TABLE 7-2C Other Exposure-Related Data Sources

Data Source

Basis of Data Collected

Data Strengths

Data Limitations

National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) All Injury Program

Survey sample of EDs for nonfatal external injuries and poisoning managed by Consumer Product Safety Commission working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Sampling design allows national incidence estimates (state-level estimates are not generated); independent coding system focusing on injury provides rich information source.

Coding may not allow direct comparison to ICD-9 data. Adverse drug effects excluded. Sampled sites are limited in number (n = 64); an additional sample (n = 36) collects more limited NEISS data.

Drug Abuse Warning Network (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration [SAMHSA])

Data extraction for cases of medication toxicity (not limited to drugs of abuse) treated in urban hospital EDs.

Widely used surveillance source for drug overdose, especially for street drugs.

Urban settings only in selected EDs. Does not include non-medication-related toxic syndromes.

MedWatch (Food and Drug Administration)

Consumer or health care provider-initiated reports of adverse drug effects. Pharmaceutical companies are required to report all new or unexpected adverse events.

Identifies postmarketing effects with mechanism for timely analysis of emerging problems if reported.

Relies on health care provider initiation of report; obscure or chronic associations less likely to be identified. Dataset can be queried, but not downloaded.

Hazardous Substances Events Surveillance System (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry)

State-based surveillance system for hazardous substance release events with a public health impact.

Uses reporting from a variety of field sources at the state level. Focuses on exposures to the public.

Only a limited number of states participate; mainly useful for inhalation exposures.

Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (Bureau of Labor Statistics)

Multisource census cross-referencing vital statistics, insurance reporting, and inspection data.

Unique multisource integrated surveillance scheme.

Focused on source of injury; toxic exposures comprise a small subset of the data.

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