tings, the agency often appears reluctant to depart from the status quo, but lacks clear direction from the administration and Congress on the appropriate way forward. Nevertheless, the Corps is attempting some adaptive management activities, such as navigation pool drawdowns, habitat restoration projects, and ecosystem monitoring. These are steps in the right direction, and small steps can be useful in learning more about ecological responses, building interagency partnerships, and establishing trust with stakeholder groups. But for larger gains from adaptive management to be realized, the Congress and the administration must step forward and resolve internally-inconsistent legislation and guidance, establish or invigorate interagency fora, commit support to science-based, collaborative programs, and adjust traditional authorization and appropriations processes.

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