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The following types of threats are most typical: criminal, terrorist, social, political, infrastructural, natural, industrial, environmental, informational, and psychological. These threats are of a complex and interrelated nature, with the majority being transnational in scale. These circumstances are characteristic of almost all the world’s major megacities; therefore, they call for a great deal of attention to be devoted by the city leadership to problems of ensuring the security of urban facilities and residents of the capital.

Here, we proceed from the belief that ensuring the security of the population against emergency situations resulting from terrorism, natural and industrial disasters, and other causes is a difficult and complex task, and carrying it out successfully can be done only with the active involvement of all city departments, agencies, and organizations. Therefore, the Moscow City System for Preventing and Eliminating the Consequences of Emergency Situations was created in 1996, functionally linking the city’s various district and departmental services units. City policy for ensuring the security of the population and the urban infrastructure is implemented through the Commissions on Emergency Situations, which have been established in each agency and department of the city administration and which are headed by leaders at the corresponding level. This operating principle facilitates management of the actions of city units in preventing emergencies as well as responding to threats and responding to emergencies once they have occurred. It is also helpful in coordinating the actions of the various services and organizing and efficiently carrying out emergency rescue operations.

In connection with the implementation of a special law passed by the city of Moscow, work is under way citywide to implement a comprehensive targeted program for improving the Moscow city system for preventing and eliminating the consequences of emergency situations. The program was developed on the initiative of the Moscow City Government and the MChS and was supported by the deputies of the Moscow City Duma. The basic goals of the program include

  • implementing a set of measures aimed at preventing emergency situations, including the establishment of an effective system for monitoring and predicting accidents, catastrophes, and natural disasters

  • modernizing the management and communications system through the widespread use of the latest information technologies

  • improving the speed and efficiency of emergency response by creating a highly mobile and technically well equipped rescue service and by developing aviation technologies for use in emergency rescue operations

  • improving the citywide system for educating the population on the appropriate actions to be taken during emergency situations

However, in recent years terrorism has been one of the main threats to public security. It presents a special danger to major cities and political, economic, and cultural centers. Terrorist acts are taking on ever-increasing scale and



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