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TABLE 1 Cities with Major Incidents of Social Violence (1989–1999)1

Civil or Internal War or Urban Terrorism

Riots or Street Protests by the Civilian Population

External Warfare

Baku

Beijing

Bogotá

Buenos Aires

Cairo

Colombo

Kabul

Karachi

Kinshasa

Lahore

Lima

London

Madrid

Manchester

Mogadishu

Monrovia

Moscow

New York

Oklahoma City

Paris

Phnom Penh

Port au Prince

Tbilisi

Tokyo

Belgrade

Bombay

Calcutta

Dhaka

Jakarta

Los Angeles

Rangoon

Baghdad

Belgrade

Grozny

tries; they can provide radiation sources in hospitals, laboratories, and instructional nuclear reactors; they have fuel depots, gas pipelines, liquefied natural gas storage, electronics stores, computer labs in universities that can give access to cyberterrorists, and vehicles that can be used in a terrorist attack—trucks, tankers, bulldozers, armored bank vehicles, as well as just cars. Cities are also large potential suppliers of human resources for terrorism and—in libraries, universities, and other institutions—of the information terrorists may need to plan and carry out their attacks. They can be significant sources of funding through banks and businesses and through associations and religious institutions that can organize fundraising drives.

The threats that can be aimed at a city are the well-known ones of chemical attacks (explosives and poisons); biological, radiological, and nuclear attacks; and cyber-, electromagnetic, and psychological attacks. These threats find the city a target-rich environment, housing a complex interacting system of people, buildings, infrastructures (utilities, roads, railroads, ports, airports), hospitals, schools, churches, businesses, government, military bases, and also of patterns of work, business, home life, leisure, and shopping activities that, all together, define a city’s way of life. A potential target that has grown very rapidly is the



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