as were adverse drug reactions or related diagnoses and diagnoses related to bacterial food poisoning.

NAMCS and NHAMCS files also included up to three “reason for visit” fields based on the patient’s chief complaint. Any relating to poisoning (5900.2—Unintentional poisoning: Ingestion, inhalation, or exposure to potentially poisonous products, 5820.1—Overdose, intentional, and 5910.0—Adverse effect of drug abuse) were examined, but were only included if confirmed by a consistent concomitant ICD-9-CM diagnosis or E-codes as listed previously.

The two datasets from which summary data only are reported use their own poisoning codes that are not based on the ICD scheme. Thus the data presented rely on these systems’ inclusion and inclusion criteria whose potential selection effects are discussed briefly below as well as in Chapter 7 in relation to surveillance.

Poisoning mortality for 2001 was defined by ICD-10 using the codes for underlying cause of death. The codes included X40–X49, X60–X69, X85–X90, Y10–Y19, and Y35.2. In addition, ICD-10 codes for deaths due to mental and behavioral disorders attributed to psychoactive substance use, F10–F16 and F18–F19, are also included because these can be driven by poisoning mortality according to current coding procedures. “T” series codes were not relevant to this analysis because they should be superceded by “X,” “Y,” or “F” series codes for the underlying cause of death in fatal poisoning. No deaths occurred in 2001 that were coded as U01.6 or U01.7, terrorism-related poisoning designations.

Findings
National Health Interview Survey

A total of 269 injury episode observations were identified by ICD-9-CM and E-codes from 2000–2001 NHIS injury/episode files. Table 3-2 includes estimates of annual poisoning episodes overall and stratified by various demographic characteristics and whether direct treatment was given. Based on sampling weights, which allow mathematical calculation of the population frequency based on the observations (see Appendix 3-A for details), the number of annual poisoning episodes (as contrasted with exposures) in the United States is estimated to be 1,575,000 for the 275.25 million persons in the noninstitutionalized population, yielding a poisoning-related episode rate of 570 per 100,000 per year.

Females were more likely to be poisoned than males (690 versus 450 per 100,000, respectively), and were more likely to have direct contact with a health provider for their episode than males (530 versus 420 per 100,000, respectively). Children (under 18 years of age) were more likely



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