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References Advisory Com~nission on Intergovernmental Relations 1973 City Financial Emeryencice: Thc Intcrgoucrnmcntal Dimcnaion. Report A-42. Washington, D.C.: Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. 1984 Financing Public Physical Ir~frastructurc. Report A-96. Washington, D.C.: Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations. 1985 Bankruptcic`, Defaults, and Other Goucrnmcnt Financial Emergencic`. Re- port A-99. Washington, D.C.: Advisory Commission on Intergovern- mental Relations. Apogee Research 1986 Trends in Public Works Expenditures, 1960-1984. Paper prepared for the National Council on Public Works Improvement. Washington, D.C. Aponte, Robert, Kathryn M. Neckerman, and William Julius Wilson 1985 Race, family structure and social policy. Chap. 2 of Working Paper 7: Race and Policy. Project on the Federal Social Role. Washington, D.C.: National Conference on Social Welfare. Bane, Mary Jo 1986 Household composition and poverty. Pp. 209-231 in Sheldon H. Danziger and Daniel H. Weinberg, eds., Fighting Poverty: What Works and What Doesn't. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Berry, Brian J. L. 1985 Islands of renewal in seas of decay. Pp. 69-96 in Paul E. Peterson, ea., Thc New Urban Reality. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. Bianchi, Suzanne M., and Daphne Spain 1986 American Women in lFaneition. New York: Russell Sage. Browning, Rufus P., and Dale Rogers Marshall, eds. 1986 Minority power in city politics: A forum. PS l9(Summer):573-640. Browning, Rufus P., Dale Rogers Marshall, and David H. Tabb 1984 Protect is Not Enough Thc Stru~gic of Blacks and Hispanics for Equality in Urban Politics. Berkeley: University of California Press. Bureau of the Census 1973 Lo - Incomc Arcas in Large Citice. 1970 Census of Population, Subject Report PC(2~-9B. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1984 Charactcrutice of the Population Bclow the Poverty Level: 1982. Current Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 144. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1985a Charactcrutica of the Population Bclow the Poverty Level: 1988. Current Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 147. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1985b Pouc?rtyArcasinLarycCitic`. 1980 Census ofPopulation,SubjectReport PC80-2-8D. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1986a Charactcr~tics of the Population Bclow the Poverty Level: 1984. Current Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 152. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 1986b Money Incomc and Poverty Statm of Familice and Pcmone in the Uruted Statca: 1985. Advance Data from the March 1986 Current Popu- lation Survey. Current Population Reports, Series P-60, No. 154. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. 55

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56 URBAN CIIANGE AND POVERTY 1986c Stai~ticalAb~tractof the United States: 1987. 107th Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. Clark, Kenneth B. 1965 Dark Ghetto. New York: Harper & Row. Congressional Budget Office 1983 Public Works Infrastructure: Policy Considerations for the 1980~. Washing- ton, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Once. Danziger, Sheldon, and Robert D. Plotnick 1986 Poverty and policy: Lessons of the past two decades. Social Service Renew 60(March):34-51. Dearborn, Philip M. 1978 Thc Financial Health of Major U.S. (:libes in Fiscal 1977. New York: First Boston Corporation. 1979 Thc Financial Health of Major U.S. Cities in 1978. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press. Frey, William H. 1985 Mover destination selectivity and the changing suburbanization of metropolitan whites and blacks. Demography 22tMay):223-243. Frieden, Bernard J., and Lynne B. Sagalyn 1984 Downtown Shopping Malls and the New Public-Private Strategy. Department of Urban Studies and Planning, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1986 Downtown shopping malls and the new public-private strategy. Pp. 130-147 in Marshall Kaplan and Peggy L. Cuciti, eds., Thc Great Society and Its Legacy: Twenty Years of U.S. Social Policy. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press. Garofalo, J. 1977 Public Opinion About Crime. Washington, D.C.: Law Enforcement Assistance Administration, U.S. Department of Justice. Government Finance Research Center 1983 Building Prosperity: Financing Public Infrastructure for Econorruc Dcuelop- ment. Washington, D.C.: Government Finance Research Center. Hanson, Royce, ed. 1983 Rethinking Urban Policy: Urban Development in art Advanced Economy. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Hawley, Amos H. 1956 Thc Charging Shape of Metropolitan America: Dcconcer~tratior~ Sines 1920. Glencoe, Ill.: Free Press. Judd, Dennis R., and Randy L. Ready 1986 Entrepreneurial cities and the new politics of economic development. Pp. 209-247 in George E. Peterson and Carol W. Lewis, eds., Reagan arid the Cities. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press. Kasarda, John D. 1985 Urban change and minority opportunities. Pp. 33-67 in Paul E. Peterson, ea., Tic New Urbarz Reality. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. Ladd, Helen F., John Yinger, Katherine L. Bradbury, Ronald Ferguson, and Avis Vidal 1985 The Changing Economic and Fiscal Conditions of Cities. Draft Final Report to the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.

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COMMITTEE REPORT 57 State, Local, and Intergovernmental Center, Kennedy School of Gov- ernment, Harvard University. Laska, Shirley B., and Daphne Spain, eds. 1980 Back to the City: Issues in Neighborhood Renovation. New York: Perga- mon. Lavrakas, P. J. 1982 Fear of crime and behavioral restrictions in urban and suburban neighborhoods. Population and Enuronmcnt 5:242-264. Leonard, Herman B. 1986 Checks Unbalanced: 17`c Quiet Side of Public Spending. New York: Basic Books. Long, John F. 1981 Population Dcconecatration in the United States. Special Demographic Analyses, CDS-81-5. Bureau of the Census. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce. McGuire, Therese J. 1986 On the Relationship between Infrastructure Investment and Economic Development. Paper prepared for the National Council on Public Works Improvement, Washington, D.C. McLanahan, Sara 1985 Family Structure and Dependency: Early Transitions to Female Household Headship. Discussion Paper No. 807-86. Institute for Re- search on Poverty, University of Wisconsin. Moynihan, Daniel Patrick 1965 Thc Negro Family: Thc Case for National Action. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor. Nathan, Richard R. 1986 The UnderclassWill It Always Be with Us? Paper presented at a symposium of the New School for Social Research, New York. National Council on Public Works Improvement 1986 To Nation's Public Works: Defining the Issues. Report to the President and Congress. Washington, D.C.: National Council on Public Works Improvement. National League of Cities and United States Conference of Mayors 1983 Capital Budgeting and Infrastructure in American Cities: An Initial Asses~- mcnt. Washington, D.C.: National League of Cities and United States Conference of Mayors. National Research Council 1982 Critical Issues for National Urban Policy: A Rcconnaissanec and Agenda for Future Study. Committee on National Urban Policy, Commission on Sociotechnical Systems. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1986 Emerging Issue in National Urban Policy: Report of a Seminar. Committee on National Urban Policy, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Noyelle, Thierry J., and Thomas M. Stanback, Jr. 1984 Thc Economic Transformation of American Cities. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman & Allanheld. Petersen, John E., and Wesley C. Hough 1983 Crcatioc Capital Financing for State and Local Governments. Washington, D.C.: Government Finance Research Center.

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58 URBAN CHANGE AND POVERTY Peterson, George E. 1984 Financing the nation's infrastructure requirements. Pp. 110-142 in Royce Hanson, ea., Perspectives on Urban Infrastructure. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1986 Urban policy and the cyclical behavior of cities. Pp. 11-35 in George E. Peterson and Carol W. Lewis, eds., Rcagan and the Cities. Washing- ton, D.C.: Urban Institute Press. Peterson, George E., Mary John Miller, Stephen R. Godwin, and Carol Shapiro 1984 Guide to Benchmarks of Urban Capital Condition. Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press. Peterson, George E., Randall R. Bovbjerg, Barbara A. Davis, Walter G. Davis, Euguene C. Durman, and Theresa A. Gullo 1986 Thc Rcagan Block Grant`: What Hauc We Learned? Washington, D.C.: Urban Institute Press. Peterson, Paul E. 1981 City Limit. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Sonenshein, Raphe 1986 Biracial coalition politics in Los Angeles. PS l9(Summer):582-590. Stanback, Thomas M., Jr., Peter J. Bearse, Thierry J. Noyelle, and Robert A. Karasek 1981 Scruicc`: Thc New Economy. Totowa, N.J.: Allanheld, Osmun. Sternlieb, George, and James W. Hughes, ede. 1978 Revitalizing the Northeast: Prelude to an Agenda. Center for Urban Policy Research. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press. Stone, Clarence N., and Heywood T. Sanders, eds. 1987 Thc Politics of Urban Dcoclopmcnt. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development 1982 Thc Prcaident'~ National Urban Policy Report, 1982. Office of Policy Development and Research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. 1984 Thc Prc~ident'` National Urban Policy Report, 1984. Office of Policy Development and Research. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. U.S. Department of Justice 1986 Criminal Victimization in the United States, 1984. Bureau of Justice Statistics. May. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Justice. U.S. Department of the Treasury 1985 Fcderal-Statc-Local Fiscal Relations: Report to the Presiders and the Congress. Office of State and Local Finance. September. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of the Treasury. Wilson, William Julius 1985 The urban underclass in advanced industrial society. Pp. 129-160 in Paul E. Peterson, ea., Thc New Urban Reality. Washington, D.C.: Brooking Institution. Wilson, William Julius, and Robert Aponte 1985 Urban poverty. Annual Review of Sociology 11:231-258. Wilson, William Julius, and Kathryn M. Neckerman 1986 Poverty and family structure: The widening gap between evidence and public policy issues. Pp. 232-259 in Sheldon H. Danziger and Daniel H. Weinberg, eds., Fighting Poverty: What Works and What Doesn't. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.