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Making the nation safer: The role of science and technology in countering terrorism. 2002. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press. Website: Also available online in PDF at:


The quality and timeliness of the report were in large part due to the effort of the project’s National Research Council staff, Dr. Ronald Taylor and Dr. Elizabeth Grossman.


Politically motivated terrorists, such as the Irish Red Army, may have a specific goal, which, if achieved, might end their attacks. One can imagine an attempt to negotiate an end to their terrorism. This is not so for the al Qaeda terrorists who carried out the September 11, 2001, attack on New York City and Washington, D.C.


Gerald Holton anticipates just such a combination of individual terrorists supported by a rogue government in a paper presented at a terrorism conference at the Hoover Institution in 1976 and published at that time in Terrorism, an International Journal. He called this threat Type III terrorism. See G. Holton, Reflections on modern terrorism. Edge, 2002. Available online at


The traditional definition (in many U.S. statutes) of WMD is those weapons developed for military use complete with delivery systems. Thus the search in Iraq for chemical weapons of mass destruction focused on chemical warheads and the stocks and production facilities for charging them. Ordinary chemicals in commerce, such as chlorine, phosgene, and other such materials, have not been considered WMD as defined in U.S. law.


The EOC in New York City was located in the World Trade Center, surely not a good choice.

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