.
EPA will complete 5-year scientific review of PM2.5standards, leading to possible revision
EPA will designate nonattainment areas for PM2.5
States will submit implementation plans for meetingPM2.5 standard.
States will have up to 10 years and two 1-year extensions to meet PM2.5 standards
aYear may be revised by EPA.
The approaches used to evaluate an association between exposure to an agent and the occurrence of particular diseases have been variable and are still evolving. Some of the earliest attention to developing formal criteria for making such evaluations was given to evidence on cancer.
1964 Report of the Surgeon General on Smoking and Health: One of the earliest evaluations of this kind was the 1964 Report of the Surgeon General on Smoking and Health (USDHEW 1964). Although this evaluation and the associated report considered multiple diseases, the primary focus—and impact—related to its conclusions on the association between smoking and lung cancer. The criteria used to evaluate the association are shown in Box 2-1.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC): IARC initiated a program in 1971 to evaluate the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans (IARC 1972). The IARC program utilizes international working