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Efforts should also be continued to search for, test, and organize production of more effective preparations for treating infectious diseases. Further study of the molecular diversity and molecular variability of infectious agents will facilitate not only the rapid identification of a variety of infectious agents causing outbreaks but also the forecasting of the appearance of new pathogens based on their natural evolution or as a result of the covert actions of bioterrorists aimed at artificially changing their properties.

In conclusion, we believe it is necessary to reemphasize that the state’s capacity to counter the threat of bioterrorism—one risk factor for the appearance and spread of infectious diseases—is determined by the condition of the health care system and its readiness to detect, localize, and eliminate infectious outbreaks regardless of the origins of the pathogens causing them. Another key factor in state preparedness is the quality of basic and applied research conducted both to study pathogens at the molecular and epidemiological levels and to create the diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic tools necessary for preventing or eliminating disease outbreaks. Undoubtedly, Russia’s entry into the international biological security system that is currently being formed will promote a successful outcome in the struggle against bioterrorism.

NOTES

1.  

McGeorge, H. J. 1994. Chemical and biological terrorism: Analyzing the problem. Applied Science and Analysis Newsletter 42 (June 16).

2.  

Carus, S. J. 1998. Bioterrorism and biocrime: The illicit use of biological agents in the twentieth century. Washington: Center for Counterproliferation Research, National Defense University.

3.  

Chemical and biological terrorism: Research and development to improve civilian medical response. 1999. Washington: National Academies Press. http://www.nap.edu.

4.  

The new post-cold war challenge: The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. 1993. Open report of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service (SVR). http://svr.gov.ru/material/2-1.html.

5.  

Martynyuk, R., S. Netesov, and L. Sandakhchiev. 2002. International centers as a foundation for combating infectious diseases and countering bioterrorism. Nuclear Control 2.

6.  

Ban, J. 2001. Health, security, and U.S. global leadership. Special Report 2. http://www.cbaci.org.

7.  

Onishchenko, G. G., L. S. Sandakhchiev, S. V. Netesov, and S. V. Shchelkunov. 2000. Bioterrorism as a national and global threat. Journal of Microbiology, Epidemiology, and Immunobiology 6.

The epidemiological situation in the Russian Federation and basic areas of activity aimed at stabilizing it. Materials for the report of G. G. Onishchenko, chief state public health physician of the Russian Federation, at the VIII All-Russian Congress of Epidemiologists, Microbiologists, and Parasitologists, Moscow, March 26–28, 2002. Moscow: Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation.

8.  

Scientists’ response. 2001. Meditsinsky Vestnik [The Medical Herald] 31. http://www.medvestnik.ru/Gazeta/2001/031/p02-03.html.

9.  

Russia developing national action program for possible bioterrorism threats. 2001. http://www.strana.ru/stories/01/10/16/1776/86465.html.

10.  

The specter of smallpox: Efforts to implement national program for creating defenses against fatal infection. 2002. Izvestia, http://www.izvestia.ru/science/article17850.



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