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First, computerized transportation control systems are directly linked to specific cargoes. Information about the cargoes and their shipment routes and schedules are of interest to criminal groups and therefore requires protection.

Second, a supplemental information system is needed to track the movement of cargoes, and this is especially important during emergencies. A number of projects could be proposed in this regard, including a cybernetic container, cybernetic pipeline, robotic system for use in gas pipelines, and system for the external control of various modes of transport—planes, automobiles, and ships.

Third, to ensure that correct decisions are made in rapidly changing situations associated with the battle against terrorism, interactive modeling of emergency situations is needed on the basis of three-dimensional graphics and animation, multiagent systems, and virtual world technologies.

Fourth, a cyberspace immune system must be created based on the analogy of biological immune systems, with special cyberagents playing the role of the white cells.

Fifth, an external control system must be created in which the top level is integrated into controls at the lowest level in order to prevent emergencies.

A CYBERSPACE IMMUNE SYSTEM

Construction of a cyberspace immune system is a matter of global interest. In the first stage of the formation of cyberspace, no thought was given to information protection, while in the second stage, passive protection methods, such as steganography and cryptographic systems, began to be implemented. The third stage is now beginning, and it has become obvious that passive methods will not resolve the problem. It is necessary to look to the analogy of biological systems, which over the millennia have developed immune systems to protect against penetration by disease-causing microbes and substances.3

Among plants and animals, resistance to bacterial and viral infections on an individual and species basis is ensured by a complex and multifaceted protection system inherent in each organism. In the battle between protective forces and infectious agents, the advantage often lies with the latter, as microorganisms multiply rapidly, creating populations numbering in the many millions, including mutant forms with more aggressive properties than those present in the initial strain. To protect themselves, it is likely that at a certain evolutionary stage, vertebrates developed a system of adaptive immunity (antibody formation). This is an organism’s most powerful line of defense, particularly against repeated contacts with infectious agents. The capability or lack of capability to produce antibodies is an inherited characteristic. The genetic regulation of antibody biosynthesis has several specific features. For instance, the formation of an antibody molecule by one polypeptide chain is controlled by two different genes. One of them controls the formation of the part of the chain involved in constructing the active center, with the construction of this part being different for antibodies



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