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Index A Airport conditions and support, 322, 332-333 B Budget stabilization funds, see Rainy day funds C Capital spending and funds, 39, 53, 263-264, 279-280 Central cities, 67 cit~r-suburb social, economic, and racial disparities, 3-4, 6, 8 "command and control" (national and regional) centers, 5, 7 economic activity, 25, 28 employment and unemployment, 6-8, 13, 15, 20-21, 23, 72, 74-75 female-headed households, 16-lg fiscal conditions, see Fiscal condition of cities hours of work, 79-80 income and earnings, 14-15, 73-81, 87-89 macroeconomic effects on, 5 migration, 6, 13, 28 375 poverty levels, 5-7, 11-13, 15-lg 22-23, 72-78, 81 social conditions, 13-14 Child support payments, 18, 104, 117-118, 138-141 Children, 17-19, 22, 124-126 Concentration of poverty, 5-7, 11-12, 23 County classifications, 30-31, 223-247 D Demographic-employment opportunity mismatch, 178-195 EEconomic well-being of individuals, 6-7, 14-16, 67-68 compensating wage differentials, 82 demographic characteristics, 73, 76-81 earnings differences, 67-68, 81-90 hedonic framework, 68 human capital, 81-82 largest metropolitan areas, 69-72 metropolitan vs. nonmetropolitan areas, 72-81

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376 quality-of-life factors, 67-68, 90-100 regression analysis, 82-90 traditional measures, 67, 69-90 Education funding, 296-297, 300-301, 305 Education requirements for work, 173, 176-178, 181-186 Elections and officials at-large vs. district elections, 361-362 female elected officials, 359-360 minority elected officials, 43, 357-359 Employment and unemployment, 67, 69 central cities, 6-8, 13, 15, 20-21, 23, 72, 74-75 by county classification, 223, 227-233 education requirements, 173, 176-178, 181-186 female-headed households, 19, 103, 109-1 11 largest metropolitan areas, 28-30, 69-72, 95, 97, 169-178, 183-184, 215, 218-222 metropolitan vs. nonmetropolitan, 72-75, 77 minorities, 13, 20, 23, 73, 77, 183-188 regional, 15, 27-28, 149, 159, 164-168, 212-214 F Family structure changes, 102 income and earnings, 73, 76-78 poverty, 13-14, 73, 76-78 see also Female-headed households Federal aid capital grants, 279-280, 282 to cities, 34-36, 39-40, 275-279, 282 cuts in, effects of, 5, 11 for infrastructure, 335-337 revenue sharing, 40, 276-279 to states, 288, 298-299, 305-306 transfer payment policies, 104, 131-138 INDEX Federal urban policies, 349-352, 364-366 Female-headed households central cities, 16-19 child support, 18, 104, 117-118, 138-141 children of, 17-19, 22, 124-126 employment, 19, 103, 109 111 federal income transfer policies, 104, 131-138 growth of, 16-17, 19-20, 102-106 income and earnings, 73, 76, 86, 103, 113-117 labor force attachment, 19, 121-122, 124 metropolitan vs. nonmetropolitan areas, 102, 105 poverty levels, 12-13, 16-19, 73, 76, 111-113 racial composition, 16-20, 104-106, 114, 129-130 social isolation (ghettoization), 22-23, 122-123, 126-131 as underclass, 21-22, 103-104, 119-131 welfare benefits, 18-19, 21-22, 104, 106-109, 112, 118-119 Feminization of poverty, 17-19, 111-113 Finances, Bee Fiscal condition of cities; Fiscal condition of states Fiscal condition of cities balance sheet conditions, 8-9, 35-41, 270-273, 280-281 capital spending and funds, 39, 263-264, 279-280 composite fund analysis, 39, 264-265 data sources and presentation, 260-264 effects of structural economic changes, 32 federal aid, 34-36, 39-40, 275-279, 282 federal capital grants, 279-280, 282 general funds, 36-38, 263-270 general revenue sharing, 40, 276-279 growth trends, 25-3.0 local perspective, 257-259 liquidity, 39, 275

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INDEX national perspective, 35,257, 259-260 operating results of all funds, 274 recession/recovery cycles, 10-11, 33-36,41,266-270,281-282 state aid to local governments, 9, 34-35,40,299-302,305-306 tax revolt, 9 taxation, 33,35,258-259,264-265 Fiscal condition of states asset reporting, 287-288 education funding, 296-297, 300-301, 305 federal aid, 288,298-299, 305-306 federal tax reform, 304 general fund, 285-293 local government aid from states, 9, 34-35,40,299-302, 305-306 national income and product accounts, 285-286,289-290 rainy day (budget stabilization) funds, 287, 289 recession/recovery cycles, 291,303 social insurance funds, 285 surplus/deficit measures, 285-293 tax competition among states, 304 tax policies, 291,294-298, 303-304 tax revolt, 9, 291,294,303-304 Gentrification (reverse migration of blacks and whites), 3,6,28 Ghettoization, see Social isolation Government and governing, see Urban governance H Hedonic wage/amenity framework, 68,83-87,91-100 Highway conditions and support, 319-320,327-328 Hours of work, 69,79-80 I Immigration, 152,154 Income and earnings by county classification, 223-247 377 earnings differentials, 67-68,81-82 by family structure, 73,76-78 female-headed households, 73, 76, 86,103,113-117 largest metropolitan areas, 28-29, 69-72,95-97,215-221 metropolitan vs. nonmetropolitan, 6,12,14-15,25-27, 72-81, 200-210 by race/ethnicity, 73, 76-77 regional variations, 30-31,200-210 223-247 Industrial bases of growth, 210-215, 248-253 Infrastructure airports, 322,332-333 capital management approach, 342-345 condition, 9-10, 44-46,48-51 308,334-335 and economic development, 45-46, 54,309-310,312-313 engineering-based needs assessment, 340 federal reform, effect on bond market, 10, 11, 50,51 financing through debt issuance, 49-51,337 financing through federal grants, 335-337 financing through own-source funds, 338-339 highways, 319-320,327-328 mass transit, 321-322,327-330 private investment approach, 340-342 public vs. private responsibility, 310-311,313-315 regulatory factors, 318 solid waste collection services, 333-334 spending by government level, 325-326 spending trends, 11, 46-48, 51, 54, 322-335 state/local vs. federal responsibility, 316-319 tax exempt bond market, 49-51 wastewater treatment, 330-321, 330-331 water supply systems, 320,330,332 ,54,

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378 L Largest metropolitan areas economic well-being of individuals, 69-72 employment and unemployment, 28-30,69-72,95,97,169-178, 183-184, 215,218-222 fiscal conditions, see Fiscal condition of cities income and earnings, 28-29,69-72, 95-97,215-221 population, 28-29,178-181, 215-222,255-256 poverty, 69-71,95,97 quality-of-life measures, 95-98 Liquidity, 39,275 M Manufacturing economic viability, 10-11 employment share, 7,15,25,69-72, 74-75 geographic dispersion, 7-8,24-26, 168-173,181 Mass transit conditions and support, 321-322,327-330 Metropolitan vs. nonmetropolitan area comparisons, 67 county classifications and growth, 30-31,223-247 economic activity, 24-28 employment and unemployment, 72-75,77 female-headed households, 102, 105 hours of work, 69, 79-80 income and earnings, 6,12,14-15, 25-27,72-81,200-210 industrial bases of growth, 210-215,248-253 manufacturing employment share 72, 74-75 population, 25-27, 200-210 poverty, 6-7, 11-13,15-19, 22-23, 72-78,81 Migration, 6,13,24,28, 150-154, 192-193 Minorities elected officials, 43,357-359 INDEX employment, 13,20,23, 73,77, 183-188 female-headed households, 16-20, 104-106,114,129-130 income and earnings, 73, 76-77 opinions on social services, 42-43 poverty, 6,12-13,16-17,73,76-77 regional populations, 154-158 N National income and product accounts, 285-286,289-290 p Population by county classification, 223-233 largest metropolitan areas, 28-29, 178-181,215-222,255-256 metropolitan vs. nonmetropolitan areas, 25-27,200-210 minorities, 154-158 sec also Migration Poverty, 5-7,11-12,16,23,51-53 concentration of poverty, 5-7, 11-12,23 by family structure, 13-14,73, 76-78 female-headed households, 12-13, 16-19,73,76, 111-113 largest metropolitan areas, 69-71, 95,97 metropolitan vs. nonmetropolitan areas, 6-7,11-13,15-19,22-23, 72-78,81 and minorities, 6,12-13,16-17, 73, 76-77 Public assistance, 18-19,21-22,104, 106-109,112,118-119,131-138, 190-191 Q Quality-of-life measures, 14, 67-68, 90-100 adjusted household income, 95-100 hedonic wage/amenity framework, 68,83-87,91-100 largest metropolitan areas, 95-98

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INDEX location amenities, go-95 quality-of-life index, 95-98 R Rainy day funds, 287,289 Recession/recovery cycles, 10-11, 33-36,41,266-270,281-282, 291,303 Regional disparities demographic-employment opportunity mismatch, 178-195 education requirements for jobs, 173, 176-178 employment, 15,27-28,149,159, 164-168,212-214 income and earnings, 30-31, 200-210,223-247 industrial structuring, 53,148-149, 158-163,168-178 long-term transformation and, 10-11,53 migration, 150-154,192-193 migration by race/ethnicity, 150-153 migration from abroad, 152,154 minority populations, 154-158 private investment, 191 public assistance, 190-191 unemployment, 166-168 S Service industries, 7-8,24,26-27, 169-173 Social isolation, 22-23,122-123, 126-131 Solid waste collection services, 333-334 Special interest groups, 356-357 State aid to local governments, 9, 34-35,40,299-302,305-306 Suburban areas, 67 employment and unemployment, 72, 74-75,77 hours of work, 79-80 income and earnings, 6,12,72-81 migration, 6 poverty, 15,17,72-78 379 T Tax revolt, 9, 291,294,303-304 Taxation, 7,9,32-33,35,49-50, 258-259,264-265,291,294-298, 303-304 U Underclass, 14,20-23 female-headed households, 21-22, 103-104, 119-131 Urban economics, 7-8, 10-11, 24-33 Urban finance, Bee Fiscal condition of cities Urban governance, 9 at-large vs. district elections, 361-362 and economic constraints, 352-357, 364-366 and federal urban policies, 349-352,364-366 female elected officials, 359-360 minority elected officials, 43, 357-359 policy entrepreneurship, 356, 363-364 political reforms, 361-363 privatization, 367 Progressive Era, 363 public entrepreneurship approach, 42-44,349,363-364,367-370 service delivery approach, 42, 348-349,369 special interest groups, 356-357 W Wastewater treatment, 320-321, 330-331 Water supply systems, 320,330,332 Welfare dependence, see Underclass Welfare spending and receipt, den Public assistance

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